Chemical Automatics Design Bureau
Chemical Automatics Design Bureau (CADB), also KB Khimavtomatika (Russian: Конструкторское бюро химавтоматики, КБХА, KBKhA) is a Russian Design Bureau founded by the NKAP (People’s Commissariat of the Aircraft Industry) in 1941 and led by Semyon Kosberg until his death in 1965. Its origin dates back to a 1940 Moscow carburetor factory, evacuated to Berdsk in 1941, and then relocated to Voronezh in 1945, where it now operates. Originally designated OKB-296 and tasked to develop fuel equipment for aviation engines, it was redesignated OKB-154 in 1946.
In 1965 A.D. Konopatov took over leadership. He was succeeded by V.S. Rachuk in 1993. During this time the company designed a wide range of high technology products, including liquid propellant rocket engines, a nuclear reactor for space use, the first Soviet gas laser with an output of 1 MW and the USSR's only operational nuclear rocket engine. The company has designed more than 60 liquid propellant engines with some 30 having entered production.
KB Khimavtomatika's original mandate was to develop aviation fuel systems for Soviet military during World War II. Kosberg had spent ten years working at the Central Institute of Aircraft Engine Construction on fuel systems and was tapped to run the new bureau. Approaching German armies required the group to relocate to Berdsk, Siberia, where Kosberg and his team of about 30 specialists developed direct injection fuel systems, eventually implemented on the La-5, La-7, Tupolev Tu-2 and Tu-2D. The new fuel systems provided a significant increase in performance over conventional gasoline fuel systems and eliminated carburetor float problems caused by aggressive combat flying. They competed with direct injection systems developed by Daimler Benz at the time. After the end of the war, the design bureau was moved to Voronezh where it continued to design fuel systems for piston, turboprop and jet aircraft.
Liquid propellant rocket engines
By 1954 the bureau was designing liquid-propellant rocket engines for super performance and experimental aircraft, the Yak-27V and E-50A, and from 1957 to 1962 they designed engines for anti-aircraft guided missiles. By the early 1960s the bureau was designing Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines (LPREs) for man-rated space launch vehicles.
Over several decades, the CADB became one of the Soviet Union's premier developers of LPREs, designing engines for the SS-11, SS-18 and SS-19 and ballistic missiles, among others. In one unique design, the engine is submerged in the UDMH propellant tank to save space (SS-N-23 submarine-launched ballistic missile). They also designed upper stage engines for the Soyuz and Proton space launch vehicles, along with the core engines for the Energia. The large volume of design work and continuous refinement led to a high degree of technical capability. During this same period in the United States (late 1960s - early 1970s), liquid engines on missiles were dropped in favor of solids, and the only LPRE being developed was the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The Kosberg design bureau parlayed their experience into the RD-0120 - the Soviet's first cryogenic engine with over 40 tonnes thrust. Despite designing mostly LOX/Kerosene or N2O4/UDMH engines, the LOX/LH2 RD-0120 had similar ratings and performance as the SSME, but with a lower cost due to the choice of technology.
CADB is currently offering the RD-0146 to the international market as an alternative to the RL-10. With a reduction in the market for LPRE's, the company has expanded into related fields, designing products for oil and gas, agricultural and medical industries.
Notable engine designs
|Engine||Other Designations||Thermodynamic Cycle||Thrust, kN (vacuum)||Specific Impulse, s (vacuum)||Propellants||Engine Mass, kg||Development period||Notes|
|RD-0110||11D55, RD-461||Gas Generator||298||326||LOX/Kerosene||408||1963–1967||Soyuz, Molniya, 3rd stage, |
|RD-0120||11D122, RO-200||Staged Combustion||1962||455||LOX/LH2||3450||1967–1983||Energia, core, , , |
|RD-0124||14D451M, 14D23||Staged Combustion||294||359||LOX/Kerosene||450||1996–1999||Soyuz, 3rd stage, |
|RD-0146||Expander||98||451||LOX/LH2||242||2000-||Replacement for the RL10A-4-1, , |
|RD-0210||8D411K, RD-465, 8D49||Staged Combustion||598||326||N2O4/UDMH||565||1963–1967||Proton, 2nd stage |
|RD-0410||11B91||Expander||35.3||910||Nuclear/LH2||2000||1965–1994||The only operational nuclear engine in the USSR/Russia, , , |
|RD-0243||Staged Combustion||825||300||N2O4/UDMH||853||1977–1985||SS-N-23 submarine-launched ballistic missile, , , |
- KB Khimavtomatika website
- Энциклопедия отечественной космонавтики, History of OKB-154, OKB-296 and OKB-265
- Sutton, George Paul (2006). History Of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. ISBN 978-1-56347-649-5.
- "RD-0410". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2006-09-05.
- "Soviet Mars Propulsion - Nuclear Thermal". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2007-11-18.
- "Конструкторскому бюро химавтоматики - 60 лет". Двигатель, №5 (17) сентябрь-октябрь 2001. Retrieved 2007-11-17.
- "Semyon Ariyevich Kosberg". Belarus Newsletter. Retrieved 2007-11-18.
- "Косберг Семен Ариевич". Retrieved 2007-11-18.
- "RD-0120". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2007-11-18.
- "RD-0146". Pratt and Whitney. Retrieved 2007-11-18.[dead link]