Chelyabinsk

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This article is about a major city in Russia. For the town previously known as Chelyabinsk-40 and Chelyabinsk-65, see Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Oblast.
Chelyabinsk (English)
Челябинск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Kirova Street, Chelyabinsk.jpg
A pedestrian street in central Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk is located in Chelyabinsk Oblast
Chelyabinsk
Chelyabinsk
Location of Chelyabinsk in Chelyabinsk Oblast
Coordinates: 55°09′17″N 61°22′33″E / 55.15472°N 61.37583°E / 55.15472; 61.37583Coordinates: 55°09′17″N 61°22′33″E / 55.15472°N 61.37583°E / 55.15472; 61.37583
CoA of Chelyabinsk (2000).svg
Flag of Chelyabinsk.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day September 13[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of September 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Chelyabinsk Oblast
Administratively subordinated to City of Chelyabinsk[1]
Administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast,[1] City of Chelyabinsk[1]
Municipal status (as of September 2011)
Urban okrug Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug[1]
Administrative center of Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug[1]
Head[citation needed] Stanislav Mosharov[citation needed]
Representative body Council[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 530 km2 (200 sq mi)[2]
Population (2010 Census) 1,130,132 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 9th
Population (2013 est.) 1,156,201 inhabitants[4]
Density 2,132 /km2 (5,520 /sq mi)[5]
Time zone YEKT (UTC+06:00)[6]
Founded 1736[citation needed]
City status since 1787[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7] 454xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 351[8]
Chelyabinsk on WikiCommons

Chelyabinsk (Russian: Челябинск; IPA: [tɕɪˈlʲæbʲɪnsk] ( )) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, 210 kilometers (130 mi) south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.[9][10][11] Population: 1,130,132 (2010 Census);[3] 1,077,174 (2002 Census);[12] 1,141,777 (1989 Census).[13]

History[edit]

The fortress of Chelyaba, from which the city takes its name, was founded in the place of a Bashkir village of Chelyaby by colonel Alexey (Kutlu-Muhammed) Tevkelev to protect the surrounding trade routes from possible attacks by Bashkir outlaws. During Pugachev's Rebellion, the fortress withstood a siege by the rebel forces in 1774, but was eventually captured for several months in 1775. In 1782, as a part of Ufa Viceroyalty that was later reformed into Orenburg Governorate, Chelyabinsk became a seat of a its own uyezd and finally was granted town status and its current name in 1787.

Tea-packing factory Kuznetsov (1898)
Trading house negotiant Valeyev (1911)

Until the late 19th century, Chelyabinsk was a small provincial town. In 1892, the Samara-Zlatoust Railway that connected it with Moscow and the rest of European Russia was completed. At the same time, construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway from Chelyabinsk started in 1892; in 1896 the city was linked to Ekaterinburg. Chelyabinsk became the hub for relocation to Siberia. For fifteen years passed through Chelyabinsk and driven more than fifteen million people - a tenth of Russia. Some of them remained in Chelyabinsk, which contributed to its rapid growth. In addition, in Chelyabinsk was organized custom office set "customs fracture" the bounding duty-free grain and tea to the European part of the country that led to the emergence in mills and set the tea-packing factory. Soon Chelyabinsk started turning into a major trade center, its population reached 20,000 inhabitants by 1897, 45,000 by 1913, and 70,000 by 1917. For rapid growth at the turn of the 19th to 20th centuries, similar to American cities, Chelyabinsk called "Behind the Urals Chicago".[14]

For several months during the Russian Civil War, Chelyabinsk was held by the White movement and Czechoslovak Legions, becoming a center for splinters of the Romanian Volunteer Corps in Russia. With the rebellion in the Chelyabinsk railway station Czechoslovak Legions May 14, 1918, in Russia began full scale civil war. The city later fell to Bolshevik forces. In September 1919, a new Chelyabinsk Governorate was created out of the eastern parts of Orenburg Governorate and the southwestern parts of Tobolsk Governorate. It lasted only until 1923, when it was absorbed into Ural Oblast, created during one of the Soviet administrative reforms.[citation needed]

During the first Five-Year Plans of the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experienced rapid industrial growth. Several establishments, including the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, were built at this time. During World War II, Joseph Stalin decided to move a large part of Soviet factory production to places out of the way of the advancing German armies in late 1941. This brought new industries and thousands of workers to Chelyabinsk. facilities for the production of T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers existed in Chelyabinsk. During World War II produced 18,000 tanks, and 48,500 tank diesel engines as well as over 17 million units of ammunition. In the press of the time Chelyabinsk informally called "Tankograd" or "Tank City". The S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 moved here from Leningrad to produce heavy tanks; it was transferred to Omsk after 1962.

