Chess tournament

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The 35th Chess Olympiad, a biennial chess tournament

A chess tournament is a series of chess games played competitively to determine a winning individual or team. Since the first international chess tournament in London, 1851, chess tournaments have become the standard form of chess competition among serious players.

Today, the most recognized chess tournaments for individual competition include the Linares chess tournament and the Tata Steel chess tournament. The largest team chess tournament is the Chess Olympiad, in which players compete for their country's team in the same fashion as the Olympic Games. Since the 1950s, chess computers have even begun entering the tournament scene.


Most chess tournaments are organized and ruled according to the World Chess Federation (FIDE) handbook, which offers guidelines and regulations for conducting tournaments. Chess tournaments are mainly held in either round-robin style, Swiss system style or elimination style to determine a winning party.

A large youth chess tournament in Spain

History[edit]

Although modern chess had been established since around 1475, the first tournament (in the sense of structured competitions) was in Leeds in 1841.[1] There was a knockout tournament in London in 1849 and a tournament in Amsterdam in 1851.[2][3] The first international chess tournament was held in London in 1851.[1][4] The London 1851 tournament took place during The Great Exhibition, and would serve as a guide for future international chess tournaments that would follow it. The tournament not only showed the need for time controls but it also clearly demonstrated the drawbacks to the knockout elimination tournament format.[5] It was won by Adolf Anderssen of Germany, who became regarded as the world's best chess player as a result.[6][7]

The number of international chess tournaments increased rapidly afterwards. By the end of the 1850s, chess tournaments had been held in Berlin, Paris, Manchester, New York, San Francisco, Birmingham, and Vienna.[8][9][10] By the end of World War II there were 24 international chess tournaments per year, and by 1990 there were well over a thousand.[11]

Chess Olympiads[edit]

Main article: Chess Olympiad
Chess Olympiad tournament hall, Torino 2006

An attempt was made in 1924 to include chess in the Olympic Games. However, because it was very difficult to distinguish between amateur and professional chess players, the event was called off.[12] While the 1924 Summer Olympics was taking place in Paris, the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad took place separately from the Olympics, but also in Paris. The Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) was formed on the closing day of the first unofficial Chess Olympiad.[13] FIDE organized the first official Chess Olympiad in 1927 in which there were 16 participating countries.[12] By the 29th Chess Olympiad in 1990, there were 127 member countries.[11] The Chess Olympiads were held at irregular intervals by FIDE until 1950; since then, they have been held regularly every two years.[12]

Growth of Chess Olympiads
There were 16 participating nations in the 1st Chess Olympiad, 1927.
By the 37th Chess Olympiad, 2006, there were 133 participating nations.

Computers in chess tournaments[edit]

Main article: Computer chess
A pressure-sensory chess computer with an LCD screen from the 1990s

The first chess engine (a chess playing computer program) to beat a person in tournament play was the Mac Hack Six, in 1967.[14] Soon after, tournaments were created just for chess computers. In 1970, the first North American Computer Chess Championship (NACCC) was held in New York City, and in 1974, the first World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC) was held in Stockholm. Kaissa, a chess program of the Soviet Union was named the world's first computer chess champion.[15][16] In 1995, the first World Computer Speed Chess Championship was held in Paderborn, Germany for blitz chess. Top commercial programs such as Shredder or Fritz have even surpassed world champion players at short time controls.

Rybka has won every World Computer Chess Championship since 2007. It was later found to have plagiarized other programs and had its titles revoked. Other champion level programs include Fritz, HIARCS, Junior, Shredder, and Zappa.

Rules[edit]

Main article: Rules of chess

FIDE tournaments are held according to the FIDE handbook rules, which is used as a basic guide for many chess tournaments. The handbook contains nine articles dealing with chess competitions.[17]

A typical analog chess clock. Note the two separate timers.

The chess clock[edit]

A chess clock is a clock with two separate time displays of which only one display can be running at a time. The player with the black pieces will initiate their opponent's timer at the start of the game. Thus the player with the white pieces will have their timer running first, and will make the first move. The player or the arbiter may end the game at any time after the player's opponent has oversteped their time limit. If a timed out clock remains unnoticed, the game will continue as normal. If the game needs to be interrupted, the arbiter shall stop the clock.

