Chen Liangyu

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Chen Liangyu
陈良宇
Communist Party Secretary of Shanghai
In office
October 2002 – September 2006
Preceded by Huang Ju
Succeeded by Han Zheng (acting)
Mayor of Shanghai
In office
December 2001 – February 2003
Preceded by Xu Kuangdi
Succeeded by Han Zheng
Personal details
Born (1946-10-24) October 24, 1946 (age 67)
Ningbo, Zhejiang, China
Political party Communist Party of China (expelled)
Spouse(s) Huang Yiling
Chen Liangyu
Traditional Chinese 陳良宇
Simplified Chinese 陈良宇

Chen Liangyu (born 24 October 1946) was a politician in the People's Republic of China from the ruling Communist Party, and CPC Shanghai Committee Secretary, the city's top office, from 2002 to his dismissal in 2006, and a member of the Central Politburo.

Chen worked in Shanghai for his entire public life, serving as Mayor from 2001–2003. Chen took on numerous mega-projects while he was mayor, contributed to the city's economic development, and was instrumental in Shanghai's bid to host the 2010 World Expo. Chen, a prominent member of the Shanghai clique, was also known for his political partisanship and opposition to the macro-economic control policies of the Hu-Wen Administration.

Chen was dismissed in September 2006 for alleged corruption charges related to the misuse of money in Shanghai's social security fund. In April 2008, Chen was sentenced to 18 years in prison on charges of financial fraud, abuse of power, and accepting bribery.

Rise to power[edit]

Chen graduated from the People's Liberation Army Institute of Logistics Engineering, majoring in architecture. He had two years of experience working in the military between 1968–1970 as part of the PLA Army 6716 Squadron. From September 1970 to March 1983, Chen worked at the Shanghai Pengpu Machinery Factory as a worker and estimator. He was eventually promoted to capital construction branch vice-section chief. He also went on a year-long sabbatical to Tongji University. In March 1983 he was promoted to become deputy plant manager of the Shanghai Pengpu machine factory, as well as the party committee deputy secretary of the Shanghai Metallurgy Mining Machinery Company. He joined the Communist Party of China (CPC) in April 1980. By March 1984, Chen gained further promotion, becoming the CPC Secretary for Shanghai's Electronic Appliances Bureau. Between January 1985 and February 1987 he became bureau chief and assistant commissioner of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee – Old cadre bureau.[1]

In February 1987, Chen gained a posting as the new magistrate for Huangpu District in Shanghai. During his tenure, he went on sabbatical at the University of Birmingham on public administration while holding the position.[1]

Chen was promoted to be Deputy Mayor of Shanghai in 1996, concurrently holding the CPC Vice-Secretary position. As then Party General Secretary Jiang Zemin made his political manoeuvers before the 16th Party Congress in 2002 to strengthen the Shanghai power base with his loyalties, Chen became the beneficiary, replacing then Mayor Xu Kuangdi, becoming Mayor of Shanghai in late 2002, and Secretary of the CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee in February 2003. He was therefore granted membership in the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee. As an ally of former General Secretary Jiang Zemin, Chen was to keep Jiang's Shanghai base of power while Hu Jintao was given all official positions of power. Chen is believed to be linked to real estate magnate and banker Zhou Zhengyi in the Shanghai Real Estate scandals, where residents were forced to relocate for new housing developments where old style apartments were being demolished to build modern-style condominiums.

Mayor and party chief of Shanghai[edit]

Yangshan Deepwater Port Container Terminal
Lu Pu Bridge

Chen Liangyu became the CPC Committee Secretary for Shanghai in November 2002, the city's top office, and as is customary for the occupants of this office, he was also given a seat on the Politburo of the 16th CPC Central Committee. During Chen's term in office, Shanghai's economy grew rapidly, which contributed to significant improvements in the living standards of the city's residents.