2013 meteor[edit]

Main article: Chelyabinsk meteor
Chelyabinsk meteorite (asteroid) compared with car

Shortly after dawn on February 15, 2013, a superbolide meteor descended at over 55,000 kilometers per hour (34,000 mph) over the Ural Mountains, exploding at an altitude of 25–30 kilometers (16–19 mi)[dubious ] in a momentary flash as bright as the sun and generating a shock wave that injured over a thousand people. Fragments fell in and around Chelyabinsk. Interior Ministry spokesman Vadim Kolesnikov said 1,100 people had called for medical assistance following the incident, mostly for treatment of injuries from glass broken by the explosions. One woman suffered a broken spine.[15] Kolesnikov also said about 600 square meters (6,000 sq ft) of a roof at a zinc factory had collapsed. A spokeswoman for the Emergency Ministry told the Associated Press that there was a meteor shower, but another ministry spokeswoman was quoted by the Interfax news agency as saying it was a single meteor.[16][17][18] The size has been estimated at 17 meters (56 ft) diameter with a mass of 10,000[19][20] or 11,000[21] tonnes. The power of the explosion was about 500 kilotons of TNT (about 1,8 PJ), which is 20-30 times more energy than was released from the atomic bomb exploded in Hiroshima. Only thanks to the high altitude of the explosion did the city manage to avoid large casualties and destruction.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

The building of the Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast

Chelyabinsk is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Chelyabinsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Chelyabinsk is incorporated as Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug.[1] In June 2014, Chelyabinsk's seven city districts were granted municipal status.[22]

Geography and сlimate[edit]

The city is located east of the Ural Mountains, 199 km south of Yekaterinburg. Elevation - 200–250 meters. Geological location - Western - Ural (granites), the eastern part - Western Siberia (sedimentary rock).

Chelyabinsk is located on the border of the Urals and Siberia, for which he received the name "Gateway to Siberia".[23] "Leningrad" bridge connects the "Ural" and "Siberian" riverside Miass, so is the "bridge of the Urals to Siberia." Strictly by the Urals and Siberia border of the road from the "Meridian".

The town stands on the river Miass.

Relief is slightly hilly town on the west, gradually descending to the east. Interesting fact, Chelyabinsk like Rome, Constantinople, Moscow, located on seven hills.[24]

Climate data for Chelyabinsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −10.5
(13.1)
−7.9
(17.8)
1.0
(33.8)
10.6
(51.1)
20.3
(68.5)
23.9
(75)
25.2
(77.4)
23.6
(74.5)
17.2
(63)
9.3
(48.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
−6.9
(19.6)
8.8
(47.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −14.9
(5.2)
−13.4
(7.9)
−4.8
(23.4)
4.7
(40.5)
12.1
(53.8)
18.3
(64.9)
19.3
(66.7)
17.1
(62.8)
10.9
(51.6)
4.1
(39.4)
−5.2
(22.6)
−11.1
(12)
3.0
(37.4)
Average low °C (°F) −19.0
(−2.2)
−18.9
(−2)
−9.3
(15.3)
−0.3
(31.5)
7.9
(46.2)
12.9
(55.2)
14.5
(58.1)
13.5
(56.3)
7.6
(45.7)
1.3
(34.3)
−5.9
(21.4)
−14.6
(5.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 17
(0.67)
16
(0.63)
19
(0.75)
27
(1.06)
47
(1.85)
55
(2.17)
87
(3.43)
44
(1.73)
41
(1.61)
30
(1.18)
26
(1.02)
21
(0.83)
430
(16.93)
Snowfall cm (inches) 27
(10.6)
33
(13)
32
(12.6)
14
(5.5)
5
(2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
4
(1.6)
7
(2.8)
7
(2.8)
18
(7.1)
147
(58)
Avg. precipitation days 6 4 4 5 7 9 10 9 7 8 7 7 83
 % humidity 85 77 76 66 61 64 69 71 73 73 82 83 73
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[25]
Source #2: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation days only)[26]