Irregularities[edit]

If it is found that the starting position of the pieces is incorrect, the game must be cancelled and restarted. If it is found that an illegal move has been made, the game must return to the position directly before the irregularity. For the first two illegal moves by a player, the arbiter shall give two minutes extra time to his opponent each time. If a player is to make a third illegal move in the same game, the arbiter can declare the game lost by the offending player. If a game begins with the piece colors reversed, the game should be stopped and restarted unless an arbiter rules otherwise. If a player displaces any pieces, they should place them in the correct locations on their own time.

A chess score sheet of a famous match

The recording of moves[edit]

In games with long time controls, each player is required to record all moves of the game in algebraic chess notation. However, if a player reaches less than five minutes on their clock, and does not have a time delay of thirty seconds or more, they are excused from recording the remaining game moves until the game has been completed. At the conclusion of the game, both players must sign each other's scoresheets and turn them to the event organizers if instructed to do so. In fast chess games, players are not required to record moves, as it would take away from important thinking time. The scoresheets must be visible to the arbiter at all times. Each player must be familiar with the following chess abbreviations:[18]

Symbol Meaning
=
Draw offer
0-0
Kingside castling
0-0-0
Queenside castling
x
Capture
+
check
# or ++
Checkmate
e.p.
Capture by "en passant"

The drawn game[edit]

See also: Draw (chess)

A player must make their own move before offering a draw, and must not stop their own clock and start their opponent's clock before they have made the offer. No conditions may be attached to a draw offer. If a player claims a draw according to the rules of chess, the player is allowed to stop both clocks and record the draw claim as long as his or her opponent agrees to the claim.[19] If the opponent disputes the draw claim the director may be called to come to a conclusion. If the claim is found to be correct, the game is drawn. Once a player has made a move from a position eligible for a draw, they lose their rights to claim a draw on that position.[20][21]

Quickplay finish[edit]

The quickplay finish is the phase of the game when all remaining moves must be made in a limited time. If a player has two minutes or less left on their clock, they may ask the arbiter to adjudicate a draw. The arbiter must decide if the player's opponent is making any attempt to win the game by normal means, or if the position can be won in any way. If the arbiter decides against a draw, the player's opponent will be awarded two extra minutes of time. Otherwise, the game is drawn, and the decision of the arbiter is final.

Scoring[edit]

Symbol Score
1–0
White wins
0–1
Black wins
½–½
Drawn game

Players are granted one point (1) for a win, a half (½) point for a draw, and no points (0) for a loss toward their tournament score, unless otherwise stated by the tournament director beforehand. Full-point byes are received when a player is excluded from a round because of an extra player. Thus, in tournaments with an odd number of players, a different player will receive a full-point each round. A full-point bye is equal in points to a normal win. Half-point byes can be requested by a player who will be unavailable for a round. If accepted, the player will receive a half-point, as if they had drawn the game.[22] A player who wins by forfeit or default will also be granted one point. Players may use the following format to record the game score:

Player conduct[edit]

Players are not allowed to take any action that will bring the game into disrepute. For example, deliberate attempts at cheating by sneaking a captured piece back on to the board can be punished by this rule, rather than the rules dealing with illegal moves.[23]

Players can not make any use of any outside information. This includes advice, notes, and analysis of another chess board. Electronic devices are not to be used in the tournament area unless approved by the arbiter. If a player's mobile phone rings during play, they may immediately forfeit the game. Chess scoresheets may be used for recording matters relevant to the game. Players should not distract or annoy their competitor in any way. Once a player has finished their game, they are considered a spectator. Refusal of a player to comply with the rules may result in penalty, up to and including forfeiture of the game or even disqualification of the player. If two opponents both refuse to obey the rules, the game may be considered lost by both players. In 1976, smoking was banned in a major tournament for the first time (the National Open, Las Vegas).[24]

The role of the arbiter[edit]

The arbiter's job is to see that the Laws of Chess are observed and make decisions in the best interest of the competition, but must not interfere with the game otherwise. If a rule is broken, the arbiter may choose from a number of penalties including the following:

  • warning the offending player
  • increasing the remaining time of the opponent
  • reducing the remaining time of the offending player
  • declaring a game to be lost
  • reducing the points scored in a game by the offending player
  • increasing the points scored in a game by the opponent
  • expulsion of the offending player from the event.

The arbiter may also expel offending spectators from the venue. Spectators are also forbidden to use mobile phones at any time in the playing area, and may be expelled for it. Member federations are allowed to ask FIDE authorities to give an official decision about problems relating to the Laws of Chess.

Formats[edit]

Most chess tournaments are held in either round-robin style, Swiss system style or single-elimination style.

