||This article's introduction section may not adequately summarize its contents. (March 2013)|
Logo used since 2006.
|Traded as||NYSE: CVX
Dow Jones Industrial Average Component
S&P 500 Component
|Industry||Oil and gas|
|Predecessor(s)||Standard Oil of California
|Headquarters||San Ramon, California, U.S.|
|Key people||John S. Watson (Chairman & CEO)|
|Products||Petroleum, natural gas and other petrochemicals, See Chevron products|
|Revenue||US$ 241.909 billion (2012)|
|Operating income||US$ 46.332 billion (2012)|
|Net income||US$ 26.179 billion (2012)|
|Total assets||US$ 232.982 billion (2012)|
|Total equity||US$ 137.832 billion (2012)|
|Employees||62,000 (Dec 2012)|
Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX Euronext: CHTEX) is an American multinational energy corporation. Headquartered in San Ramon, California, and active in more than 180 countries, it is engaged in every aspect of the oil, gas, and geothermal energy industries, including exploration and production; refining, marketing and transport; chemicals manufacturing and sales; and power generation. Chevron is one of the world's six "supermajor" oil companies; as of 2013[update], it ranked eleventh in the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies.
- 1 History
- 2 Operations
- 3 Corporate affairs
- 4 Controversies
- 4.1 Great American streetcar scandal
- 4.2 Tax evasion
- 4.3 Environmental damage in Ecuador
- 4.4 Pollution in Richmond, California
- 4.5 Oil spills in Angola
- 4.6 Violation of the Clean Air Act in the USA
- 4.7 NiMH battery technology for automobiles
- 4.8 Niger Delta shootings
- 4.9 UN sanctions
- 4.10 2012 fire at Richmond, California refinery
- 4.11 Oil spill off the coast of Rio de Janeiro
- 4.12 KS Endeavor explosion
- 4.13 Destruction of natural forest in Bangladesh
- 4.14 Polish gas exploration
- 4.15 Romanian gas exploration
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
One of Chevron's early predecessors, Star Oil, was founded after it discovered oil at the Pico Canyon north of Los Angeles in 1876. According to geophysicist Marius Vassiliou, the 25 bpd well was considered the beginning of the oil industry in California and the start of Newhall field. Energy analyst Antonia Juhasz has said that while Star Oil's founders were influential in establishing an oil industry in California, Union Matolle Company discovered oil in the state eleven years prior. In September 1879, Charles N. Felton, Lloyd Tevis, George Loomis and others created the Pacific Coast Oil Company, which acquired the assets of Star Oil with $1 million in funding. Pacific Coast Oil became the largest oil interest in California, by time it was acquired by Standard Oil for $761,000 in 1900. Pacific Coast operated independently and retained its name until 1906, when it was merged with a Standard Oil subsidiary and it became Standard Oil Company (California) or California Standard.
Another predecessor, Texas Fuel Company, was founded in Beaumont, Texas in 1901 by "Buckskin Joe" as an oil equipment vendor. The founder's nickname came from being harsh and aggressive. Texas Fuel worked closely with Chevron. It began oil mining operations in 1936, when it formed a join venture called Caltex with Chevron to mine oil in Saudi Arabia. According to energy analyst and activist shareholder Antonia Juhasz, The Texas Fuel Company and Chevron were often referred to as the "terrible twins" for their cutthroat business practices. The Texas Fuel Company was renamed as the Texas Company and later Texaco.
Formation of the Chevron name
In 1911, Standard Oil Co. (California) was severed from its parent corporation, Standard Oil, as a result of the federal government's successful lawsuit against Standard Oil under the Sherman Antitrust Act. It went on to become part of the "Seven Sisters", which dominated the world oil industry in the early 20th century. In 1926, the company changed its name to Standard Oil Co. of California (SOCAL). The Chevron name came into use for some of its retail products in the 1930s. The name Calso was also used from 1946 to 1955 in states outside its native West Coast territory.[better source needed]
In 1933, Saudi Arabia granted SoCal a concession to find oil, which led to the discovery of oil in 1938. In 1948, SoCal discovered the world's largest oil field (Ghawar) in Saudi Arabia. SoCal's subsidiary, California-Arabian Standard Oil Company, grew over the years and became the Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) in 1944. In 1973, the Saudi government began buying into ARAMCO. By 1980, the company was entirely owned by the Saudis, and in 1988, its name was changed to Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco).