Education[edit]

There are over a dozen universities in Chelyabinsk. The oldest, Chelyabinsk State Agroengineering Academy, was founded in 1930. It was followed by the Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University in 1934. The main ones are South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk State University, and Chelyabinsk Medical Academy. After World War II, Chelyabinsk became the main center of vocational education of the entire Ural region.[citation needed]

Economy[edit]

Chelyabinsk-City Office Center
Radisson Blu Hotel

Chelyabinsk is one of the major industrial centers of Russia. Heavy industry predominates, especially metallurgy and military machinery, notably the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combinate (CMK, ChMK) belongs to the company "Mechel", Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ, ChTZ), Chelyabinsk Electrode plant (CHEZ), Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant (ChTPZ) included in the "Big Eight" pipe producers in Russia, produces large-diameter pipes for pipelines, and Chelyabinsk Forge-and-Press Plant (ChKPZ) manufacturer of parts for various machines. Chelyabinsk Zinc Plant, owned by the Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company, produces about 2% of the world and over 60% of Russian zinc. Chelyabinsk Mechanical Plant produces automotive and industrial cranes trademark "Chelyabinets". Chelyabinsk road machinery plant name Kolyuschenko produces road construction machinery and dump trucks Terex.[citation needed]

Chelyabinsk Watch Factory "Molnija" produces pocket, souvenir watches and technical watches for aircraft and ships. In 1980, the clock "Molnija" were given as gifts to participants of the Moscow Olympics Games.[27]

Agro-industrial company "Makfa", Russia's largest producer of pasta, one of the five largest world producers of pasta. "Unichel" shoe firm is the largest manufacturer of footwear in Russia. Agricultural firm "Ariant" - leader in the production of meat products in the Urals Federal District of Russia, produces alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. American multinational corporation «Emerson» buying up shares of local businesses "Metran" organized in Chelyabinsk engineering center, building a factory for the production of industrial devices and equipment.[citation needed]

Shopping mall Sinegorye
Tram and trolleybus in Chelyabinsk

In recent years, Chelyabinsk significant role in the economy of the early play services, banking and insurance activities, logistics centers, tourism. The city is the central offices of major regional banks as "Chelindbank" and "Chelyabinvestbank". Built several large shopping malls.

Transportation[edit]

Planned metro network
Traktor Arena

Public transport of Chelyabinsk is represented by a bus lines network (since 1925), tram (1932) and trolleybus (1942) systems, as well as private marshrutka (routed cab) services. The city has several taxi companies.

Beeline and Chelyabinsk city electric transport in 2011 signed an agreement to provide passengers free internet. Currently Wi-Fi is available in some public trams and trolleybuses in Chelyabinsk.

Chelyabinsk started construction of a three-line subway network in 1992.[28]

The city is served by the Chelyabinsk Airport.

Sports[edit]

Several sports clubs are active in the city:

Club Sport Founded Current League League
Rank
Stadium
Traktor Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 1947 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Traktor Arena
Chelmet Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 1948 Higher Hockey League 2nd Yunost Sports Palace
Belye Medvedi Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 2009 Junior Hockey League Jr. 1st Traktor Arena
Mechel Chelyabinsk Ice Hockey 2011 Junior Hockey League Division B Jr. 2nd Mechel Ice Palace
FC Chelyabinsk Football 1977 Russian Second Division 3rd Central Stadium
Sintur Chelyabinsk Futsal 1997 Futsal Supreme League 2nd USURT Sports Complex
Avtodor-Metar Chelyabinsk Volleyball 1976 Woman's Volleyball Supreme League 2nd Metar-Yunost Sports Palace

In 2012, the first time in Russia, Chelyabinsk passed the European Judo Championship (Euro 2012). In the 2014 World Judo Championships held.