Systems[edit]

Round-robin[edit]

In round-robin tournaments, each participant plays every other participant an equal number of times.[25] Round-robin tournaments involving four participants are known as quads. Round-robin tournaments are often used for small groups because the element of luck is reduced when every player plays everyone else.[26] Rating categories are sometimes used to separate players of different levels into different round-robin groups. The World Chess Federation, the Australian Chess Federation, and the United States Chess Federation all use different categorization scales to distinguish player ability.[27] Similar to the Round-robin style is the Scheveningen system. The Scheveningen system is often used to face two chess teams against each other, where each player on one team plays each player on the other team.[20][28]

Swiss system[edit]

A tournament that has too many participants for a round-robin is commonly conducted as a Swiss system tournament.[29] In the Swiss style, players are paired with opponents who have done equally well.[30] For example, players with six points will play other players with six points (if possible), so that the player with the most points at the end of the tournament is the winner.[30] Pairing players for Swiss system tournaments is often quite complicated, so tournament organizers commonly use a computer to pair players.

A 16-player single-elimination tournament bracket

Elimination[edit]

Single-elimination style or knock-out style are also sometimes used for chess tournaments. In fact, the first international chess tournament was held in single-elimination style.[31] In single-elimination tournaments, the loser of a game is immediately eliminated from winning the first prize.[32][33] In most single-elimination chess tournaments there is a backdraw for players to compete for positions other than first. Players are normally given seeds based on their rating in order to prevent the highest ranked players from facing each other early in the competition. Double-elimination tournaments work in the same way as single-elimination tournaments except that a player loses eligibility to take first prize after two losses.[34]

Handicap inclusivity[edit]

The physically handicapped are often welcomed to compete in chess tournaments. Although the Blind Chess Olympiad is the most significant chess event for the blind and visually impaired, players in either group can participate at most standard tournaments including international ones.[35][36] In some cases, specially designed chess boards with raised squares and pegs are used to aid the visually handicapped, while a tournament assistant can be used to help players with other physical handicaps.[37]

Tournament categories[edit]

FIDE classifies tournaments according to the average Elo rating of the participants. The starting category for master-level tournaments is category I, which applies to a tournament whose participants have an average Elo rating from 2251 to 2275. From 2276 to 2300 it is a category II tournament, and so on with a further category every 25 points. The strongest tournaments to date have included a category XXI section.[38][39] The Zurich Chess Challenge 2014, held from 29 January to 4 February 2014, was the first ever category XXIII tournament with an average Elo rating of 2801.

Number of wins in major recurring chess tournaments[edit]

Among the many tournaments organized, some particularly stand out because of history or category. This tabulation gives an overview of the number of wins by major current and past chess players in the major recurring chess tournaments and world championship matches. The notation 'n/a' is used when a player has never participated in the tournament, or when the tournament began after a player's retirement.


Linares (1978–2010) Wijk aan Zee (1938) Dortmund (1928) Tal Memorial (2006) Norway Chess (2013) M-Tel Masters (2005–2009) Nanjing Super-GM (2008–2010) London Chess Classic (2009) Biel (1968) Fide Grand Prix (2009) Bilbao Masters (2008) WC match/tournament Total won
Kramnik 2 1 10 2 n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a 1 3 20
Kasparov 9 3 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 6 19
Anand 3 5 3 1 n/a 5 17
Carlsen 3 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 16
Karpov 2 2 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 3 n/a n/a 6 14
Topalov 1 2 1 n/a 3 1 n/a n/a 2 1 1 12
Aronian 1 4 3 n/a n/a 2 2 12
Ivanchuk 3 1 1 n/a 1 n/a 1 1 8
Leko 1 1 3 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 6
Korchnoi 4 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2 n/a n/a 6
Botvinnik n/a 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 5 6
Karjakin n/a 1 1 1 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 5
Euwe n/a 4 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 5
Nunn 3 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2 n/a n/a 5
Caruana n/a 2 n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 1 4
Timman 1 2 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a 4
Morozevich n/a n/a n/a 3 1 n/a 4
Gelfand 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a 2 1 n/a 4
Mamedyarov n/a 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a 2 n/a 3
Petrosian 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2 3
Spassky 1 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 3
Larsen 2 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 n/a n/a 3
Svidler 2 1 n/a 3
Nakamura n/a 1 n/a n/a 1 2
Tal 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 2
Ljubojević 1 1 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2
Radjabov 1 n/a 1 2
Grischuk 1 n/a n/a 1 2
Shirov n/a 1 n/a n/a 1 n/a 2
Adams 2 n/a n/a n/a 2
Vachier-Lagrave n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 2 n/a n/a 2
Fischer n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 1
Domínguez n/a n/a n/a n/a 1 1

Time controls[edit]

See also: Time control

A time control is a mechanism in tournament play that allows each round of the match to finish in a timely fashion so that the tournament can proceed. The three main types of time controls used in chess tournaments are blitz, standard, and compensation.

