Chelone glabra

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White turtlehead
Chelone glabra Red River Gorge.JPG
Flowers
Conservation status

Secure (NatureServe)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Chelone
Species: C. glabra
Binomial name
Chelone glabra
L.

Chelone glabra (white turtlehead) is a plant in the family Plantaginaceae (the plantain family).

Description[edit]

Chelone-glabra.jpg

Chelone glabra is a herbaceous plant found in wetlands and riparian forests [1] of eastern North America with opposite, simple leaves, on stout, upright stems. The flowers are white, borne in late summer and early fall. It can be used as a method of birth control, as used by Abenaki people.[2]

Its native range extends from Georgia to Newfoundland and Labrador and from Mississippi to Manitoba.[3]

It is the primary plant that the Baltimore Checkerspot Butterfly will lay its eggs on (although the butterfly to some extent will use a few other species).[4][5]

C. glabra is also a foodplant for the sawflies Macrophya nigra (Norton) and Tenthredo grandis (Norton) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), (Stamp, 1984).[6]

A flea beetle in the genus Dibolia (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has also been shown to feed on C. glabra (Wilcox, 1979).[7]

Use as indicator of deer browse in riparian forests[edit]

Chelone glabra is a popular browse plant for deer, although certain other plants such as Eurybia divaricata (white wood aster), Symphyotrichum prenanthoides (crooked-stem aster), and Impatiens capensis (orange jewelweed) are even more preferred by deer. In measuring damage to plants as a way of finding out the level of deer browsing, it is more effective to use a collection of deer browse species rather than just one.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Williams, C (2000). "Use of turtlehead (Chelone glabra L.) and other herbaceous plants to assess intensity of white-tailed deer browsing on Allegheny Plateau riparian forests, USA". Biological Conservation 92 (2): 207. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00054-3. 
  2. ^ "Plants Native to the State of Maine". 
  3. ^ "Chelone glabra". PLANTS. 
  4. ^ M. Deane Bowers, Nancy E. Stamp and Sharon K. Collinge (April 1992). "Early Stage of Host Range Expansion by a Specialist Herbivore, Euphydryas Phaeton (Nymphalidae)". Ecology (Ecological Society of America) 73 (2): 526–536. doi:10.2307/1940758. JSTOR 1940758. 
  5. ^ Euphydryas phaeton (Drury, 1773), Butterflies and Moths of North America
  6. ^ Stamp, N.E. (1984). Effect of defoliation by checkerspot caterpillars (Euphydryas phaeton) and sawfly larvae (Macrophya nigra and Tenthredo grandis) on their host plants (Chelone spp.). Oecologia 63:275–280.
  7. ^ Wilcox, J.A. (1979). Leaf beetle host plants in northeastern North America. World Natural History Publications, Kinderhook, NY.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]