Chelles Abbey (French: Abbaye Notre-Dame-des-Chelles) was a Frankish monastery founded c. 658, during the early medieval period. It was intended initially as a monastery for women; then as its reputation for great learning grew, it opened its doors to men wishing to follow the monastic life. The abbey stood in the Marne valley, near Paris (in modern Meaux), until it fell victim in 1792 to the disestablishment of the Catholic Church during the French Revolution and was dismantled. The abbey housed an important scriptorium and held the advantage of powerful royal connections throughout the Carolingian era.
The site of the abbey at Chelles had previously been a small chapel dedicated to Saint George, built by Queen Clothilde, the wife of Clovis I, circa 511. Before its religious designation, the site had held a royal Merovingian villa, Calae. King Chilperic I and his wife, Fredegund, frequently resided there; Chilperic was assassinated in 584, while hunting near Chelles.
The Queen-Saint Balthild, wife of King Clovis II (639-657/658), an Anglo-Saxon aristocrat who had been taken to Gaul as a slave, founded the abbey in 658, on the ruins of the chapel, as a monastery for women. She gave the first of two great endowments to its construction, enabling the abbey and a large new Church of the Holy Cross to be built. Though no charters survive, in Balthild’s Vita there are references to the gifts she made to the abbey. Balthild and the abbesses quickly established an impressive reputation for encouraging learning, which attracted monks to Chelles and resulted in its conversion to a double monastery by the end of the 7th century. Balthild herself retired to Chelles in 664, bringing with her a second endowment, and died there in 680, where she was also buried. Her possessions were treated as relics at Chelles, including a chasuble, a vestment embroidered with a pectoral cross and an image of a beautiful necklace, which is currently displayed in the museum at the site. Her hagiography was written soon after her death, probably by a nun at the abbey.
Balthild is reported to have established the monastery first under the Rule of St. Columbanus, then under the Rule of St. Benedict, although recent scholars, including Moyse and Dierkens, have warned against assumptions that the Rule was a firmly entrenched system. According to the New Catholic Encyclopaedia, the abbey represented a step in the progress of Celtic Christianity into Burgundy, especially in its admittance of monks. In any case Balthild exerted control by appointing her own choice of abbess, Bertila. After the apparent shift to the Benedictine Rule from that of Columbanus, the abbey was often governed by Carolingian princesses who continued this tradition.
Holy women and royalty
Chelles was founded during a century in which an unprecedented number of women were entering monasteries. There was a dramatic increase in the number of such institutions providing for these women, particularly in France, Britain and the Lowlands. According to Paul Fouracre, the rate of monastery building is the best-recorded indicator that Christian culture was successfully flowing through the countryside from urban centres, as members of the Frankish elite founded monasteries on their lands, greatly influencing their tenants, and occupied leading posts within the Catholic Church. Royal assent remained crucial to ecclesiastical appointments, which meant that the Merovingian monarchs themselves were usually important patrons of the monasteries. Their support of the religious communities was a means of sanctifying and legitimating their royal power. Chelles’ success as an institution of learning and renown was possibly due to its strong royal and aristocratic connections from its inception: from its construction at the behest of Queen Balthild, the appointment of a daughter of the French nobility, Saint Bertila, as its first abbess and the powerful influence of Charlemagne’s sister, Gisèla, who led the monastery from 800-810. Yitzhak Hen supports this, suggesting that the links to royalty encouraged local inhabitants to attend Sunday Mass regularly, if only to catch a glimpse of the king, queen or their representatives. The abbey was effective in utilising the rituals of communion and confession to establish itself as a powerful agent of conversion in the countryside to the extent that it has been described by historians as a ‘training ground for missionaries of monasticism’, and by extension, Christianity itself.
Bertila’s reputation as a pious member of the nobility and, later, the eminence of Gisèla, sister of Charlemagne, drew several foreign princesses to join the nuns at Chelles, including Hereswith of Northumbria. The abbey swiftly became one of the most favoured monasteries for English royal princesses in Francia to be sent to for their religious instruction, along with other monasteries in the Paris basin such as Brie and Les Andelys-sur-Seine. Its international reputation was further secured by Bertila’s gifts of relics, books and tutors to help establish monasteries of nuns in Britain, and accepting several young English women into the monastic community.
During her abbacy Gisèla worked to broaden the scope of Chelles and effectively shaped the monastery into a political hub, where monarchs and aristocrats came to worship. Janet L Nelson called it the ‘centre of the monarchic cult’, indicating a unique prominence for the abbey and firm royal connections. Political contacts met there and information was collected from across the kingdom. Gisèla was the one person to send Alcuin the news at Tours of her brother Charlemagne’s official coronation. Nelson suggests that the abbess, as well as writing to Alcuin in Latin to request a Biblical commentary, was responsible for writing the Annales Mettenses Priores at Chelles which recorded a visit from the Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne himself in 804.