Standard Oil of California and Gulf Oil merged in 1984, which was the largest merger in history at that time. To comply with U.S. antitrust law, SoCal divested many of Gulf's operating subsidiaries, and sold some Gulf stations and a refinery in the eastern United States. (The refinery is currently owned by Sunoco.) Among the assets sold off were Gulf's retail outlets in Gulf's home market of Pittsburgh, where Chevron lacks a retail presence but does retain a regional headquarters there as of 2013, partially for Marcellus Shale-related drilling. The same year, SoCal also took the opportunity to change its legal name to Chevron Corporation, since it had already been using the well-known "Chevron" retail brand name for decades. Chevron would sell the Gulf Oil trademarks for the entire U.S. to Cumberland Farms, the parent company of Gulf Oil LP, in 2010 after Cumberland Farms had a license to the Gulf trademark in the Northeastern United States since 1986.
In 1996 Chevron transferred its natural gas gathering, operating and marketing operation to NGC Corporation (later Dynegy) in exchange for a roughly 25% equity stake in NGC. In a merger completed February 1, 2000, Illinova Corp. became a wholly owned subsidiary of Dynegy Inc. and Chevron's stake increased up to 28%. However, in May 2007 Chevron sold its stake in the company for approximately $985 million, resulting in a gain of $680 million.
On October 15, 2000, Chevron announced acquisition of Texaco in a deal valued at $45 billion, creating the second-largest oil company in the United States and the world's fourth-largest publicly traded oil company with a combined market value of approximately $95 billion. The merged company was named ChevronTexaco. On May 9, 2005, ChevronTexaco announced it would drop the Texaco moniker and return to the Chevron name. Texaco remained as a brand under the Chevron Corporation.
On October 10, 2001, Texaco purchased General Motors' share in GM Ovonics, which in 2003, was restructured into Cobasys, a 50/50 joint venture between Chevron and Energy Conversion Devices Ovonics. In 2009, both Chevron and Energy Conservation Devices sold their stakes in Cobasys to SB LiMotive Co.
In 2005, Chevron purchased Unocal Corporation for $18.4 billion, increasing the company's petroleum and natural gas reserves by about 15%. Because of Unocal's large South East Asian geothermal operations, Chevron became the world's largest producer of geothermal energy.
Chevron and the Los Alamos National Laboratory started a cooperation in 2006 to improve the recovery of hydrocarbons from oil shale by developing a shale oil extraction process named Chevron CRUSH. In 2006, the United States Department of the Interior issued a research, development and demonstration lease for Chevron's demonstration oil shale project on public lands in Colorado's Piceance Basin. In February 2012, Chevron notified the Bureau of Land Management and the Department of Reclamation, Mining and Safety that it intends to divest this lease.
In July 2011, Chevron ended retail operations in the Mid-Atlantic United States, removing the Chevron and Texaco names from 1,100 stations. In 2011, Chevron acquired Pennsylvania based Atlas Energy Inc. for $3.2 billion in cash and an additional $1.1 billion in existing debt owed by Atlas. Three months later, Chevron acquired drilling and development rights for another 228,000 acres in the Marcellus Shale from Chief Oil & Gas LLC and Tug Hill, Inc.
Chevron employs approximately 62,000 people (of which approximately 31,000 are employed in U.S. operations).
Chevron's oil and gas exploration and production operations are primarily in the US, Australia, Nigeria, Angola, Kazakhstan, and the Gulf of Mexico. As of December 31, 2010, the company had 10.545 billion barrels (1.6765 billion cubic metres) of oil-equivalent net proved reserves. Daily production in 2010 was 2.763 million barrels per day (439.3 thousand cubic metres per day).
