Chennai Suburban Railway

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Chennai Suburban Railway
சென்னை புறநகர் இருப்புவழி
Indian Railways Suburban Railway Logo.svg
Tirusulam Station.jpg
Overview
Owner Southern Railways
Locale India Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Transit type Suburban Rail
Number of lines 4 [North Line, Western Line, South Line, MRTS Line]
Number of stations 73[1]
Daily ridership 1,460,000/day.[2]
Website sr.indianrailways.gov.in/view_section.jsp?lang=0&id=0,2,325
Operation
Began operation 1931
Operator(s) Southern Railway
Train length 9/12 coaches
Technical
System length 896.57 km (non-redundant)
(303 km true suburban and 610.5 km MEMU service)
Track gauge Broad gauge
Electrification 25,000V AC Overhead catenary
Average speed 50 km/h (31 mph)
Top speed 100 km/h (62 mph)

Coordinates: 13°04′59″N 80°16′27″E / 13.08319°N 80.27413°E / 13.08319; 80.27413

Chennai Suburban Railway is a commuter rail system in the city of Chennai (Madras), Tamil Nadu, India operated by the Southern Railway, one of the operating railway zones of Indian Railways.

Chennai has a complex railway network. The system uses electrical multiple units (EMUs) operating on alternating current (AC) drawn from over-head cables through the catenary system. The total system spans around 900 km of which only 286 km have dedicated dual tracks for suburban EMUs, the rest share tracks with other trains and are called mainline EMUs (MEMUs). As of 2013, the suburban sector has 580 services, including 250 in the Beach–Tambaram section, 240 services in the Central–Tiruvallur section, and 90 in the Central–Gummidipoondi.[3] As of 2011–2012, 1.46 million people use the suburban train services daily.[2] This includes 500,000 in the Beach–Tambaram section, 350,000 in the Central–Tiruvallur section, and 100,000 in the Central–Gummidipoondi section.[3] This is a 13.2 percent increase over the previous year. A total of 65 stations in the suburban section have cycle stands.[2]

History[edit]

Chennai has a fairly extensive suburban electric multiple unit (EMU) service. It was in the 1920s that the then British government felt the necessity of connecting the northern part of the city, which was mainly commercial, with the chiefly residential southwestern parts. In 1928, work began on constructing two meter gauge (MG) lines connecting the harbour with the southern suburb of Tambaram to run services using steam locomotives.[4] In early 1930, however, the government decided to electrify the lines, including the mainline starting from Egmore.[4] The plan to electrify railway lines in Madras was first initiated in 1923 by Sir Percy Rothera, an agent of the South Indian Railways. This was on account of the city's rapid expansion, with largely agricultural areas such as Saidapet, St. Thomas Mount and Tambaram developing into residential quarters. Plan to build a new line between Beach and Egmore and two lines between Egmore and Tambaram was announced as part of the suburban remodelling initiative of South Indian Railways.[5] The rolling stock, consisting of rigid wooden-bodied coaches, were built by Metro Camell.[6] On 27 December 1930, the first consignment of 25 electric carriages from England was received by the railway. The trains were painted in dull green with a black wheel base and featured wide sliding doors, a better-designed seating arrangement, and thick glass fronts. The new carriages were parked in Tambaram station.[5] By March 1931, the construction works were completed,[4] and the first electrically operated rail service in Madras began on 2 April 1931 between Madras Beach and Tambaram, which became the earliest metre gauge to be electrified in the country. It was launched by Sir George Fredrick Stanley, the then governor of Madras, who at the opening ceremony was reported to have said that the new train services would transform "desolate south Madras into burgeoning garden cities".[5]

However, the suburban services were opened to the public only a month later on 11 May 1931.[4] The section was electrified on 15 November 1931, with the first MG EMU services running on 1.5 kV DC.[4] The Madras Electricity Supply Corporation, which powered the railway lines, was aided by sub-stations in Egmore and Meenambakkam. Soon, the number of trains shuttling passengers was increased to 45 a day, running every 10 minutes at peak hours, and every 30 minutes, otherwise. The running time between Madras Beach and Tambaram stations, which was 2 hours until then, was reduced to 49 minutes. The train service was made available from 4:00 in the morning up to 12:00 at night.[5]

In the same year, mainline DC locomotives (YCG) were introduced to haul freight from the port.[6] The system had the meter-gauge (MG) EMUs (YAU series) until the gauge conversion. Since then, the system has only the broad-gauge (BG) EMUs running.[7]