Culture[edit]

Chelyabinsk Regional Universal Scientific Library

The city has several libraries, including Chelyabinsk Regional Universal Scientific Library, with more than 2 million books, including more than 12,000 rare books and monuments (17th to 19th centuries), is the largest public library in the Chelyabinsk oblast.

Chelyabinsk State Academic Drama Theatre named Nahum Orlov

Chelyabinsk is home to several popular theaters: Chelyabinsk State Academic Drama Theatre named Nahum Orlov, Chelyabinsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre named Glinka, Chelyabinsk State Chamber Theater Drama, Chelyabinsk State Puppet Theater, Chelyabinsk State Youth Theatre, Theater "Mannequin", Chelyabinsk New Arts Theatre, Chelyabinsk Contemporary Dance Theatre.

Concert Hall Chelyabinsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre named Glinka
Chelyabinsk regional museum

There are nine museums in Chelyabinsk. Chelyabinsk regional museum was founded in 1913, and holds about 300 thousand exhibits. There are expositions of the ancient settlement Arkaim age 3rd to 2nd millennium BC relating to the "Land of Cities", the largest fragment of the Chelyabinsk meteor, weighing 570 kg, famous decorated edged weapons of the 19th and 20th centuries, made by Zlatoust arms factory, exhibits Kasli artistic cast iron and much more. Chelyabinsk Region Picture Gallery has more than 11,000 works. Meeting up collections of art in Europe and the East (International Art), the national art of the Middle Ages, modern and contemporary, modern art. The peculiarity of the meeting are collections of icons (16th to 20th centuries), early printed books and manuscripts. The museum of railway equipment of the South Ural railway presented more than 30 exhibits of vehicles used on the rail after it in Chelyabinsk in 1892.

Museum of military equipment in the garden of Victory
Holy Trinity Church (1914)

Museum of military equipment in the garden of Victory was founded in 2007. It is 16 eksponantov, including T-34, IS-3 tanks and multiple rocket launchers "Katyusha" issued in Chelyabinsk during World War II.

In addition, the city has the Chelyabinsk regional geological museum, museum of military glory of labor and the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant, Museum postal service Chelyabinsk region, entertaining science museum "Eksperimentus".

Chelyabinsk Zoo - Zoological Park, located in the central region of Chelyabinsk. On an area of 30 hectares there are more than 110 species, of which more than 80 listed in the Red List. Zoo participates in international programs for the conservation of endangered species, including Amur (Siberian) tigers, Far Eastern leopards and Polar bears. The zoo regular sightseeing tours, lectures, exhibitions and celebrations.

City also has a circus building.

In Chelyabinsk has Concert Hall. Prokofiev Hall of organ and chamber music with organ-known German company "Hermann Eule". The tool consists of 2504 pipes, 37 registers, three manuals and pedal keyboard. His sound is a rare gentleness and generosity sound basic votes. Chelyabinsk body many artists considered to be one of the best in Russia and Europe.

In the city of Chelyabinsk are several churches built in the 19th to 21st centuries.

Notable people[edit]

  • Ariel, Soviet pop rock band
  • Lera Auerbach (born 1973), composer and musician, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Svyatoslav Belza (1942–2014), musical scholar, critic and essayist, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Zhan Bush (born 1993), figure skater
  • Yekaterina Gamova (born 1980), Olympic volleyball player, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Makhmut Gareev (born 1923), historian and military scientist, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Viktor Khristenko (born 1957), politician, Russian Minister of Industry, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Igor Kurnosov (1985–2013), chess grandmaster, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Oleg Mityaev (born 1956), singer-songwriter and actor, born, grew up, and came into prominence in Chelyabinsk
  • Georgy Ratner (1923–2001), surgeon, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Nelli Rokita (born 1957), Polish politician, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Eugene Roshal, software developer, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Mariya Savinova, Olympic athlete, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Galina Starovoytova (1946–1998), politician and human rights activist, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Maksim Surayev (born 1972), cosmonaut, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Evgeny Sveshnikov (born 1950), chess grandmaster and writer, born and grew up in Chelyabinsk
  • Anna Trebunskaya (born 1980), ballroom and Latin dancer, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Ivan Ukhov (born 1986), Olympic high jumper, born in Chelyabinsk
  • Mikhail Yurevich (born 1969), politician, born in Chelyabinsk