In the United States, the company operates approximately 11,000 oil and natural gas wells in hundreds of fields occupying 4,000,000 acres (16,000 km2) across the Permian Basin, located in West Texas and southeastern New Mexico. In 2010, Chevron was the fourth largest producer in the region. In February 2011, Chevron celebrated the production of its 5 billionth barrel of Permian Basin oil. The Gulf of Mexico is where the company's deepest offshore drilling takes place at Tahiti and Blind Faith. It also explores and drills the Marcellus Shale formation under several North Eastern US states.
Chevron's largest single resource project is the $43 billion Gorgon Gas Project in Australia. It also produces natural gas from West Australia. The $43 billion project was started in 2010 and is expected to be brought online in 2014. The project includes construction of a 15 million tonne per annum liquefied natural gas plant on Barrow Island, and a domestic gas plant with the capacity to provide 300 terajoules per day to supply gas to Western Australia. It also develops the Wheatstone liquefied natural gas development in West Australia. The foundation phase of the project is estimated to cost $29 billion; it will consist of two LNG processing trains with a combined capacity of 8.9 million tons per annum, a domestic gas plant and associated offshore infrastructure.
In the onshore and near-offshore regions of the Niger Delta, Chevron operates under a joint venture with the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, operating and holding a 40% interest in 13 concessions in the region. In addition, Chevron operates the Escravos Gas Plant and the Escravos gas-to-liquids plant.
Chevron has interests in four concessions in Angola, including offshore two concessions in Cabinda province, the Tombua–Landana development and the Mafumeira Norte project, operated by the company. It is also a leading partner in Angola LNG plant.
In Kazakhstan, Chevron participate the Tengiz and Karachaganak projects. In 2010, Chevron became the largest private shareholder in the Caspian Pipeline Consortium pipeline, which transports oil from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea.
As of 2013 the Rosebank oil and gas field west of Shetland was being evaluated by Chevron and its partners. Chevron drilled its discovery well there in 2004. Production is expected in 2015 if a decision is made to produce from the field. The geology and weather conditions are challenging.
Chevron's downstream operations manufacture and sell products such as fuels, lubricants, additives and petrochemicals. The company's most significant areas of operations are the west coast of North America, the U.S. Gulf Coast, Southeast Asia, South Korea, Australia and South Africa. In 2010, Chevron sold in average 3.1 million barrels per day (490×103 m3/d)of refined products like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The company operates approximately 19,550 retail sites in 84 countries. The company also has interests in 13 power generating assets in the United States and Asia and has gas stations in Western Canada. Chevron is the owner of the Standard Oil trademark in 16 states in the western and southeastern U.S. To maintain ownership of the mark, the company owns and operates one Standard-branded Chevron station in each state of the area. Additionally, Chevron owns the trademark rights to Texaco and Caltex fuel and lubricant products.
In 2010, Chevron processed 1.9 million barrels per day (300×103 m3/d) of crude oil. It owns and operates five active refineries in the United States, one in Cape Town, South Africa, and one in Burnaby, British Columbia. Chevron is the non-operating partner in seven joint venture refineries, located in Australia, Pakistan, Singapore, Thailand, South Korea, and New Zealand. Chevron's United States refineries are located in Gulf and Western states. Chevron also owns an asphalt refinery in Perth Amboy, New Jersey; however, since early 2008 that refinery has primarily operated as a terminal.
Chevron's chemicals business includes 50% ownership in the Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, which manufactures petrochemicals, and the Chevron Oronite Company, which develops, manufactures and sells fuel and lubricant additives.
Chevron Shipping Company, a wholly owned subsidiary, provides the maritime transport operations, marine consulting services and marine risk management services for Chevron Corporation. Chevron ships historically had names beginning with "Chevron", such as Chevron Washington and Chevron South America, or were named after former or serving directors of the company. Samuel Ginn, William E. Crain, Kenneth Derr, Richard Matzke and most notably Condoleezza Rice were among those honored, but the ship named after Rice was subsequently renamed as Altair Voyager.