Economic growth and municipal building[edit]

During Chen's term in office, Shanghai's average annual economic growth rate stood at about 13%, at the forefront of the country,[2] the average annual revenue growth of over 20%, and over the years turned over to the proportion of the central finance more than 15% [3][4] The annual import and export volume of the Port of Shanghai exceeded 400 billion U.S. dollars, at an average annual increase of over 30%.[5] The cargo throughput of the port exceeded 500 million tons, ranking first in the world.[6] Municipal infrastructure and large-scale industrial production construction projects proceeded at a rapid pace; prominent examples include the Yangshan Deepwater Port (Figure), the Shanghai World Financial Center, the Shanghai Metro, and Jiangnan Shipyard Changxing Island base, and the Shanghai Chemical Industrial Zone.[7][8][9] These large scale projects cemented Shanghai's position as the economic heart of the country.[10][11]

Improving the livelihood of the people and helping the poor[edit]

Urban traffic congestion and poor public transit had been a long-standing problem in Shanghai. Chen Liangyu was personally invested in the issue, and during his term in office Shanghai saw significant improvements to its transit system and transport infrastructure.[12] As a result of the urban rail construction during Chen's term, the Metro had overtaken buses as the main transport tool for most Shanghai residents. Additionally Mr. Chen oversaw the construction of bridges and tunnels on the Huangpu River, such as the Lupu Bridge. Opening several new arterial bridges relieved pressure from existing bridges and tunnels, thus easing traffic jams.

Due to historical reasons, the Shanghai area had large areas of shanty towns and old-fashioned neighborhoods, a large number of residents faced a housing shortage and poor living conditions. Chen Liangyu led the Shanghai municipal government in a vigorous urban transformation, in conjunction with the municipal engineering reasonable relocation and resettlement. This not only beautified the urban environment and improved the living conditions of the people, it is especially important due to the relocation and resettlement of the household population based on a per capita metric, which solved the housing problems of a large number of people, especially the impoverished, and reduced the burden of rising housing prices.[13][14][15]

Under Chen Liangyu's leadership pollution in the Suzhou River, which had long plagued Shanghai, came under management. The Suzhou River water pollution problem was greatly reduced. Additionally the landscape around the Suzhou River underwent massive changes.[16]

Chen Liangyu as party secretary of Shanghai repeatedly stressed the need to protect low-income and vulnerable members of society. Mr. Chen started at the grassroots and personally visited people who were less well-off; he additionally supervised the implementation of policy measures combating poverty.[17][18] Chen Liangyu also used a variety of tools to ensure the welfare of the people of Shanghai, including: improve pensions and health insurance and other social security programs, develop measures to increase active employees and retirees income, and increased employment opportunities. Chen Liangyu's attention and efforts on the issue of people's livelihood helped Shanghai society maintain harmony and stability, the average life expectancy exceeded 80 years of age, and members of the public felt a greater sense of belonging and pride with regard to being residents of Shanghai.[19]

Reform and innovation, and opening wider to the outside world[edit]

One of the landmarks of the Shanghai World Expo China Pavilion

One of the landmarks of the Shanghai World Expo China Pavilion Night Scene With Shanghai's economic development, the traditional model of development that rely on cheap labor and high energy consumption has become increasingly constrained further development. To this end, Chen Liangyu, Shanghai should improve the capability of independent innovation, economic growth by a "resource-dependent" to "innovation-driven".[20] Meanwhile, Chen Liangyu to implement the "technological innovation" and the city through science and education "strategy,[21] to increase investment in education, the proportion of Shanghai education and research funding has increased year by year, gradually improve the system of lifelong education, new The labor force average years of education for 14 years. In addition, Chen Liangyu, pioneering the development of recycling economy in order to reduce the consumption of resources and strengthening environmental protection. These measures, so that the industrial structure of Shanghai's overall progress, and the formation and the gradual consolidation of the core competitiveness during Shanghai's economy has maintained double-digit growth, while energy consumption annual growth of only about 5%.[22][23]

In opening up, Chen Liangyu presided over planning the 2010 Shanghai World Expo will be the bid, construction and preparation work, to develop a number of measures to support the Shanghai bid to host the World Expo and the to attract countries stadium stationed in Shanghai World Expo of Governments, during, exhibitors Affairs made significant progress, confirmed exhibitors the number of countries and international organizations to create a historical record.[24][25] Meanwhile, Chen Liangyu vigorously the introduction of foreign capital, and other means to expand the level of opening up in Shanghai,[10] to improve Shanghai's international transparency, speed up Shanghai as an international metropolis, the pace of reconstruction.[26]

Cultural heritage and dialect protection[edit]