In the 1960s, the line from Madras Beach to Villupuram was converted to 25 kV AC traction.[6] This began with the conversion of the Madras Beach—Tambaram section on 15 January 1967.[8] The rolling stock was changed to EMUs with motors and electricals from Toshiba or Hitachi. These were built by the Integral Coach Factory based in the city. Services too were extended to Chengleput with two daily services. In the late 1967, a Toshiba/Hitachi/Mitsubishi combine model YAM-1 21904 locomotive was introduced, which became the first MG 25 kV AC locomotive. Work on additional MG track between Tambaram and Chengleput began in 1969 and was completed in January 1971.[6]

In 1985, suburban services to northern and western parts of the city began, with services running from the newly built suburban terminal of the Madras Central. With the growth in suburban traffic and the existing gauge lacking sufficient carrying capacity, the Indian Railway decided to convert the entire section between Beach and Tambaram, which by then had three MG lines, to BG in early 1991, with a 50:50 joint venture with the state government. The first BG line was laid in the section in 1992 parallel to the existing MG lines. The work was completed in February 1993. Of the three existing MG lines, two were exclusively used for suburban service and the third one was used for mainline express and passenger trains. The newly laid BG line started handling suburban trains supplementing the MG suburban lines.[6]

In 1998, further to the Chengleput–Villupuram–Tiruchirapalli gauge conversion project, the railway decided to convert one of the MG lines in the section between Tambaram and Chengleput. However, the decision was soon changed due to large-scale protests by suburban commuters. This resulted in the conversion of the 'down' MG line (the easternmost line out of Tambaram) to BG, in addition to laying of a new parallel MG line. Within a year, work on the new BG was completed. By late 1999, there were two MG lines and one BG line between Tambaram and Chengleput, and the new BG line was electrified by late 2000.[6] The conversion of the mainline MG line between Egmore and Tambaram began in 2000, resulting in Tambaram station temporarily acting as terminal point for mainline express and passenger trains originally originating from and terminating at Egmore. This resulted in increase in traffic at Tambaram station, where two additional MG lines were built. In March 2001, the gauge conversion project in the Madras—Madurai section was completed and BG passenger services began, and the Beach—Tambaram section featured two MG and two BG lines. In December 2001, electrification work of the Chengleput–Villupuram BG line commenced. Gauge conversion work of two MG lines between Beach and Egmore began in December 2002 and was completed by February 2003. This resulted in increased BG EMU services between Beach and Tambaram and the MG services from Tambaram terminating at Egmore. The spur MG lines in the Beach—Washermanpet section were dismantled.[6]

In February 2003, one of the MG lines between Tambaram and Chengalpet was taken up for conversion and was completed in December 2003, which was used for BG EMU services and by mainline express trains. This resulted in 2 BG lines and 1 MG line in the Tambaram–Chengleput section by the end of 2003. The last MG EMU services between the 30 km Egmore—Tambaram section were run on 1 July 2004, marking the end of the regular service of the YAM-1 locomotives, and the gauge conversion work in this section began. All MG mainline trains were switched over to diesel traction.[6]

On 1 November 2004, with the completion of the gauge-conversion work in this section, BG EMU services were inaugurated with the addition of 15 new rakes from ICF.[6]

Lines[edit]

Fundamentally Chennai has 4 suburban railway lines, namely North line, West line, South line and MRTS line.[9] The South West line, West North line and West South line are merely minor extensions or modifications of the aforementioned suburban lines. The MRTS is a suburban railway line that chiefly runs on an elevated track exclusively used for running local EMUs or suburban local trains. No express trains or passenger trains run on MRTS line.

The inside of a Chennai Suburban Train.
A railway map of the Chennai suburban train system including proposed new lines
Heatmap of the coverage of public transportation in Chennai City

North Line[edit]

This line runs from the city towards the North direction and hence the name.

Stations: Chennai Central MMCBasin BridgeKorukkupetTondiarpetTondiarpet YardTiruvottiyurWimco NagarKathivakkamEnnoreAthipattu PudhunagarAthipattuNandiambakkamMinjurAnupambattuPonneriKavaraipettaiGummidipoondiElavurArambakkamTada (Andhra Pradesh [AP]) – Sullurpeta (AP) - Gudur(AP) – Nellore (AP)

Few train services originate from Chennai Beach instead of Chennai Central. Trains originating from Chennai Beach pass through Royapuram, Washermanpet to reach Korukkupet. From Korukkupet the route is same as listed above.