Blitz[edit]

In blitz chess (also known as sudden death chess) each player starts with a fixed amount of time to spend on their moves of the game.[40] The FIDE Handbook designates the following common blitz time controls:[41]

  • Bullet: one or two minutes per side
  • Blitz: less than 10 minutes per side (often 5 minutes), sometimes with a small time increment every move
  • Rapid: 10–60 minutes per side (often 25 minutes), sometimes with a small time increment every move.
  • Armageddon: a single game guaranteed to produce a result, because the Black side has draw odds (that is, for Black, a draw is equal to a victory). To compensate, White has more time on the clock.

Blitz time controls increase the odds that one would "lose on time", meaning a forfeiture of the game due to the expiration of one's chess clock. Blitz tournaments are often documented with the notation "G/5" or "G/15", meaning "game in 5" and "game in 15", respectively.[40]

Standard[edit]

Standard time controls (STC) are one's in which a player has a set amount of time to complete a specified number of moves. If the specified number of moves is met, the player's time will rejuvenate. The first standard time controls, introduced in 1861, were 24 moves in two hours, with the average game lasting five hours.[42] In the mid-1980s, a new format, 40 moves in two hours, proved popular because few games lasted over 60 moves.[42]

Compensation[edit]

Compensation (also known as incremental or delay) time control methods require the use a special clock, called a delay clock. There are two main forms which provide compensation for both the time lost in physically making a move and to make it such that a player can avoid having an ever-decreasing amount of time remaining.

  • Bronstein delay, invented by David Bronstein. When it becomes a player's turn to move, the clock waits for the delay period before starting to subtract from the player's remaining time. For example, if the delay is five seconds, the clock waits for five seconds before counting down. The time is not accumulated. If the player moves within the delay period, no time is subtracted from his remaining time.[43]
  • Fischer delay, invented by Bobby Fischer. When it becomes a player's turn to move, the delay is added to the player's remaining time. For example, if the delay is five seconds and the player has ten minutes remaining on his clock, when his clock is activated, he now has ten minutes and five seconds remaining. Time can be accumulated, so if the player moves within the delay period, his remaining time actually increases. This style of time control is common on internet chess servers, where the delay is termed an "increment".[43]

Prizes[edit]