Ice hockey players[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Chelyabinsk is twinned with:

Diplomatic and consular missions and visa centers[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Resolution #161
  2. ^ "Челябинск сегодня – Визитная Карточка". Администрация г. Челябинска. Archived from the original on 2012-02-03. 
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Численность населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2013 года. — М.: Федеральная служба государственной статистики Росстат, 2013. — 528 с. (Табл. 33. Численность населения городских округов, муниципальных районов, городских и сельских поселений, городских населенных пунктов, сельских населенных пунктов)
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ "Information about central postal office" (in Russian). 
  8. ^ "Russian Federation Cities dialing codes" (ZIP 34.4KB) (in Russian). 
  9. ^ "Investing in Chelyabinsk city". Invest in Russia. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Murzina" (PDF). 
  11. ^ "Invest in Ural". Invest in Ural. Retrieved February 14, 2013. 
  12. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  13. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Челябинск: Ворота в Сибирь и Зауральский Чикаго". Портал Челябинская область. 
  15. ^ "Meteorite hits Russian Urals: Fireball explosion wreaks havoc, up to 1,200 injured (PHOTOS, VIDEO)". RT. February 15, 2013. 
  16. ^ Plait, Phil (February 15, 2013). "Breaking: Huge Meteor Blazes Across Sky Over Russia; Sonic Boom Shatters Windows [UPDATED]". Slate. Retrieved February 15, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Meteor strikes Earth in Russia's Urals". Pravda. Retrieved February 15, 2013. 
  18. ^ "400 Injured by Meteorite Falls in Russian Urals". Associated Press. Retrieved February 15, 2013. 
  19. ^ Agle, D. C. (February 13, 2013). "Russia Meteor not Linked to Asteroid Flyby". NASA news. NASA. Retrieved February 15, 2013. 
  20. ^ Sreeja, VN (March 4, 2013). "New Asteroid '2013 EC' Similar To Russian Meteor To Pass Earth At A Distance Less Than Moon's Orbit". International Business Times. Retrieved March 9, 2013. 
  21. ^ Yeomans, Don; Chodas, Paul (March 1, 2013). "Additional Details on the Large Fireball Event over Russia on Feb. 15, 2013". NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
  22. ^ Law #706-ZO
  23. ^ "История Челябинска - от крепости до железнодорожной станции". Портал Челябинская область. 
  24. ^ "Холмы Челябинска". Электронное периодическое издание Mediazavod.ru. 
  25. ^ "Weather and Climate (Погода и Климат – Климат Челябинска)" (in Russian). Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  26. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Cheljabinsk". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  27. ^ "Часовой завод "Молния".". 
  28. ^ "Chelyabinsk". UrbanRail.net. Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  29. ^ "Sister cities". Retrieved July 5, 2013. 
  30. ^ Визовый центр Италии в Москве

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Челябинской области. Постановление №161 от 25 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении перечня муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав», в ред. Постановления №2160 от 28 августа 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в перечень муниципальных образований (административно-территориальных единиц) Челябинской области и населённых пунктов, входящих в их состав». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южноуральская панорама", №111–112, 14 июня 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Resolution #161 of November 25, 2006 On Adoption of the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise, as amended by the Resolution #2160 of August 28, 2014 On Amending the Registry of the Municipal Formations (Administrative-Territorial Units) of Chelyabinsk Oblast and of the Inhabited Localities They Comprise. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Челябинской области. Закон №706-ЗО от 10 июня 2014 г. «О статусе и границах Челябинского городского округа и внутригородских районов в его составе». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Южноуральская панорама", №87 (спецвыпуск №24), 14 июня 2014 г. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Law #706-ZO of June 10, 2014 On the Status and Borders of Chelyabinsky Urban Okrug and the City Districts It Comprises. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Lennart Samuelson, Tankograd. The Formation of a Soviet Company Town: Cheliabinsk, 1900s–1950s (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011).

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