The Chevron's alternative energy operations include geothermal, solar, wind, biofuel, fuel cells, and hydrogen. In 2011–2013, the company plans to spend at least $2 billion on research and acquisition of renewable power ventures.
Chevron has claimed to be the world's largest producer of geothermal energy. The company's geothermal operations are primarily located in Southeast Asia, where 1,273 MW of power generation facilities are installed.[not in citation given][not in citation given][not in citation given]
Chevron operates geothermal wells in Indonesia providing power to Jakarta and the surrounding area, and plans to potentially open a 200 MW geothermal facility in South Sumatra. In the Philippines, Chevron also operates geothermal wells at Tiwi field in Albay province, the Makiling-Banahaw field in Laguna and Quezon provinces.
In 2007, Chevron and the United States Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) started collaboration to develop and produce algae fuel, which could be converted into transportation fuels, such as jet fuel. In 2008, Chevron and Weyerhaeuser created Catchlight Energy LLC, which researches the conversion of cellulose-based biomass into biofuels. In 2013, the Catchlight plan was downsized due to competition with fossil fuel projects for funds.
Between 2006 and 2011 Chevron contributed up to $12 million to a strategic research alliance with the Georgia Institute of Technology to develop cellulosic biofuels and to create a process to convert biomass like wood or switchgrass into fuels. Additionally, Chevron holds a 22% stake in Galveston Bay Biodiesel LP, which produces up to 110 million US gallons (420,000 m3) of renewable biodiesel fuel a year.
In 2010, the Chevron announced a 740 kW photovoltaic demonstration project in Bakersfield, California, called Project Brightfield, for exploring possibilities to use solar power for powering Chevron's facilities. It consists of technologies from seven companies, which Chevron is evaluating for large-scale use. In Fellows, California, Chevron has invested in the 500 kW Solarmine photovoltaic solar project, which supplies daytime power to the Midway-Sunset Oil Field. In Questa, Chevron has built a 1 MW concentrated photovoltaic plant that comprises 173 solar arrays, which use Fresnel lenses. In October 2011, Chevron launched a 29-MW thermal solar-to-steam facility in the Coalinga Field to produce the steam for enhanced oil recovery. The project is the largest of its kind in the world.
For the fiscal year 2011, Chevron reported earnings of US$ 26.9 billion, with an annual revenue of US$ 257.3 billion, an increase of 23.3% over the previous fiscal cycle. Chevron's shares traded at over $105 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$ 240 billion.
Chevron's corporate headquarters are located in a 92-acre campus in San Ramon, California. The company moved there from its earlier headquarters at 555 Market Street in San Francisco, California, where it was located since its inception in 1879. Chevron also operates from office towers in Houston, Texas, where it leased the 1500 Louisiana Street and 1400 Smith Street from former Texas energy giant Enron. Chevron is also planning a new office tower in downtown Houston next to its existing properties at 1600 Louisiana Street. The building will stand 50-stories and 832 feet. Upon completion, it'll be the fourth tallest building in Houston and the first 50-story building constructed there in nearly 30 years.
|This section requires expansion. (July 2013)|
Since January 2011 Chevron has contributed almost $15 million on Washington lobbying. On October 7, 2012 Chevron donated $2.5 million to the Republican Congressional Leadership Fund super PAC that is closely tied to House Speaker John Boehner.
Board of directors
Condoleezza Rice is a former member of the board of directors, and also headed Chevron's committee on public policy until she resigned on January 15, 2001, to become National Security Advisor to President George W. Bush.
On September 30, 2009, John Watson, age 52, was elected Chairman of the Board and CEO, effective at the December 31, 2009 retirement of David J. O'Reilly.
