|- Town -|
Location of Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia
|Federal subject||Kaliningrad Oblast|
|Administrative district||Chernyakhovsky District|
|Administrative center of||Chernyakhovsky District|
|Municipal status (as of July 2009)|
|Municipal district||Chernyakhovsky Municipal District|
|Urban settlement||Chernyakhovskoye Urban Settlement|
|Population (2010 Census)||40,449 inhabitants|
|Time zone||USZ1 (UTC+03:00)|
|Previous names||Insterburg (until 1946)|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 40141|
Chernyakhovsk (Russian: Черняхо́вск; German: Insterburg (help·info); Lithuanian: Įsrutis; Polish: Wystruć) is a town and the administrative center of Chernyakhovsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Instruch and the Angrapa Rivers, forming the Pregolya. Population: 40,449 (2010 Census).
In 1336, after the Prussian Crusade, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Dietrich von Altenburg founded a castle called Instierburg at the site of a former Old Prussian fortification. During their campaign against the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the place was devastated in 1376 and again by Polish troops in 1457. The castle had been rebuilt as the seat of a Procurator and a settlement grew up to serve it, also called Insterburg.
When Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1525 secularized the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights, Insterburg became part of the Duchy of Prussia and was granted town privileges on October 10, 1583 by the Prussian regent Margrave George Frederick. The town became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Because the area had been depopulated by plague in the early 18th century, King Frederick William I of Prussia invited Protestant refugees who had been expelled from the Archbishopric of Salzburg to settle in Insterburg in 1732.
In 1818, after the Napoleonic Wars, the town became the capital of the Insterburg District within the Gumbinnen Region. Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly died at Insterburg in 1818 on his way from his Livonian manor to Germany, where he wanted to renew his health.
Insterburg became part of the German Empire during the 1871 unification of Germany. On May 1, 1901 it became an independent city separate from the Insterburg District. After World War I, the town was separated from the rest of Weimar Germany, as the province of East Prussia had become an exclave. The football club Yorck Boyen Insterburg was formed in 1921.
During World War II, Insterburg was heavily bombed by the British Royal Air Force on July 27, 1944. The town was stormed by Red Army troops on January 21–22, 1945. As part of the northern part of East Prussia, Insterburg was transferred from Germany to the Soviet Union after the war as previously agreed between the victorious powers at the Potsdam Conference. The German population was either evacuated or expelled and replaced with Russians. In 1946 Insterburg was renamed Chernyakhovsk in honor of the Soviet World War II General of the army Ivan Chernyakhovsky, who was killed in the Battle of Königsberg.
|1790||4,972, without military|
|1890||31,624, incl. 437 Catholics and 348 Jews|
|1900||27,787, incl. 788 Catholics and 350 Jews|
|1910||31,624, incl. 29,672 Protestants and 1,040 Catholics|
|1925||39,311, incl. 36,792 Protestants, 1,174 Catholics, 86 other Christians and 338 Jews|
|1933||41,230, incl. 39,458 Protestants, 1,078 Catholics, five other Christians and 273 Jews|
|1939||43,620, incl. 40,677 Protestants, 1,388 Catholics, 563 other Christians and 87 Jews|
|1959||approx. 29,100|
|1979||approx. 35,600|
Chernyakhovsk is home to the Chernyakhovsk naval air facility.
- Martin Grünberg (1665-18th century), architect
- Eduard Heinrich von Flottwell (1786–1865), politician
- Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Jordan (1819–1904), writer and politician
- Ernst Wichert (1831–1902), author
- Hans Horst Meyer (1853–1939), pharmacologist
- Therese Malten (1855–1930), opera singer
- Hans Otto Erdmann (1896-1944), member of the German resistance
- Gerhard Neumann (1911–1996), physical oceanographer
- Kurt Kuhlmey (1913–1993), Bundeswehr major general
- Kurt Plenzat (1914–1998), military officer
- Traugott Buhre (1929–2009), actor
- Harry Boldt (born 1930), Olympic champion in dressage
- Jürgen Schmude (born 1936), politician (SPD)
Twin towns and sister cities
Chernyakhovsk is twinned with:
- Brzeg Dolny, Poland
- Grudziądz, Poland
- Kirchheimbolanden, Germany, since 2002
- Marijampolė, Lithuania
- Węgorzewo, Poland, since 1996
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- A. E. Henning: Topographisch-historische Beschreibung der Stadt Insterburg. Königsberg 1794, p. 44.
- Michael Rademacher: Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte Ostpreußen - Kreis Insterburg (2006)
- Meyers Koversations-Lexikon. 6. Auflage, Band 9, Leipzig und Wien 1908, p. 873.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Unofficial website of Chernyakhovsk (Russian)
- Akhal-Teke breeding farm and dressage club "Insterburg"
- Chernyakhovsk web portal
- Pictures of Chernyakhovsk