The winners of chess tournaments are often rewarded with monetary prizes. Often, the chess tournament draws its prizes from a prize fund, from which all the winners in each section are rewarded. For example, the 2008 World Open chess tournament had a prize fund of $400,000. The winner of the open section was rewarded $30,000, while the winners of lesser sections were awarded subsequently smaller amounts.[44] Other chess tournaments, such as the World Chess Championship, also reward the winners with a title, such as the "World Chess Champion".[45] Lesser tournaments sometimes replace monetary rewards with book prizes or trophies.[46]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess (second ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 426. ISBN 0-19-866164-9. 
  2. ^ http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/winter52.html#5865 note 5869
  3. ^ http://www.chesshistory.com/winter/#5870 note 5874
  4. ^ Byrne, Robert. "Chess", The New York Times, January 14, 1997. Accessed July 21, 2008. "Indeed, it was not until the International Tournament of 1851, held at the Crystal Palace of the London Exhibition, that tournament play entered the chess scene."
  5. ^ Eales, Richard (2002) [1985]. Chess, The History of a Game. Harding Simpole. ISBN 0-9513757-3-3. 
  6. ^ Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess (second ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-19-866164-9. 
  7. ^ Fine, Reuben (1983). The World's Great Chess Games (second ed.). Dover Publications. pp. 14–15. ISBN 0-486-24512-8. 
  8. ^ Sunnucks, Anne (1970). The Encyclopaedia of Chess. Hale. ISBN 0-7091-1030-8. 
  9. ^ Kenneth Whyld (1986). Guinness Chess, The Records. Guinness Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-85112-455-0. 
  10. ^ Litmanowicz, Władysław & Giżycki, Jerzy (1986, 1987). Szachy od A do Z. Wydawnictwo Sport i Turystyka Warszawa. ISBN 83-217-2481-7. 
  11. ^ a b A History of chess Retrieved August 31, 2008
  12. ^ a b c Brace, Edward R. (1977). An Illustrated Dictionary of Chess. Hamlyn Publishing Group. p. 64. ISBN 1-55521-394-4. 
  13. ^ FIDE History by Bill Wall. Retrieved 2 November 2008.
  14. ^ Greenblatt, Richard D., Eastlake, Donald E. III, and Crocker, Stephen D. (1 April 1969). "The Greenblatt Chess Program (AIM-174)". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2006-12-27. 
  15. ^ Results of the WMCCC and WCCC from the ICGA Retrieved November 9, 2008
  16. ^ Е.Я. Гик (1983). Шахматы и математика. Наука, Москва.  (in Russian)
  17. ^ FIDE handbook Retrieved August 31, 2008
  18. ^ FIDE chess notation rules Retrieved September 27, 2008
  19. ^ A player is not at any time required to stop the chess clocks when claiming a draw.
  20. ^ a b Just, Tim; Burg, Daniel B. (2003). U.S. Chess Federation's Official Rules of Chess (fifth ed.). McKay. ISBN 0-8129-3559-4. 
  21. ^ *Schiller, Eric (2003). Official Rules of Chess (second ed.). Cardoza. ISBN 978-1-58042-092-1. 
  22. ^ Chess tournament bye types Retrieved September 27, 2008
  23. ^ Gijssen, Geurt (2003-01-13). "An Arbiter's Notebook: Unusual Events or Are There Still Normal Games?". The Chess Cafe. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  24. ^ Firsts in Chess by Bill Wall Retrieved August 29, 2009
  25. ^ Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess (second ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 345. ISBN 0-19-866164-9. 
  26. ^ Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess (second ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-19-866164-9. 
  27. ^ See details in: Chess rating system.
  28. ^ Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess (second ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 356. ISBN 0-19-866164-9. 
  29. ^ Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1992). The Oxford Companion to Chess (second ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 404. ISBN 0-19-866164-9. 
  30. ^ a b Just, Tim; Burg, Daniel (2003). U.S. Chess Federation's Official Rules of Chess. McKay. pp. 130–31. ISBN 0-8129-3559-4. 
  31. ^ Howard Staunton. The Chess Tournament. Hardinge Simpole. ISBN 1-84382-089-7.  This can be viewed online at or downloaded as PDF from Staunton, Howard (1852). Google books: The Chess Tournament, by Howard Staunton. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  32. ^ Elimination tournament at thefreedictionary.com Retrieved November 2, 2008
  33. ^ Definition of elimination tournament from onlinedictionary.com Retrieved November 2, 2008
  34. ^ Single and double elimination tournaments from britannica.com Retrieved November 2, 2008
  35. ^ XIII Olympiad for Blind or Visually Impaired Players Retrieved August 29, 2009
  36. ^ Blind chess player to compete at the World Individual Championships Retrieved August 29, 2008
  37. ^ FIDE Handbook: E.II. Handicapped Players Retrieved August 29, 2009
  38. ^ "Linares R7: Kasparov leads at half-time". ChessBase.com. 2005-02-03. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  39. ^ "Chess records: Tournament records". Chessdom. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  40. ^ a b Duif's Guide to Time Controls Retrieved January 25, 2009
  41. ^ "FIDE Handbook – E.I. Laws of Chess - For competitions starting on or after 1 July 2014 - Appendices". World Chess Federation. Retrieved 2014-07-27. "A.1 A ‘Rapidplay’ game is one where either all the moves must be completed in a fixed time of more than 10 minutes but less than 60 minutes for each player; or the time allotted plus 60 times any increment is of more than 10 minutes but less than 60 minutes for each player. [...] B.1 A ‘blitz’ game’ is one where all the moves must be completed in a fixed time of 10 minutes or less for each player; or the allotted time plus 60 times any increment is 10 minutes or less." 
  42. ^ a b Chess Standard Time Controls at Britannica.com Retrieved January 24, 2009
  43. ^ a b Bird, Chris (2009-04-23). "Chess Clocks ... Understanding Time". MonRoi.com. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  44. ^ 2008 World Open chess tournament prizes Retrieved January 24, 2008
  45. ^ History of the World Chess Championship from ChessGames.com - Retrieved January 24, 2008
  46. ^ 2009 Queenstown Chess Classic tournament overview Retrieved January 24, 2008

External links[edit]