  • Total length of North Line Suburban Services is 83 km (Chennai Central to Sulurpetta)[10]
  • Suburban EMU servicse terminate at Sullurpeta (AP)
  • MEMU service is up to Nellore
  • Currently 83 train services run on the North Suburban line, whose split up is as follows[11]
    • 37 services begin from Chennai Central towards Northern suburbs, while another 37 services originate from the Northern suburbs proceeding to Chennai Central
    • Only 4 train services are run from Chennai Beach towards Northern suburbs, and there are 5 services in the return direction towards Chennai Beach
  • This is the only route in India where a suburban train is operated outside the state.

South Line[edit]

(Along GST Road from St. Thomas Mount to Chengalpattu)

Stations: Chennai BeachChennai FortChennai ParkChennai EgmoreChetpetNungambakkamKodambakkamMambalamSaidapetGuindySt. Thomas MountPazhavanthangalMeenambakkamTrisulamPallavaramChromepetTambaram SanatoriumTambaramPerungalathurVandalurUrapakkamGuduvancheriPotheriKattangulathurMaraimalai Nagar KamarajarSingaperumal KoilParanurChengalpattuVilliambakkamPalurPalayasivaramWalajabadNathapettaiKanchipuramTirumalpur--villupuram

  • Suburban electric trains on this route, terminate at Tirumalpur station, in the south-west
  • MEMU services proceed in the southern direction from Chengalpet on the line towards Villupuram. The Chennai Beach to Melmaruvahtur MEMU halts at Ottivakkam, Karunkuzhi, Maduranthakam to reach Melmaruvathur, which is 90 km from Chennai Beach.[11]
  • Tirumalpur – Arakkonam section is being electrified to run circular route trains.
  • Currently 240 services are being run on the South Suburban line.
Important Stations on the South Line
  • Chennai Beach – Terminal Station for all South and MRTS line trains and a few north and west line trains. Close to Chennai Port and Harbour
  • Chennai Fort – Close to the commercial hub of Parry's Corner or Broadway.
  • Chennai Park – Lies opposite Chennai Central which is a terminus for long distance and suburban trains. Also close to Park Town MRTS station.
  • Chennai Egmore – Terminal Station for several long distance trains.
  • Mambalam – Lies in the commercial and textile hub of T.Nagar. Halt station for several long distance express trains.
  • Guindy – upcoming interchange with Mount Road metro Line. Close to Guindy Industrial Estate and bus terminus
  • St Thomas Mount – upcoming interchange for 100 feet Road Metro Line and MRTS line.
  • Tirisulam – Lies opposite Chennai International Airport
  • Tambaram – A terminus for several local suburban trains and a halt for long distance express trains. Tambaram is also the Southern Gateway of Chennai.
  • Chengalpet Junction – A junction with 3 lines and a halt station for long distance express trains.

West Line[edit]

Chennai Central MMCBasin BridgeVyasarpadi JeevaPeramburPerambur Carriage WorksPerambur Loco WorksVillivakkamKoratturPattaravakkamAmbatturThirumullaivoyalAnnanurAvadiHindu CollegePattabiramNemilicheryThirunindravurVeppampattuSevvapet RoadPutlurTiruvallurEgatturKadambatturManavurMosurPuliyamangalamArakkonam Junction – Sholinghur – Walajah Road – Tiruvalam – Sevur – KatpadiGudiyattamAmburVinnamangalamVaniyambadi – Kettandapatti – Jolarpet

  • Suburban EMU train services terminate at Tirutani.
  • However, MEMU services run up to Tirupathy
  • Few trains operate from Chennai Beach. These trains from Chennai Beach cover a distance of 5.64 km via Royapuram and Washermanpet stations to reach Vysarpadi, beyond which the alignment is same as the trains from Chennai Central

MRTS line[edit]

Main article: Chennai MRTS

The MRTS line is an exclusive line of the Chennai suburban railway as it runs elevated for most of its section. Moreover, the route is unique as it is exclusively used to run suburban EMU trains. No express trains, MEMU trains or passenger trains ply on the MRTS route.

