Chernyakhovsk

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Chernyakhovsk (English)
Черняховск (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Cernjahovsk.png
In Chernyakhovsk
Map of Russia - Kaliningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia
Chernyakhovsk is located in Kaliningrad Oblast
Chernyakhovsk
Chernyakhovsk
Location of Chernyakhovsk in Kaliningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 54°38′05″N 21°48′43″E / 54.63472°N 21.81194°E / 54.63472; 21.81194Coordinates: 54°38′05″N 21°48′43″E / 54.63472°N 21.81194°E / 54.63472; 21.81194
Coat of Arms of Chernyakhovsk (Kaliningrad oblast).png
Flag of Chernyakhovsk (Kaliningrad oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of November 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Kaliningrad Oblast[1]
Administrative district Chernyakhovsky District[1]
Town of district significance Chernyakhovsk[1]
Administrative center of Chernyakhovsky District,[1] town of district significance of Chernyakhovsk[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2009)
Municipal district Chernyakhovsky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Chernyakhovskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Chernyakhovsky Municipal District,[2] Chernyakhovskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 40,449 inhabitants[3]
Time zone USZ1 (UTC+03:00)[4]
Founded 1336[5]
Town status since October 10, 1583[citation needed]
Previous names Insterburg (until 1946)[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[6] 238150–238154, 238158, 238165, 238169, 238170, 238816
Dialing code(s) +7 40141[citation needed]
Chernyakhovsk on WikiCommons

Chernyakhovsk (Russian: Черняхо́вск); prior to 1946 known by its German name About this sound Insterburg (Lithuanian: Įsrutis; Polish: Wystruć) is a town and the administrative center of Chernyakhovsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Instruch and Angrapa Rivers, forming the Pregolya. Population: 40,449 (2010 Census).[3]

History[edit]

It was founded in 1336,[5] after the Prussian Crusade, when the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Dietrich von Altenburg built a castle called Instierburg at the site of a former Old Prussian fortification. During their campaign against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the place was devastated in 1376 and again by Polish troops in 1457. The castle had been rebuilt as the seat of a Procurator and a settlement grew up to serve it, also called Insterburg.

When Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1525 secularized the monastic State of the Teutonic Order, Insterburg became part of the Duchy of Prussia and was granted town privileges on October 10, 1583 by the Prussian regent Margrave George Frederick.[citation needed] The town became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Because the area had been depopulated by plague in the early 18th century, King Frederick William I of Prussia invited Protestant refugees who had been expelled from the Archbishopric of Salzburg to settle in Insterburg in 1732.

In 1818, after the Napoleonic Wars, the town became the seat of Insterburg District within the Gumbinnen Region. Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly died at Insterburg in 1818 on his way from his Livonian manor to Germany, where he wanted to renew his health.

Postcard view of Hindenburgstraße in Insterburg, ca. 1890

Insterburg became a part of the German Empire during the 1871 unification of Germany. On May 1, 1901, it became an independent city separate from Insterburg District. After World War I, the town was separated from the rest of Weimar Germany, as the province of East Prussia had become an exclave. The association football club Yorck Boyen Insterburg was formed in 1921.

During World War II, Insterburg was heavily bombed by the British Royal Air Force on July 27, 1944. The town was stormed by Red Army troops on January 21–22, 1945. As part of the northern part of East Prussia, Insterburg was transferred from Germany to the Soviet Union after the war as previously agreed between the victorious powers at the Potsdam Conference. The German population was either evacuated or expelled and replaced with Russians. In 1946, Insterburg was renamed Chernyakhovsk in honor of the Soviet World War II General of the Army Ivan Chernyakhovsky, who commanded the army that first entered East Prussia in 1944.[5]

After 1989, a group of people introduced the Akhal-Teke horse breed to the area and opened an Akhal-Teke breeding stable.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Chernyakhovsk serves as the administrative center of Chernyakhovsky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with five rural localities, incorporated within Chernyakhovsky District as the town of district significance of Chernyakhovsk.[1] As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Chernyakhovsk is incorporated within Chernyakhovsky Municipal District as Chernyakhovskoye Urban Settlement.[2]

Population trends[edit]

Year Number
1790 4,972, without military[7]
1875 16,303[8]
1880 18,745[8]
1885 22,227[8]
1890 31,624, incl. 437 Catholics and 348 Jews[8]
1900 27,787, incl. 788 Catholics and 350 Jews[9]
1910 31,624, incl. 29,672 Protestants and 1,040 Catholics[8]
1925 39,311, incl. 36,792 Protestants, 1,174 Catholics, 86 other Christians, and 338 Jews[8]
1933 41,230, incl. 39,458 Protestants, 1,078 Catholics, five other Christians, and 273 Jews[8]
1939 43,620, incl. 40,677 Protestants, 1,388 Catholics, 563 other Christians, and 87 Jews[8]
1959 approx. 29,100[citation needed]
1979 approx. 35,600[citation needed]
1989 Census 39,622[10]
2002 Census 44,323[11]
2010 Census 40,449[3]

Military[edit]

Chernyakhovsk is home to the Chernyakhovsk naval air facility.

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Chernyakhovsk is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Resolution #640
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #262
  3. ^ a b c "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 517. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  7. ^ A. E. Henning: Topographisch-historische Beschreibung der Stadt Insterburg. Königsberg 1794, p. 44.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Michael Rademacher: Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte Ostpreußen - Kreis Insterburg (2006)
  9. ^ Meyers Koversations-Lexikon. 6. Auflage, Band 9, Leipzig und Wien 1908, p. 873.
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Официально"), №170, 15 сентября 2011 г. (Government of Kaliningrad Oblast. Resolution #640 of August 30, 2011 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Objects of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Kaliningrad Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #877 of November 21, 2011 On Amending the Resolution of the Government of Kaliningrad Oblast #640 of August 30, 2011. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №262 от 30 июня 2008 г. «Об организации местного самоуправления на территории муниципального образования "Черняховский городской округ"», в ред. Закона №370 от 1 июля 2009 г «О составе территорий муниципальных образований Калининградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда", №124, 11 июля 2008 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #262 of June 30, 2008 On the Organization of the Local Self-Government on the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Chernyakhovsky Urban Okrug", as amended by the Law #370 of July 1, 2009 On the Composition of the Territories of the Municipal Formations of Kaliningrad Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]

Mikhaylovsky Cathedral in Chernyakhovsk