Cherokee heritage groups
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Cherokee heritage groups are associations, societies and other organizations located across the United States and in other countries made up of people who may have distant heritage from a Cherokee tribe, or who may hold a belief that they have such heritage. Usually such groups are made up of those who do not qualify for enrollment in any of the three, federally recognized, Cherokee tribes.
Some of these groups seek to preserve Cherokee language and culture. However others are not entities that have existed from historical times. While some are steadfast in their desire to be historically and culturally accurate, others may incorporate non-traditional elements such as powwows or Plains Indian dress, and imitations of Plains-style ceremonies.
A heritage group may incorporate study of genealogy and language study, along with providing social events. Some groups sponsor and support protection of geographic areas, buildings, plants, documents, relics or spiritually related information. Many groups are liberal in their membership, with no requirement of Cherokee blood or heritage, and a focus on powwows and other festivals which have not historically been a part of Cherokee culture, while others such as the Original Keetoowah Society are restrictive in membership and meet in secret.
The Cherokee Nation encourages people of Cherokee heritage to become active in Cherokee Nation satellite communities, rather than in heritage groups that have no connection to any of the three Cherokee tribes.
The origins of these groups can sometimes be found in those opposing certain treaties, allotment of lands, the Cherokee Civil War and abandonment of spiritual beliefs in the late 1800s. In the Indian Territory in what is the present-day state of Oklahoma, the Choctaw, Muscogee Creek, Cherokee, and Natchez formed the Four Mothers Society to resist the federal government's attempts of forced assimilation and breakup of the five civilized tribes.
Some people who are ineligible for tribal membership join Heritage groups to identify with the Cherokee. The majority of Heritage groups are formed by those who rally around a cause such as "Save Kituwah", language preservation, or to maintain cultural art forms such as basket weaving. Both the Eastern and Western Cherokee have master teachers in these art forms with large followings. The rise of Social Media has helped connect individuals with interests in genealogy and heritage. Members of "I am Cherokee and I can prove it" meet only on Facebook and have "virtual hog fries". Eastern European heritage groups use the social media to connect with Cherokee in the U.S. and share information.
Recognized tribes have encouraged the federal government to hold to a system of "Tribal" recognition rather than "Indian" or individual recognition, and an origin benchmark of 1871.
Heritage groups have sometimes sought recognition as Cherokee tribes. The politically active "Keetowah Society" and the spiritual "Nighthawk Keetowah Society" later influenced the formation of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in 1946. The United Keetoowah Band is recognized by the U.S. government and is located north of Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Cherokee Nation spokesman Mike Miller said that some Heritage groups are encouraged (Glenn 2006). Former Eastern Band Chief Jones said "There are non-recognized Indian tribes in the United States that absolutely should have been previously recognized and through unfortunate historical twists of fate have not been."
|“||"I am a full-blood Western Cherokee Indian, could not talk the English language until I was fifteen years old......Enrollment started at the instance of the Dawes Commission and we all experienced a great deal of difficulty in getting enrolling. Lots of the Indians were so hard headed that when the men or investigator came around to see them they would not give any information and consequently were not enrolled. There was a certain class of white man, half-breeds and negroes that would run them down and get enrolled. Some of them deserved it and some of them didn't."||”|
—- Bird Doublehead, University of Oklahoma, Western History Collections, Interview with Bird Doublehead
Cherokee Nation spokesman Mike Miller has discussed that some groups, which he calls Cherokee Heritage Groups, are encouraged. Others, however, are controversial for their attempts to gain economically through their claims to be Cherokee, a claim which is disputed by two of the federally recognized Tribes, who assert themselves as the only groups having the legal right to present themselves as Cherokee Indian Tribes.
While heritage groups may base their membership on cultural and genealogical requirements, tribal recognition is more complex in its adherence to academic, legal, historic, sociological, anthropological and genealogical principles.
In the census for the year 2000, there were 729,533 people who self identified as Cherokee and only about 250,000 people who were enrolled at the time in one of the three Federally Recognized Cherokee Tribes. Many people with genuine Cherokee heritage will never meet the qualifications to become citizens in a federally recognized tribe. The Cherokee Nation does not question anyone's claim of heritage or ancestry.
Listing of Cherokee Heritage Groups
- Albuquerque Cherokee Nation Township (Cherokee Nation)
- Cherokee Cultural Society (Houston, Texas)
- Kentucky Cherokee Heritage group (Henderson County, Kentucky)
- Ethnic group
- List of Native American Tribal Entities
- List of unrecognized tribes
- Native Americans in the United States
- Glenn 2006
- Save Kituwah, "Kituwah, the Mother Town of the Cherokee", Save Kituwah website, accessed 1 March 2010
- Cherokee Preservation Foundation, "Language Revitalization Effort Gains Momentum", Cherokee Preservation Foundation website, accessed 1 March 2010
- Cherokees of California, "a 501C-3 non-profit tribal organization incorporated in 1975", Cherokees of California website, accessed 1 March 2010
- Cherokee Artists Association, "A Non Profit Promoting & Protecting Native Art & Artists", Cherokee Artists Association website, accessed 1 March 2010
- Cherokee Heritage Center, "Education - Cultural Class Series", Cherokee Heritage Center website, accessed 1 March 2010
- Government of Singapore, "National Heritage Board Unveils Comprehensive Social Media Strategy", National Heritage Board website, accessed 1 March 2010
- The Cherokee Observer, "The Only Independent Cherokee Newspaper", Cherokee Observer website, accessed 1 March 2010
- Wilson, L.W. (abt 1936). "Interview with Bird Doublehead" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-04-28. Check date values in:
- Official Statement Cherokee Nation 2000, Pierpoint 2000
- First People of Tennessee
- Cherokee Heritage Center
- Cherokee Registry
- Tennessee Overhill Heritage Association
- Cherokee Cultural Society of Houston