The site contains the earliest dated rice field in China (dating from 4500 to 3000 BC). The settlement spanned three separate cultures: the Daxi culture, the Qujialing culture and the Shijiahe culture. The site was abandoned around the middle period of the Shijiahe culture.
Chengtoushan was a round settlement surrounded by a moat and rammed earth wall, which was first built during the Daxi culture. The remains of human sacrifices were discovered under the foundation of the wall. The remains of a gravel road, a river bridge and a river-control gate were also discovered at Chengtoushan.
- Archaeology of Asia, pp. 106
- Allan, Sarah (ed), The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective, ISBN 0-300-09382-9
- Higham, Charles, The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia, ISBN 0-521-56505-7
- Stark, Miriam T. (ed), Archaeology of Asia, ISBN 1-4051-0213-6