Chettiar

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Chettiar or Chetty
Total population
14% population of Tamil Nadu[1]
Regions with significant populations
Madurai, Sivagangai, Salem, Pudukkottai, Theni, Coimbatore, Krishnagiri, Dharmapuri, Chennai, Tiruvannamalai, Thiruppur, Trichy, Vellore, Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Karur, Namakkal, Dindigul Districts, Aruppukkottai, Paramakudi
Languages
Tamil, Telugu, Kannada
Religion
Hinduism

The term Chettiar or Chetty is a title used by various mercantile castes in South India, especially in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. In Tamil Nadu, 14% of the population is Chettiar.[2]

History[edit]

Time was when one-third of all rice fields in Myanmar (then Burma) belonged to them. From salt trading centuries ago to long-distance merchant banking for European traders in the early 19th century, this small enterprising tribe fired the economies of Burma, Malaysia, Singapore and Ceylon. The Chettiar claim a legendary relationship with the Hindu god Murugan (also called Subramaniam).[3]

Social status[edit]

Chettiar communities claim the Vaishya (merchant) varna within Hindu society.[4] The Nattukottai Chettiar are elite bankers.[5] The Chettiars are considered to be among the pioneers of organised banking in the country. They are also credited with introducing the concept of double entry bookkeeping, 'Pattru Varavu' in Tamil, commonly known as debit and credit[citation needed]. This community from the south of Tamil Nadu has left a silent signature on everything from manufacturing to banking, fertiliser and films.[6]

Notable people[edit]

A. V. Meyappan (Film Producer, Founder, AVM Studios, Chennai); Kannadasan (Poet and Lyricyst);

INDUSTRIALIST/BUSINESS: S. Rm. Muttiah Chettiar (Industrialist); S. Rm. M. Chidambaram Chettiar S. Rm. M. Ramasamy Chattier (Founder Indian Bank) S. Rm. M. Raja Sir Annamalai Chettiar, Raja of Chettinad (Founder of Annamalai University)

Raja Sir M. A. Muthiah Chettiar, Raja of Chettinad (First Mayor of Madras) M. A. Chidambaram Chettiar, (Former Chairman SPIC Group of Companies) Karumutu Tyagaraja Chettiar (Founder Bank of Madura, Tyagaraja Mills and Educational Institutions, Madurai)

Kumararaja M. A. M. Muthiah Chettiar Kumararani Dr. Meena Muthiah Dr. M. A. M. Ramasamy (Chairman Chettinad Cements and Group of Companies) Diwan Bahadur C. V. Ct. Venkatachalam Chettiar S. Rm. M. Ct. Muthia (Founder, Indian Ovesees Bank) A. M. Murugappa Chettiar (Murugappa Group of Companies) M. V. Arunachalam (Former Chairman, Murugappa Group of Companies) M. V. Murugappan (Former Chairman, Murugappa Group of Companies) M. V. Subbiah (Former Chairman, Murugappa Group of Companies) M. A. Alagappan (Former Chairman, Murugappa Group of Companies) P. Lakshmanan (Former Managing Director, Sree Karpagambal Mills Ltd.)


R.K. Shanmukham Chetty (Independent India's first finance minister)

P. Chidambaram (Former finance minister of India)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Christine Dobson, Asian Entrepreneurial Minorities, Curzon Press UK, 1996. (A chapter in the book is devoted to the Chettiars who set up businesses in Burma.)
  • Rajeswary Brown (1993) "Chettiar capital and Southeast Asian credit networks in the inter-war period". In G. Austin and K. Sugihara, eds. Local Suppliers of Credit in the Third World, 1750-1960. (New York: St. Martin's Press).
  • Kudaisya, Medha M. (2009). "Marwari and Chettiar Merchants. 1850s-1950s: Comparative Trajectories". In Kudaisya, Medha M.; Ng, Chin-Keong. Chinese and Indian Business: Historical Antecedents. Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 9789004172791. 
  • David Rudner (1989) Banker's Trust and the Culture of Banking among the Nattukottai Chettiars of Colonial South India. Modern Asian Studies 23 (3), 417-458.
  • Heiko Schrader (1996) Chettiar Finance in Colonial Asia. Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie 121, 101-126.

External links[edit]