Chevrolet S-10 EV
|Chevrolet S-10 Electric|
|Also called||S-10 Electric, S-10E, S-10EV, E10, and E14|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Compact pickup truck|
|Layout||Front-engine, front-wheel drive|
|Related||GM EV1, Chevy S-10, Solectria S-10, Ford Ranger EV|
|Engine||85 kW AC|
|Transmission||none, direct drive|
The Chevrolet S-10 Electric was an American electric-powered vehicle built by the Chevrolet Division of General Motors. It was introduced in 1997, updated in 1998, and then discontinued. It was an OEM BEV variant of Chevrolet's S-10 pickup truck which was solely powered by electricity, and was marketed primarily to utility fleet customers.
General Motors started with a regular-cab, short-box (6' bed) S-10 pickup, with a base level trim package plus a half tonneau cover. In place of a typical inline four cylinder or V-6 internal combustion engine, the Electric S-10 EV was equipped with an 85 kW (114 horsepower) three-phase, liquid-cooled AC induction motor, based on GM's EV1 electric coupe. The EV1 had a 100 kW motor; GM reduced the S-10EV's motor because of the additional weight and drag of the truck so as not to overstress the batteries.
Other than the reduced motor size, most of the EV1 power electronics were carried over directly to the S-10 EV, which mandated that the Electric S-10 use a front-wheel-drive configuration, unlike the rear-wheel-drive setup of the standard S-10, and in the competing Ford Ranger EV.
Similar to the Gen 1 EV1's setup, the 1997 Chevrolet S-10 EV used a lead acid battery pack. Manufactured by Delco Electronics, the 1,400 lb (635 kg) pack consisted of 27 batteries, with one being designated as an "auxiliary" cell. These reportedly offered 16.2 kilowatt-hours for propulsion. In 1998, an Ovonic nickel–metal hydride battery (NiMH) pack was also available; these batteries were lighter (1,043 lb (473 kg)) and had a combined 29 kilowatt-hours of storage for a longer range. NiMH also has longer life but costs more than the lead acid option. The battery pack was located between the frame rails, beneath the pickup bed. On all battery types, a passive battery monitoring and management system is used; this means that excess energy is wasted from cells with a higher charge, while the remainder of the cells reach the same state of charge.
The S-10 EV charges using the Magne Charger, produced by the General Motors subsidiary Delco Electronics. The inductive charging paddle is the model J1773 or the 'large' paddle. The small paddle can also be used with an adapter to properly seat it. The standard charger is a 220 V 30 A (6.6 kW); there is also a 110 V 15 A 'convenience' charger, and a high-power fast-charge version. The vehicle's charging port is accessed by flipping the front license plate frame downwards. The system is designed to be safe even when used in the rain.
- charger demonstration movie underwater
Depending on the load and driving conditions the range can vary greatly: For the 1997 model with lead-acid battery pack, city range was 45.5 miles (73.2 km); the mixed city/highway range was 47 miles (76 km); the highway range was 60 miles (97 km) if operating constantly at 45 mph (72 km/h) or less. The acceleration time (0 to 50 mph) was listed as 13.5 seconds (at 50 percent battery charge - the published literature stated that acceleration time was "even less" when the truck had a full charge).
The performance is much better for the 1998 with the nickel–metal hydride battery, at ~90 miles range and an acceleration time of 10.9 seconds at 50% charge.
- 1998 GM S10 EV lead: 45 kW·h/100 miles (city driving), and 41 kW·h/100 miles (highway driving, with maximum speed 45 mph or less).
- 1998 GM S10 EV NiMh: 94 kW·h/100 miles (city driving), and 86 kW·h/100 miles (highway driving, with maximum speed 45 mph or less).
(Source: Model Year 1999 EPA Fuel Economy Guide)
While the standard S-10 moved to a redesigned front fascia in 1998, the S-10 Electric kept the same front fascia as the '94-'97, with the exception of composite headlamps in 1998 versus the previous year's sealed-beam headlamps. The interior was also updated in 1998 along with internal combustion models, adding a passenger side airbag. Aside from this header panel, a unique lower bumper valance, and a stylized 'Electric' decal on the bottom of the doors, there is little difference externally between the appearance of an Electric and a stock S-10. Any changes, however minimal, were reported to have had a positive influence on reducing the truck's aerodynamic resistance. These changes included a closed grille and a front air skirt, belly pans beneath the front suspension, a seal between the cab and the pickup bed, and a half-length tonneau cover over the rear of the pickup bed.
Internally, the instrument cluster was exclusive to the Electric S-10, and featured only four gauges - a speedometer, a large "charge" gauge which reads from 'E' to 'F' like a fuel gauge, a voltmeter ranging from 220 to 440 volts, and a "power use" meter, which acts as an ammeter of sorts showing discharge during acceleration and charge during regenerative braking. The LCD display for the shifter was shortened to display only park, neutral, reverse, and drive, since the S-10 EV does not have the usual transmission.
Although the S-10 EV was developed from a "base" trim package, the Electric S-10 still came standard with dual airbags in 1998, a heat-pump for both air conditioning and heating, power four-wheel ABS brakes, regenerative braking, power steering, AM/FM radio, and daytime running lamps, among other items. For colder climates, a fuel-fired heater was standard, which runs on diesel fuel from a 1.7 gallon (6.4 L) tank. The heater will operate when ambient temperature falls below 37°F (3°C).
Because battery performance varies greatly with temperature, the heat-pump supplies cooling to the batteries during charging when necessary. Passive air recirculation is used during the driving cycle to equalize variations in battery temperature. The heat-pump can be activated during the driving cycle under extreme battery over-temperature conditions >150F, typically as a result of extreme battery discharge.
Unlike the EV1, of the 492 S-10EVs assembled about 60 were sold to fleet customers, rather than just leased through restrictive programs, mostly due to the prior Department of Transportation crash-worthiness evaluations done on stock S-10 pickups. As a result, a few Electric S-10's can still be found in use today. The fleet life of many of these ended in 2007 and 2008. The vehicles (around 440) that were not sold were eventually scrapped, similar to the fate of their EV1 siblings.
In 2004 GM converted an S-10 EV to rear-wheel drive, using prototype in-wheel electric motors instead of an under-hood motor.
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Idaho National Laboratory operated for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology: