Челябинская область (Russian)
|— Oblast —|
|Established||January 17, 1934|
|Government (as of January 2014)|
|- Governor||Boris Dubrovsky (acting)|
|- Legislature||Legislative Assembly|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|- Total||87,900 km2 (33,900 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||39.55 /km2 (102.4 /sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||YEKT (UTC+06:00)|
Chelyabinsk Oblast (Russian: Челя́бинская о́бласть, Chelyabinskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia in the Ural Mountains region, on the border of Europe and Asia. Its administrative center is the city of Chelyabinsk. Population: 3,476,217 (2010 Census).
During the Middle Ages South Ural was populated by Bashkir tribes that were a part of the Golden Horde, Nogai Horde and smaller Bashkir unions. Since the late 16th century the area was incorporated into the Tsardom of Russia. Russian colonization of Chelybinsk Oblast started only in the 18th century with the establishment of a system of fortresses and trade posts on then Russian border under the authority of the Orenburg Expedition (created in 1734). Many cities of Chelyabinsk Oblast including the city of Chelyabinsk itself trace their history back to those forts.
In 1743 Chelyabinsk fortress became a center of the Iset Province, a constituent part of the Orenburg Governorate (a direct successor of the Orenburg Expedition) since 1744. 1750-1770s saw the emergence of industrial enterprises in South Ural. First factory centred towns like Miass, Kyshtym and Zlatoust were founded back then. After healing the wounds left by the Pugachev's Rebellion in South Ural lands of the modern day Chelyabisnk Oblast started to attract more people from the European part of Russia. By the mid-19th century Chelyabinsk was a major trade center of Ural and after the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1890s it elevated its status becoming an important transport hub that connected Siberia with the rest of the Russian Empire.
In 1919 eastern parts of the Orenburg Governorate added with Kurgan of the Tobolsk Governorate became a separate Chelyabinsk Governorate making Chelyabinsk a regional capital for the first time. During those years population of the new region was already bigger than one million people. In 1923 together with Perm, Yekaterinburg and Tyumen governorates it was merged into a single Ural Oblast that lasted less than ten years, until 1934. In January 17, 1934 the Chelyabinsk Oblast was finally established. It took its current shape when the Kurgan Oblast was detached from it in 1943.
During the 30s the Chelyabinsk Oblast became one of the hot spots of first Five-Year Plans. The core enterprises of modern Chelyabinsk economy including Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works, Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant were founded during those years. Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War economy of the region started to grow even faster with evacuation of industries from the western parts of the Soviet Union to Ural and the Chelyabinsk Oblast in particular. During the war Magnitogorsk produced 1/3 of the Soviet steel while the city of Chelyabinsk became the main center of Soviet tank production earning a nickname Tankograd (Tank City).
Chelyabinsk Oblast has had a long association (since the 1940s) with top-secret nuclear research. A number of production reactors were located in Chelyabinsk early in the Cold War. There is no nuclear power in Chelyabinsk however. A serious nuclear accident occurred in 1957 at the Mayak nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, 150 km north-west of the city, which caused deaths in Chelyabinsk Oblast but not in the city. The province was closed to all foreigners until 1992 other than a British medical team following a two-train rail explosion in the mid-1980s. "Chelyabinsk:The Most Contaminated Spot on the Planet" was a documentary made by Slawomir Grunberg about the unsafe dumping of radio active waste first in the river Techa, then in Lake Karachay.
Chelyabinsk oblast is the eastern slope of the Southern Urals. And only a small part of the territory in the west - the so-called mountain-area factory - comes on the western slopes of the Southern Urals.
The region is situated in the Southern Urals, near Kurgan and Sverdlovsk oblast. Notional boundary between Europe and Asia is carried out mainly by dividing ridges of the Ural Mountains. Near the station Urzhumka (8 km from Zlatoust), the pass Uraltau, there is a stone pillar. On one of its sides is written "Europe", on the other - "Asia". Zlatoust city, Katav-Ivanovsk, Satka are in Europe. Chelyabinsk, Troitsk, Miass - in Asia, Magnitogorsk - in both parts of the world.
Area of the Chelyabinsk oblast is 88.5 thousand square kilometers. Length from north to south - 490 km from west to east - 400 km. Chelyabinsk oblast in the territory in 5th place from 8 regions of the Urals and the 39th place in Russia. The total length of the border is 2750 km.
Relief Chelyabinsk oblast is very diverse. It was formed over millions of years. Within the Chelyabinsk oblast there are various areas - from the lowlands and hilly plains to mountain ranges, peaks exceeding 1,000 m highest point of the area - Nurgush mountain (1406 m).
In the mountainous area has several ski resorts.
West Siberian Plain is bounded on the west horizontal (elevation 190 m above sea level), which passes through the village Bagaryak, Kunashak continue through Chelyabinsk - south. Lowland slightly tilted to the northeast, dropping to 130 m at the eastern border region. Dissected lowland broad river valleys.
Within the region originate numerous rivers belong to the basins of the Kama, Tobol and Ural. Since here, mainly their upper, so they are shallow. Rivers longer than 10 km there in 348, their total length of 10 235 km.
Chelyabinsk oblast believe - lake edge. The region has more than 3748 lakes, the total floor area of 2125 square meters. km. Most of the lakes located in the north and east of the region.
In the mountain forest zone one of the most notable is the lakes Zyuratkul lying at an altitude of 724 m in the eastern foothills - a group of remarkable beauty of lakes that make up the pride of the South Urals - B.Kisegach, Uvildy, Turgoyak, spruce and others, on the banks which built numerous resorts. The main group of lakes located on Zauralskaya hilly plain and within the West Siberian Plain.
Origin of different lakes. Eastern foothills of the lake have their origin in the tectonics. Water accumulated in tectonic failures (basins). These lakes are distinguished not only for its size, extremely complex outlines the coast, but also its depth, often reaching 30–40 m. Other origin lake-steppe and steppe zones. Most of the largest member of the erosion-tectonic type.
Beautiful scenery of mountain lakes contribute to the development of tourism in the region.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Chelyabinsk CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Chelyabinsk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The regional parliament, Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
The oblast is highly urbanized.
The 2010 Census counted the following recognized ethnic groups in Chelyabinsk Oblast:
- 2,829,899 Russians (83.8%);
- 180,913 Tatars (5.4%);
- 162,513 Bashkirs (4.8%);
- 50,081 Ukrainians (1.5%);
- 35,297 Kazakhs (1.00%);
- 18,687 Germans (0.5%);
- 13,035 Belarusians (0.4%);
- 12,147 Mordvins (0.2%);
- 9,311 Armenians (0.3%);
- 65,190 others (1.6);
- 99,144 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
- Births (2011): 47,300 (13.6 per 1000)
- Deaths (2011): 49,469 (14.2 per 1000)
- Vital statistics for 2012
- Births: 49 885 (14.3 per 1000)
- Deaths: 49 367 (14.2 per 1000) 
- Total fertility rate:
- 2009 - 1.63
- 2010 - 1.65
- 2011 - 1.70 
- 2012 - 1.808 (1.681 for Urban, 2.483 for rural)
- 2013 - 1.80(e)
According to a 2012 official survey 30.9% of the population of Chelyabinsk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 8% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 5% adheres to other Orthodox Churches; 8% of the population is Muslim, 1% adheres to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism), and 0.4% to forms of Hinduism (Vedism, Krishnaism or Tantrism). In addition, 29% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 14% is atheist, and 4.7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
Chelyabinsk Oblast has considerable subsurface gold reserves, which are concentrated in ore and placer deposits. The gold deposits are associated with both basement rock and fluvial deposits. Probable reserves are estimated at 500 tons of ore gold and 40 tons of placer gold. The most important nonmetallic minerals in the region in terms of reserves are deposits of graphite, talc, kaolin, and vermiculite (rock raw materials); barite, phosphorite, and glauconite (chemical raw materials); magnesite, quartzite, fluxing limestone, and furnace dolomite (metallurgical raw materials).
The discovery of mineral deposits at various times has resulted in the construction of a large number of processing facilities. More than 150 companies in the region are involved in working mineral deposits and processing the raw materials. The best known of these are the Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works (MMK and Chelyabinsk Iron and Steel Works (Mechel).
Chelyabinsk Oblast has fifteen theaters and three concert organizations. Nine of these theaters (five state and four municipal theaters), an art gallery, a philharmonic and organ hall, a circus, several museums, nineteen movie theaters, a municipal jazz center, and a contemporary art center are located in the capital.
Tours by Russian and foreign artistic companies add variety to the region's cultural life. The Kamerata chamber theater festival and an international organ music festival are held annually in Chelyabinsk.
The region has an extensive system of art and cultural schools, including three higher educational institutions: the Chelyabinsk State Institute of Art and Culture, the Chelyabinsk Higher Music School, and the Magnitogorsk State Conservatory. There are more than 20 artistic unions, associations, and groups, most of which have formed in the last few years.
On 15 February 2013, a 10,000 ton meteoroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia at about 09:20 YEKT (03:20 UTC). It passed over the southern Ural region and exploded in an air burst over Chelyabinsk Oblast. About 1,500 people were reported injured, including 311 children. Health officials said 112 people had been hospitalized, mainly by glass from windows shattered by a shock wave; two were reported to be in serious condition. As many as 3,000 buildings in six cities across the region were damaged by the explosion and impacts. The meteor created a dazzling light as it air burst, bright enough to cast shadows during broad daylight in Chelyabinsk.
Vital statistics for 2008
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Official website of the Governor of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Boris Alexandrovich Dubrovsky, Acting Governor of Chelyabinsk Oblast
- Charter, Article 8.4
- Charter, Article 8.3-1
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
- Chelyabinsk Region
- Законодательное Собрание Челябинской области. Закон №22-ЗО от 25 мая 2006 г. «Устав (основной закон) Челябинской области», в ред. Закона №427-ЗО от 30 апреля 2009 г. (Legislative Assembly of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Law #22-ZO of May 25, 2006 Charter (Basic Law) of Chelyabinsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #427-ZO of April 30, 2009. ).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chelyabinsk Oblast.|