The nuns' scriptorium
By the 9th century, the nuns of Chelles were renowned as skilled copyists and authors of manuscripts. Many memoria of monarchs and their family members are emerging from their scriptorium, along with the Lives of several saints. Gisèla was particularly famous for her intelligence and learning, and for demanding several books and biblical commentaries for the monastery’s library. The nuns owned, or at least had access to, the Annales regni Francorum and Continuationes Fredegarii, which were and both remain significant sources for history-writing.
The monastery housed an important scriptorium, involving a consortium of at least nine nuns as scribes. The manuscripts that survive are not illuminated, yet Chelles Abbey is particularly strongly linked with the creation of a unique script style. Jane Stevenson believes there were around fourteen nuns in an ‘atelier’, working under a nun master-scribe, and describes Chelles as one of the most productive scriptoria of the eighth and ninth centuries and therefore a significant nucleus of intellectual activity. The seminal work attributing these nuns to the scriptorium at Chelles is written by Bernhard Bischoff. He compared certain texts to other books written in the same minuscule and located them at Chelles between c.785 and 810, at the time when Gisèla was abbess. The nuns’ surviving texts include parts of the Cologne manuscripts of Augustine’s Commentary on the Psalms (Dombibliothek 63, 65 and 67), Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History, a fragment of Isidore of Seville’s Etymologiae and various other works by the bishop, as well as a copy of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great and a fragment of his Homilia in evangelium. Many of the manuscripts are signed by women, such as Girbalda, Gislidis, Agleberta, Adruhic, Altildis, Eusebia and Vera, all in a similar script. This indicates the existence of a collective, working at Chelles’ scriptorium. Rosamond McKitterick has suggested that the manuscripts’ high quality indicates that the scribes at Chelles were talented and understood the texts they were copying. The fact that so many of these texts were authoritative works of the Catholic Church, written by early theologians, also lends McKitterick to suggest that the scribes were well-educated.
For many years almost all the abbesses were the widows, daughters or sisters of emperors and kings, which over time affected monastic discipline adversely. Stephen of Senlis and Louis de Beaumont de la Forêt, Bishops of Paris, tried in vain to reform the abbey, in 1134 and 1483 respectively. Not until 1499, under Bishop Jean-Simon de Champigny, was any success achieved in this regard, through a decree of the Parlement of Paris: from 1500 the abbesses were elected every three years, which included the possibility of re-election. As early as 1559 however the king abolished the election and resumed the appointment of the abbesses himself.
In 1790, during the French Revolution, the abbey was dissolved. In 1796 the abbey complex was sold as a national asset and destroyed. The remains of the abbey are today incorporated in the mairie of Chelles.
- Saint Berthild
- Sigissa or Sigisla (documented 708)
- Ascelina I
- Marsilia (to 800)
- Gisela (800-810), d. 810, sister of Charlemagne
- Heilwig (Helvide I) of Saxony, d. after 835, mother of the Empress Judith
- Ermentrude (855-869), d. 869, first wife of Charles the Bald
- Rothild, documented 912 and 922, d. 928/929, daughter of Charles the Bald (by his second marriage)
The attempt of Charles the Simple in 922 to dispossess his aunt, Rothild of Chelles, in order to give it to his favourite, Hagano, led to his deposition after a revolt of the nobility, probably under the leadership of Hugh the Great, Rothild's son-in-law.
For about 170 years no abbesses are documented.