The MRTS currently runs from Chennai Beach to Velachery. However the MRTS line is being extended from Velachery to St Thomas Mount, where it will intersect with the South line and Metro line (Koyambedu – St Thomas Mount). St Thomas Mount station will house South line suburban trains at grade level, MRTS trains at level 1 and Metro trains at level 2.

Between Chennai Beach till Park Town, the MRTS alignment runs parallel to the South Suburban line. Beyond this, the MRTS climbs up on a gradient to reach the Chindadripet station which is elevated. The alignment remains elevated till Perungudi beyond which it slopes down to reach the Velachery station which is at grade level. However, the under construction line between Velachery to St Thomas Mount will be elevated again.

Chennai BeachChennai Fort Park Town – Chindadripet – ChepaukTriplicaneLight HouseMundakanniamman KoilMylaporeMandaveliGreenways RoadKottupuramKasturba NagarIndira NagarTiruvanmiyurTaramaniPerungudiVelacheryPuzhuthivakkam (u/c)Adambakkam (u/c)St. Thomas Mount

Current Services[edit]

[11]

Split of suburban train services in Chennai (2013)

West line[edit]

Chennai Central via Vysarpadi Junction DOWN (destined to any of Pattabiram, Avadi, Trivallur, Arakkonam, Tirutani):89 services of which there are only 3 fast suburban locals on this route.

  • From any of these source terminal stations to Chennai Central UP: 91 services. Of this only 4 are fast trains.
  • There is nothing called "Sunday Services" on the West Line.
  • Chennai Beach via WST-Vysarpadi DOWN:24 services of which only 1 is a fast local.
  • In Return to Chennai Beach UP: 25 services of which 2 are fast.
  • Total for WEST Line = 229 services (towards suburbs = 113; towards MAS/MSB = 116)

South Line[edit]

  • Chennai Beach via Egmore to TBM/CGL/TMLP DOWN: 121 services (weekdays). Of this only 4 are fast trains
  • South Line terminals to Chennai Beach UP:119 services (weekdays). Of this only 8 are fast trains
  • Total for SOUTH line = 240 services weekday (121 towards suburbs, 119 towards beach)

North Line[edit]

  • Chennai Central via Korukkupet Junction and beyond DOWN: 37 services
  • Return direction to MAS UP: 37 services
  • No differentiation w.r.t Sundays.
  • No fast trains
  • Chennai Beach via Royapuram, Washermanpet Junction, Korukupet Junction and beyond DOWN: 4 train services only.
  • Return direction to MSB UP: 5 train services only.
  • Total for NORTH line = 83 services (41 towards suburbs, 42 towards MAS/MSB)

MRTS Line[edit]

  • Chennai Beach to Velachery DOWN: 67 services (weekday)
  • VLCY to MSB UP: 67 services (weekday)
  • Total for MRTS line = 134 services weekday (67 in each direction)
  • There are no fast trains on the MRTS line too

RARE, UNIQUE TRAINS Total services[edit]

  • On Korukkupet-Vysarpadi Line: 3 = 2 in forward dir and 1 return dir
  • Ennore to Trivallur (without touching Basin Bridge Jn and MAS) via Korukkupet Junction directly to Vysarpadi Jeeva Junction
  • Similarly there is a Ponneri to Tiruvallur (and reverse) Local train that doesn't touch basin bridge jn.
  • Chennai Beach to Chennai Central suburban train via Royapuram, Washermanpet Junction, Basin Bridge Junction.

Interchange stations[edit]

