Chevilly-Larue was originally called simply Chevilly. The name Chevilly was recorded for the first time in 829 (in a donation by Eucade, bishop of Paris) as Civiliacum, probably meaning "estate of Civilis", a Gallo-Roman landowner.
On 5 September 1921 the name of the commune officially became Chevilly-Larue in order to distinguish it from the homonymous commune of Chevilly in the Loiretdépartement. Larue was a hamlet located within the commune. Founded at the end of the Hundred Years' War along the small road from L'Haÿ-les-Roses to Fresnes, it was originally called La Ruelle (meaning "the lane", the "alleyway"), later corrupted into La Rue and eventually Larue.
Chevilly-Larue is served by no station of the Paris Métro, RER, or suburban rail network. The closest station to Chevilly-Larue is Villejuif – Louis Aragon station on Métro line. This station is located in the neighboring commune of Villejuif, 2.3 km (1.4 mi) from the town center of Chevilly-Larue.