Shanghai primary school in Professor Shanghai dialect Shanghai was known as the "lost culture Highland has a rich historical and cultural heritage, Chen Liangyu, that culture is the essence of a city, soul and lifeblood of focus on carrying forward the revival of Shanghai's specialty boutique culture and emphasis on the protection of historic buildings in Shanghai.[27][28][29] In addition, from the beginning of the 1990s, Shanghai vigorously promote Mandarin, Shanghai dialect as the core of local culture (Shanghai culture) has become increasingly subject to compression, an increasingly grim situation. As the leadership of Shanghai, Chen Liangyu, on this issue to take a more flexible method is relatively effective protection of the local culture and the Shanghai dialect, the Shanghai public affirmation.[30][31]

Counterpart support and regional cooperation[edit]

As the officials in charge of China's economic center Shanghai, Chen Liangyu advocate services nationwide, to support the economic construction of the other provinces and municipalities[32] should be in the development of its own premise, in its term of office, the scale of foreign aid and economic cooperation expand personnel exchanges and mutual learning exchanges are becoming increasingly active.[33][34]

Controversial circumstances[edit]

Along with Mayor Han Zheng, Chen continued the CPC's reformation, and during his leadership Shanghai was selected as the host city for Expo 2010. Chen was officially credited with dramatically increasing the size and efficiency of Shanghai's public transportation. Shanghai's rising real estate prices have plagued the city since 2002, and rose over 200% during Chen's term in office as the city's Party Chief, as ordinary Shanghai citizens found it increasingly difficult to find a place to live. The real estate network had a history of being monopolized. The government had attempted to assert control, but because of the inevitable link between the government and private businesses, many deals were cut in which Chen was implicated. Chen also held major interests in the Shanghai Shenhua football squad, attending all of their home matches and even supervising some practices.

His image in the city during his tenure as Mayor was divisive. He initiated a series of gigantic projects to be finished in time for Shanghai's hosting of the 2010 World Exposition, including shipping 128,000 tons of sand to create a beach in Shanghai's suburbs, building a $209 million world-class tennis complex and a $300 million Formula One circuit racetrack. His most controversial project was the proposed Shanghai-Hangzhou mag-lev train.[35] Opponents of Chen painted him as corrupt, short tempered, and despotic during Municipal Committee meetings which he chaired. Supporters of Chen credited him with openness, and saw him as a progressive leader crucial to Shanghai's economic and social development on the international scene. Other observers saw Chen as an effective local administrator in Shanghai, but an impediment to nationwide equalization and macroeconomic controls (otherwise known as Hongguan Tiaokong).

During his term, Chen sold massive amounts of land to his brother who resold the land for more than tenfold, becoming Shanghai's real estate magnate.[36]

Chen's son, Chen Weili, was made an executive of the Shanghai Shenhua football club shortly after graduating from university.

Pension scandal, dismissal, and conviction[edit]

Further information: Shanghai pension scandal

In August 2006, Qin Yu, one of Chen's top aides, was abruptly dismissed from his position as Baoshan District governor, and arrested. Qin was charged with the misappropriation of $400 million of the city's pension funds.[37] The city's social security coffers managed more than 10 billion yuan (US$1.25 billion) in assets. Instead of investing the money in low-risk government bonds and bank deposits, it was invested in expensive real estate and toll road projects around the city.[38] It was suspected that the city's top leadership figures, including Chen, could be implicated in the scandal.[38]

During Chen's term as party chief, he routinely pursued policies that drew friction from the party's central leadership and the policies of General Secretary Hu Jintao. Hu's government favoured balanced regional economic development and feared social divisions resulting from a widening wealth gap, and thus attempted to rein in regional leaders who wanted to pursue rapid economic development which they viewed as overtly favoring regional economic interests.[39] Chen reportedly clashed with Premier Wen Jiabao openly at a Politburo meeting in Beijing over the issue of economic development, indicating that Chen believed the Premier was standing in the way of China's economic development. Chen's statements at municipal meetings also charted a new independent course; Chen opposed the Communist Party's long-held convention that "Marxism serves as the guiding scientific principle." Rather, Chen claimed to rely upon "all forms of science" – signaling he was at odds with the Communist Party's orthodoxy.