S.No. Station Status Connections Details
1 Chennai Beach Existing Interchange station North line, West line, South line and MRTS line Chennai Beach station is close to Chennai Harbour. It is a terminal station for few of the North and West bound suburban trains and a terminal station for all south line and MRTS line suburban trains.
2 Chennai Fort Existing Interchange station MRTS line, South line, upcoming Metro line 1 Chennai Fort is close to the commercial hub of Parry's corner and Broadway. It is a common station for MRTS line and South suburban line. A station on Line 1 of upcoming Metro rail is near Fort suburban railway station
3 Chennai Central Existing Interchange station North line, West line, MRTS line, South line Chennai Central's main building is a terminal for outstation express trains and mails. Chennai Central's Moore Market Complex is a terminal for suburban trains on North and West lines. Park station of South line and Park Town station of MRTS line lie opposite to Chennai Central on the Poonamalle High Road. Both the lines of the upcoming metro rail will pass through Chennai Central Metro station which is being constructed underneath the Poonamalle High Road.
4 Park Existing Interchange station MRTS, South line, North Line, West line, Upcoming Metro lines 1 and 2 Park is a suburban station on the south line while Park Town is a station on the MRTS line. Both the stations are nearby and are also opposite to Chennai Central.
5 Guindy Upcoming Interchange station Metro line 1, South suburban line The Guindy metro station under construction lies abutting the Guindy suburban railway station
6 St. Thomas Mount Upcoming Interchange station South Suburban line, MRTS line, Metro line 2 The MRTS line and Metro line 2 will be housed in different floors of a common station complex, which lies abutting the existing south line suburban railway station. MRTS is being extended from Velachery to St Thomas Mount, while Metro line 2 is under construction
6 Chengalpet Junction Existing Interchange station Chengalpet is beyond the suburbs of Chennai, 60 km away from the urban precinct or downtown. Three lines from Melmaruvathur, Tambaram and Thirmalpur converge at Chengalpet Junction. Chengalpet Junction is also a halt for long distance express trains and mails

New Lines[edit]

The following new lines have been proposed in the Second Master Plan by CMDA as a long-term Urban transportation Scheme[12]

The Avadi–Sriperumbudur line will cover a distance of 26.65 km at a cost of INR 2,550 million. The railways also plan to lay a 179 km Perungudi–Cuddalore railway line via Mahabalipuram.[13]

New Lines proposed in CTS[edit]

The following new lines have been proposed in the Comprehensive Transportation Study of the Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority.[14] These lines will provide a circumferential travel network for the city.

Circular Rail Line [191 km][edit]

Stations: Chennai BeachEgmoreTambaramChengalpattuThirumalpurTakkolamArakkonamVyasarpadi JeevaWashermanpetRoyapuramChennai Beach

  • The circular rail line has been proposed in the CMDA SMP.[12]

Electrification[edit]

Services and traffic[edit]

As of 2006, 24 rakes, each with 9 cars, are operated every day between Tambaram and Chennai Beach, with a plan to increase the fleet to 30 rakes.[15]

By 2006, the suburban system carried about 500,000 commuters daily,[15] which rose to about 700,000 by 2009.[16] By 2011, this has increased to 960,000 passengers a day.[16]

By the end of 2013, all the 9-unit EMU services in Chennai Beach–Tambaram–Chengalpattu section were expected to be converted into 12-unit services. With this the carrying capacity of the suburban services would be enhanced by another 25 percent.[17]

Fares and ticketing[edit]

Per the 2013 Railway Budget, the railway increased the Chennai suburban ticket fare by eight paise per kilometre, although the railway ministry has hiked it by two paise per kilometre. The number of slabs has also been reduced to four—INR 5, INR 10, INR 15 and INR 20—from the eight slabs earlier. Also ticket denominations have been rounded off to multiples of INR 5. As per the revised slab, a person traveling up to 20 km will have to pay INR 5, between 21 and 45 km INR 10, between 46 and 70 km INR 15 and between 71 and 100 km INR 20.[18]

In 2012 (January–December), the Chennai division of Southern Railway zone generated INR 142.9 million through penalties imposed on ticketless and irregular travellers, which is marginally higher than INR 136 million generated during the previous fiscal (April 2011 – March 2012).[19]

Rolling stock[edit]

A typical EMU train

Maintenance[edit]

The suburban network has EMU car sheds at Avadi, Tambaram and Velachery where maintenance of EMUs is done. Electrical loco sheds of the Southern Railway are located at Royapuram and Arakkonam where maintenance of electrical locomotives is done. It also has workshops at Perambur Carriage Works and Perambur Loco Works from where periodical overhauling of coaching stock is done. Periodical overhauling of electrical rolling stock is done at Perambur Loco Works and the EMU car sheds at Avadi and Tambaram.[20]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

On 29 April 2009, a suburban EMU train from Chennai Central suburban terminal was hijacked by an unidentified man, who rammed it with a stationary goods train at Vyasarpadi Jeeva railway station, killing four passengers and injuring 11 others. A major portion of the platform at the station, a footbridge and the railway track were damaged by the collision.[21] The train was scheduled to start at 5:15 am but started at 4:50 am by the perpetrator.[22] The speed of the EMU train at the time of the collision was estimated to be 92 kmph. There were about 35 passengers on board the train at the time of the accident.[23]