Great American streetcar scandal
In 1950, then "Standard Oil" along with General Motors and Firestone were charged and convicted of criminal conspiracy for their part in the Great American streetcar scandal. The scandal included purchasing streetcar systems throughout the United States and dismantling and replacing them with buses, in order to increase their sales of petroleum, automobiles and tires.
Chevron was found to have evaded $3.25 billion in federal and state taxes from 1970 to 2000 through a complex petroleum pricing scheme involving a project in Indonesia.  Chevron and Texaco, before they merged in 2001, each owned 50 percent of a joint venture called Caltex, which pulled crude oil from the ground in a project with the Indonesian state oil company, Pertamina. Chevron was accused of reducing its tax liabilities in the U.S. by buying oil from Caltex at inflated prices. One internal Chevron document set the price it paid Pertamina for oil at $4.55 a barrel higher than the prevailing market price. Chevron was then able to overstate deductions for costs on its U.S. income tax returns. Indonesia appeared to levy tax on this oil at 56%, a rate far higher than the corporate tax rate in the U.S. Because the United States gives companies a credit for taxes paid to foreign governments, tax paid to the Indonesian government reduces tax to the U.S. government.
Environmental damage in Ecuador
Texaco and Gulf Oil began operating in the Oriente region of Ecuador in 1964 as a consortium. Texaco operated the Lago Agrio oil field from 1972 to 1993 and the Ecuador state oil company continued to operate the same oil fields after Texaco left. In 1993 Texaco was found responsible for dumping billions of gallons of toxic waste and they spent $40m cleaning up the area during the 1990s. In 1998 the Ecuadorean government signed an agreement with Texaco accepting the clean-up as complete and absolving Texaco of any further responsibility. In 1998 an Ecuadorean scientific team took water and soil samples after Texaco left and found petroleum hydrocarbons at unsafe levels in almost half. The clean up was called "a sham" by critics.
In 2003 a class action lawsuit against Chevron was filed in Ecuadorian court for $28 billion by indigenous residents, who accused Texaco of making residents ill and damaging forests and rivers by discharging 18 billion US gallons (68,000,000 m3) of formation water into the Amazon rainforest without any environmental remediation. Chevron claimed that the 1998 agreements with the Ecuadorian Government exempted the company from any liabilities.
In 2011, Ecuadorian residents were awarded $8.6 billion, based on claims of loss of crops and farm animals as well as increased local cancer rates. The plaintiffs said this would not be enough to make up for the damage caused by the oil company. The award was later revised to $19 billion on appeals, which was then appealed again to the Ecuadorean National Court of Justice. The action is considered the first time that indigenous people have successfully sued a multinational corporation in the country where the pollution took place.
Chevron described the lawsuit as an "extortion scheme" and refused to pay the fine. Since Chevron Corporation has no substantive assets in Ecuador, plaintiffs filed actions to enforce the judgment against Chevron Corporation subsidiaries in Brazil, Argentina and Canada. In February 2013, a three-person tribunal, acting under The Hague's Permanent Court of Arbitration, said the Ecuador government should have stopped plaintiffs in the case from going to courts in Brazil, Argentina and Canada to try to collect the judgment handed down by an Ecuadorean court in 2011. A spokesperson for the plaintiffs said the "courts hearing enforcement actions would likely pay little attention to the tribunal since it was not binding on the rain-forest communities". In May 2013, Justice David Brown of the Ontario Superior Court stayed the action, but ruled that the Canadian courts have no jurisdiction to enforce the award ruled by an Ecuadorian court. In June 2013, Argentina's Supreme Court revoked an embargo on the assets and future income of Chevron's Argentina subsidiary.
In September 2013, The Hague arbitration panel ruled in favor of Chevron finding that an agreement signed in 1995 by the government of Ecuador released Texaco Corporation from financial responsibility from any claims of “collective damage.” However, the panel left open the possibility that Chevron could still be liable for damages incurred by individuals.