On September 25, citing alleged involvement in the pension scandal, Chen was dismissed as Shanghai party chief and suspended from his membership in the party's Central Committee and its Politburo. A team composed of some one hundred investigators from central authorities in Beijing was sent to Shanghai to investigate.[40] Two days before his dismissal, Chen and mayor Han Zheng went to Beijing to meet with Hu Jintao. There Chen was detained, and only Han returned to Shanghai. The authorities carefully managed the transfer of authority in Shanghai. On the day of Chen's dismissal, Han Zheng returned to Shanghai at 3 am and called an official meeting to deliver Beijing's decision that Chen was suspended because of the scandal and that Han himself was assuming the post of acting party chief.[40] Chen was charged with "helping further the economic interests of illegal business people", "protecting staff who severely violated laws and discipline" and "furthering the interests of family members by taking advantage of his official posts."[40]

There was also indication that Chen's sacking occurred for political reasons;[41] Chen was not the only Chinese official who had a history of misusing public funds. Chen was a protégé of former General Secretary Jiang Zemin and a senior member of the Shanghai Clique. In carving out a local fiefdom for himself and willing to boldly deviate from the party's official economic policies, Chen was seen as a serious rival to General Secretary Hu Jintao, and his dismissal was interpreted as a political victory for Hu.[41][42] Chen was the highest-ranking Chinese official to be fired since former Beijing party secretary Chen Xitong (no relation) was sentenced to 16 years in prison in 1995 (released on medical parole in 2006). The Shanghai pension scandal also led to the dismissal of the chief of the Municipal Labour and Social Security Bureau Zhu Junyi, and the downfall of several prominent businessmen, the executives of Shanghai's biggest industrial conglomerate, and other city officials.[43][44]

In July 2007, Chen was expelled from the Communist Party, and his case was transferred to judicial authorities. In comparison to the judicial action against Chen Xitong, Chen's case proceeded at a much faster pace. During the investigation, Chen was placed under house arrest in Qinhuangdao, where he lived in a mansion, and spent most of his time playing cards and reading, ordering his meals from menus.[45] Thereafter, Chen was transferred to Qincheng Prison in the Changping District of Beijing.