Accident rates[edit]

Of the entire stretch of the South line, the GuindyChengalpet suburban section, comprising 17 stations, suffers from more fatal accidents with about 30 people a month,[24] peaking at the ChromepetTambaram stretch with at least 15 accidents a month as of 2011.[25] Of the 181 people killed on the tracks between Guindy and Chengalpet in 2011, one-fourth were killed on the tracks between Chromepet and Tambaram stations.[26]

Security[edit]

In 2013, seven important stations, including Chennai Central, Chennai Egmore, Chennai Beach, Tambaram, Mambalam, Tiruvallur and Basin Bridge, in the suburban section were brought under the Integrated Security System (ISS) of the Southern Railway.[27][28]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Suburban railway stations need more facilities". The Hindu (Chennai). 7 March 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c "Five more train services to Chennai's suburbs". The Hindu (Chennai). 19 March 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Hemalatha, Karthikeyan (5 July 2013). "City Needs More Wheels". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Electric Traction – I". IRFCA.org. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d Menon, Nitya (18 April 2014). "83 years of electric suburban rail". The Hindu (Chennai: The Hindu). Retrieved 18 Apr 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Moro, Bharath (May 2005). "Chennai Area Gauge Conversion". Irfca.org. Retrieved 13 November 2012. 
  7. ^ "Metro – Urban – Suburban Systems". Irfca.org. Retrieved 13 November 2012. 
  8. ^ "IR Electrification Chronology up to 31.03.2004". History of Electrification. IRFCA.org. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 
  9. ^ "Project Brief of Chennai Metro Rail". CMRL. Chennai Metro Rail Limited (CMRL). Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  10. ^ http://erail.in. Retrieved 22 September 2013.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ a b c "Chennai suburban train time table". 
  12. ^ a b http://www.cmdachennai.gov.in/Volume1_English_PDF/Vol1_Chapter04_Transport.pdf
  13. ^ Ayyappan, V. (29 August 2008). "Chennai waiting for Metro rail". The Times of India (Chennai). Retrieved 2 February 2014. 
  14. ^ "Front Page : Big plans for transport infrastructure for Chennai". The Hindu. 28 February 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2012. 
  15. ^ a b "Delay in launch of Tiruvanmiyur-Velachery MRTS service". The Hindu (Chennai). 24 December 2006. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  16. ^ a b "Suburban railway stations need more facilities". The Hindu (Chennai: The Hindu). 18 March 2011. Retrieved 18 Apr 2014. 
  17. ^ Venkatasubramanian, V. (10 December 2013). "Four suburban rail services extended to Kancheepuram". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 14 January 2014. 
  18. ^ Karthikeyan, K. (27 January 2013). "Passengers outraged at suburban rail fare hike". Deccan Chronicle (Chennai). Retrieved 3 February 2013. 
  19. ^ Karthikeyan, K. (4 January 2013). "Rs 14.29 cr penalty from ticketless travellers". Deccan Chronicle (Chennai). Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  20. ^ "Implementation of Right to Information Act 2005". Southern Railway. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  21. ^ Vijaya Kumar, S.; S. Vydhianathan (30 April 2009). "Hijack leads to train collision, 4 die". The Hindu (Chennai). Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  22. ^ "Bizarre Rail Accident in Chennai Kills 4". Outlook India (Chennai: OutlookIndia.com). 29 April 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  23. ^ "7 killed in train accident in Tamil Nadu". India Today (Chennai: IndiaToday.in). 29 April 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  24. ^ Madhavan, D. (5 December 2011). "402 deaths on suburban tracks in 2011". The Times of India epaper (Chennai). Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  25. ^ Madhavan, D. (27 August 2011). "Pedestrians still cross tracks at Tambaram". The Times of India epaper (Chennai). Retrieved 16 October 2011. 
  26. ^ Madhavan, D. (18 May 2012). "No subway, staircases at Tambaram, Chromepet put commuters at risk". The Times of India epaper (Chennai). Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  27. ^ "16 cameras to beef up security at Beach station". The Hindu (Chennai: The Hindu). 14 August 2013. Retrieved 24 Apr 2014. 
  28. ^ "Chennai: Suburban railway stations to come under CCTV surveillance". IBN Live (Chennai: The New Indian Express). 18 July 2012. Retrieved 14 Jan 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]