- Matilda I (1097-1112)
- Amelina I (or Avelina) (documented 1127/37)
- Maud or Matilda II (documented 1156)
- Helvide II or Héloise (1155-1177)
- Ascelina II, d. 1178
- Marie I de Duny (1178-1185)
- Amelina II, d. 1205
- Marie II de Néry, d. 1208
- Mathilde III de Berchère (1208-1220), d. 1220
- Mathilde IV de Corbeil (probably 1220-1223)
- Florence (abbess 1223), d. 1228
- Marguerite I de Néry (1228-1231)
- Pétronille I de Mareuil (1231-1250), d. 1250
- Mathilde V de Nanteuil (1250-1274), d. 1274
- vacancy (1274-1280)
- Adeline I de Nanteuil (1280-1311), d. 1311
- Alice I de Clignet d'Otis (1311-1317), d. 1317
- Marguerite II de Pacy (1317-1348)
- Pétronille II de Paroy (1348-1354)
- Adeline II de Pacy (1354-1363), d. 1363
- Jeanne I de Soissy (1363-1364), d. 1364
- Agnès I de La Queue (1364-1368), d. after 1368
- Jeanne II de La Forest (1368-1379), d. 1379
- Jeanne III de Roye (1379-1399), d. 1399, sister of Guy de Roye, Archbishop of Reims
- Agnès II de Neufville (1399-1414)
- Alice II de Thorote (1414-1419)
- Marie II de Cléry (1420-1429)
- Elisabeth de Pollye (1429-1475), d. 1475
- Catherine I de Lignières (1475-1500), d. 1504
Abbesses elected for three years
- Jeanne IV de La Rivière (1500-1507)
- Marie III de Reilhac (1507-1510), d. 1547
- Marie IV Cornu (1510-1514), d. 1519
- Catherine II Marguerite de Champrond (1518-1518), d. 1518
- Barbe de Tallensac (1518-1528), d. 1537
- Madeleine I des Chelles (1528-1542), d. 1542
- Jacqueline d'Amignon (1542-1558), d. 1558
Abbesses nominated by the King
- Renée de Bourbon (1559-1583), d. 1583, daughter of Charles, Duke of Vendôme
- Marie V de Lorraine (1583-1627), d. 1627, daughter of Claude, Duke of Aumale
- Marie-Henriette de Bourbon (1627-1629), d. 1629, illegitimate daughter of Henri IV
- Madeleine II de la Porte de la Meilleraye (1629-1671), d. 1671
- Guidone Marguerite de Cossé (1671-1680) (1st time), daughter of François de Cossé, duc de Brissac
- Catherine III de Scorailles de Roussille (1680-1688)
- Guidone Marguerite de Cossé (1688-1707) (2nd time), d. 1707
- Charlotte Agnès de Villars (1707-1719), d. 1723
- Louise Adélaïde d'Orléans (1719-1734), daughter of Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
- Anne de Clermont-Chaste de Gessans (1735-1790)
Other royal nuns
- The Northumbrian princess Hereswith, sister of Saint Hilda;
- Swanachild, discarded wife of Charles Martel;
- Rotrude, daughter of Charlemagne.
Saint Mildred may have been educated at Chelles.
Until the French Revolution, when it disappeared, Chelles possessed a renowned Merovingian gold chalice, enameled and mounted with precious stones (illustration), that was said to have been wrought by Saint Eloi, and a very large number of relics.
- [David Coxall, 'Chelles', in André Vauchez (ed.), Encyclopaedia of the Middle Ages]
- 'Life of Saint Balthild' in Patrick J. Geary (ed.), Readings in Medieval History: Volume I The Early Middle Ages, 4th ed. (Toronto, 2010), pp.153-158, ref p.108.
- Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Feminist Consciousness: From the Middle Ages to Eighteen-Seventy (Oxford, 1994), p.25.
- Bonnie Efros, Caring for Body and Soul: Burial and the Afterlife in the Merovingian World (2010), p.160.
- Paul Fouracre and Richard A. Gerberding (eds.), Late Merovingian France:History and Hagiography, 640-720 (Manchester, 1996), p.110.
- H. Tardif, 'Chelles, convent of' in New Catholic Encyclopaedia, 2nd ed. (2003), p.463.
- Tardif, p.463.
- Lerner, p.24.
- Paul Fouracre, 'Francia in the Seventh Century', in The New Cambridge Medieval History Volume 1: c.500-700 (2005), ch.14, pp.371-396, ref p.381.
- Fouracre, p.381.
- Yitzhak Hen, Culture and Religion in Merovingian Gaul: AD 481-751 (Brill, 1995), p.96.
- Jo Ann McNamara, John E. Halborg, Gordon Whatley (eds.), Sainted Women of the Dark Ages (1992), p.280.
- Rosamond McKitterick, 'Nuns' Scriptoria in England and Francia in the Eighth Century', Francia 19:1 (1992), p.1.
- McKitterick, p.2.
- Janet L Nelson, The Frankish World 750-900 (London, 1996), p.192.
- Nelson, p.191.
- Nelson, p.191.
- op. cit.
- Jane Stevenson, Women Latin Poets: Language, Gender and Authority, from Antiquity to the Eighteenth Century (Oxford, 2005), p.90.
- Jane Stevenson, 'Hrotsvit in Context: Covents and Culture in Ottonian Germany' in Phyllis R. Brown and Stephen L. Vailes (eds.), A Companion to Hrotsvit of Gandersheim (fl. 960) (2012), pp.35.62, ref. p.60.
- McKitterick, pp.2-33.
- McKitterick, p.3.
- Rudolf Schieffer, Die Karolinger (1992), p. 203
- "Rothildis, amitæ suæ [regis Karoli], socrus autem Hugonis" (Flodoard 922, MGH SS III, p. 370); see Medieval Lands, published by Christian Settipani, La Préhistoire des Capétiens (1993), p. 410
- The colored engraving illustrated, originally from Charles de Linas Orfèvrerie Mérovingienne: Les œuvres de Saint Eloi et la verroterie cloisonnée (Paris, 1864), is the only visual record of it.
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (November 2013)|
- Riché, Pierre, 1996: Dictionnaire des Francs: Les temps Mérovingiens. Eds. Bartillat. ISBN 2-84100-008-7