Chen's trial began in late March 2008. He was represented by Beijing lawyers Gao Zicheng and Liu Limu. He faced three charges: embezzlement, misuse of official powers, and behavior incompatible with his office. Chen acknowledged that he was "partially responsible" for the pension fund scandal, but pleaded 'not guilty' to the charges. However, he was found guilty by the court. At the end of the court session on March 25, Chen stated "I am sorry to the party, the people of Shanghai, and my family".[46] On April 11, 2008, Chen, 61, was sentenced to 18 years in prison for accepting $340,000 in bribes and abusing power, specifically, for stock manipulation, financial fraud and his role in the city pension fund scandal, at the No. 2 Intermediate People’s Court, Tianjin.[41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Comrade Chen Lianyu's biography". People's Daily. Retrieved September 27, 2006. 
  2. ^ "陈良宇:抓住机遇 争取上海发展新突破". 中国上海. 
  3. ^ "上海GDP明年冲8000亿元大关". 中国经济网. 2004-12-10. 
  4. ^ "2006年上海地方财政收入达1600亿元". 腾讯网. 2007-01-01. 
  5. ^ "上海口岸进出口总额去年突破4000亿美元". 网易. 2007-01-17. 
  6. ^ "上海港货物吞吐量突破5亿吨 居世界第一货港". 中国解放日报. 2006-12-23. 
  7. ^ "陈良宇称力争年内启动深水港工程". 东方网. 2002-02-22. 
  8. ^ "陈良宇:认真化解动迁矛盾 加快轨道交通建设". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2005-11-18. 
  9. ^ "上海化学工业区概况". 上海招商网. 
  10. ^ a b "上海市市长陈良宇称:将从四个方面打造上海国际金融中心". 新浪网. 2002-05-13. 
  11. ^ "共同为上海建设"四个中心" 实现"四个率先"团结奋斗". 搜狐新闻. 2006-07-20. 
  12. ^ "上海市委书记新年首个工作日挤车体察交通". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2003-01-03. 
  13. ^ "上海市委市政府召开动拆迁工作推进会议". 中华人民共和国中央人民政府. 2005-11-27. 
  14. ^ "陈良宇昨深入基层实地调研强调推进旧区改造". 新浪网. 2004-10-15. 
  15. ^ "上海市国有土地上房屋征收与补偿实施细则(市政府令第71号)". 中国上海. 2011-10-19. 
  16. ^ "苏州河整治二期工程开工 陈良宇要求为上海人民造福". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2003-04-13. 
  17. ^ "上海市委市政府召开救助帮困工作会议 陈良宇讲话". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2002-12-22. 
  18. ^ "陈良宇强调从人民群众最关心最直接最现实的利益问题入手充满感情做好关心群众工作 身体力行带头参与帮困救助市委举行常委会听取关于做好二○○六年元旦春节期间救助帮困等工作汇报". 新浪网. 2005-12-14. 
  19. ^ "2008年上海市政府工作报告". 中华人民共和国中央人民政府. 2008-02-28. 
  20. ^ "陈良宇:提高自主创新能力 走通"华山天险一条路"". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2006-03-24. 
  21. ^ "陈良宇谈上海发展新思路:科技创新 科教兴市". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2003-04-25. 
  22. ^ "陈良宇:突破资源约束根本出路在于发展循环经济---上海经济增幅多年保持两位数,耗能仅年增5%". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2004-09-25. 
  23. ^ "连续第16年两位数增长 上海07年GDP12001亿". 大洋网. 2008-04-01. 
  24. ^ "陈良宇在国际展览局第132次大会上的陈述(全文)". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2002-12-03. 
  25. ^ "陈良宇:要把上海世博会办得成功、精彩、难忘". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2006-02-14. 
  26. ^ "陈良宇:上海将以更开放姿态融入世界经济". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2004-10-31. 
  27. ^ "上海市委书记陈良宇强调文化对一座城市的重要性文化是精髓、灵魂与活力源泉". 中国文化报. 2004-04-05. 
  28. ^ "陈良宇:做精上海书展 不断提升大都市文化品位". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2006-08-08. 
  29. ^ "陈良宇:上海要用最严格的制度保护优秀历史建筑". 中国新闻网. 2003-10-22. 
  30. ^ "山坳中的上海话:兴衰背后见证中国社会微妙变化". 中国网. 2005-10-19. 
  31. ^ "幼儿园小孩要学上海话 "乡土文化"正式被纳入课程". 东方网. 2006-09-13. 
  32. ^ "陈良宇:上海要更好地发展自己服务全国". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2004-04-21. 
  33. ^ "陈良宇:上海积极参与西部大开发服务全国". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2003-06-25. 
  34. ^ "陈良宇:不断加大对口支援力度". People's Daily (in Chinese). 2004-08-06. 
  35. ^ French, Howard W. (August 10, 2007). "Ire Over Shanghai Rail Line May Signal Turning Point". The New York Times. Retrieved April 16, 2008. 
  36. ^ Times Online reports on Shanghai's property affairs
  37. ^ "Shanghaied". The Economist. September 28, 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2012. 
  38. ^ a b "Looting the aged". The Economist. September 7, 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2012. 
  39. ^ "The Harder they Fall". The Economist. September 28, 2006. Retrieved April 13, 2012. 
  40. ^ a b c "Shanghai party chief sacked for social security fund scandal". Xinhua News Agency. September 25, 2006. 
  41. ^ a b c Barboza, David (April 12, 2008). "Former Party Boss in China Gets 18 Years". New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2012. 
  42. ^ "Top China leader fired for graft". BBC. September 25, 2006. Retrieved September 27, 2006. 
  43. ^ ABC News article Top Shanghai Leader Removed From Office published September 25, 2006
  44. ^ Wall Street Journal article Shanghai's Top Leader Is Dismissed, Linked to Pension Probe published September 25, 2006
  45. ^ Duowei: Chen handed to Judicial Authorities
  46. ^ 陈良宇的最后陈述:三声对不起

Sources[edit]

Party political offices
Preceded by
Huang Ju
CPC Shanghai Municipal Committee Secretary
2002–2006
Succeeded by
Han Zheng (Acting)
Political offices
Preceded by
Xu Kuangdi
Mayor of Shanghai
2002–2003
Succeeded by
Han Zheng