Pollution in Richmond, California
Chevron’s activities at its century-old Richmond refinery have been the subject of ongoing controversy. The project generated over 11 million pounds of toxic materials and caused more than 304 accidents. The Richmond refinery paid $540,000 in 1998 for illegally bypassing waste water treatments and failing to notify the public about toxic releases. Overall, Chevron is listed as potentially liable for 95 Superfund sites, with funds set aside by the EPA for clean-up.
Oil spills in Angola
Chevron's operations in Africa have also been criticized as environmentally unsound. In 2002, Angola became the first country in Africa ever to levy a fine on a major multinational corporation operating within its borders, when it demanded $2 million in compensation for oil spills allegedly caused by Chevron.
Violation of the Clean Air Act in the USA
On October 16, 2003, Chevron U.S.A. settled a charge under the Clean Air Act, which reduced harmful air emissions by about 10,000 tons a year. In San Francisco, Chevron was filed by a consent decree to spend almost $275 million to install and utilize innovative technology to reduce nitrogen and sulfur dioxide emissions at its refineries. In 2000, after violating the Clean Air Act at an offline loading terminal in El Segundo, California, Chevron paid, a $6 million penalty as well as $1 million for environmental improvement projects. Chevron also had implemented programs that minimized production of hazardous gases, upgraded leak detection and repair procedure, reduced emissions from sulfur recovery plants, and adopted strategies to ensure the proper handling of harmful benzene wastes at refineries. Chevron also spent about $500,000 to install leakless valves and double-sealed pumps at its El Segundo refinery, which could prevent significant emissions of air contaminants.
NiMH battery technology for automobiles
Chevron was accused to be limiting access to large NiMH batteries through its stake in Cobasys corporation and control of patent licenses in order to remove a competitor to gasoline. This culminated in a lawsuit against Panasonic and Toyota over production of the EV-95 battery used in the RAV4 EV. Chevron's influence over Cobasys extends beyond a strict 50/50 joint venture as it held a 19.99% interest in ECD Ovonics. In her book, Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that Will Recharge America, published in February 2007, Sherry Boschert argues that large-format NiMH batteries are commercially viable but that Cobasys refuses to sell the batteries or license the technology to small companies or individuals. Boschert argues that Cobasys accepts only very large orders for the batteries. Major automakers showed little interest in placing large orders for large-format NiMH batteries. However, Toyota complained about the difficulty in getting smaller orders of large format NiMH batteries to service the existing 825 RAV-4EVs. Because no other companies were willing to place large orders, Cobasys was not manufacturing or licensing large format NiMH battery technology for automobiles. Boschert concludes that "it's possible that Cobasys (Chevron) is squelching all access to large NiMH batteries through its control of patent licenses in order to remove a competitor to gasoline. Or it's possible that Cobasys simply wants the market for itself and is waiting for a major automaker to start producing plug-in hybrids or electric vehicles." In an interview with The Economist, the ECD Ovonics founder Stan Ovshinsky subscribed to the former view. "I think we at ECD we made a mistake of having a joint venture with an oil company, frankly speaking. And I think it's not a good idea to go into business with somebody whose strategies would put you out of business, rather than building the business."
In addition, Chevron maintained the right to seize all of Cobasys' intellectual property rights if ECD Ovonics does not fulfill its contractual obligations. On September 10, 2007, Chevron filed a legal claim that ECD Ovonics has not fulfilled its obligations. ECD Ovonics disputes this claim.
In October 2007, International Acquisitions Services and Innovative Transportation Systems filed suit against Cobasys and its parents for refusing to fill an order for large-format NiMH batteries to be used in the electric Innovan. In August 2008, Mercedes-Benz U.S. International filed suit against Cobasys, on the ground Cobasys did not tender the batteries it agreed to build for Mercedes-Benz's planned hybrid SUV.
Niger Delta shootings
On May 28, 1998, activists staged a demonstration and took several individuals hostage on a company oil platform in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Nigerian police and soldiers were allegedly flown in with Chevron helicopters. Soldiers shot at the activists and subsequently two activists (Jola Ogungbeje and Aroleka Irowaninu) died from their wounds. In 2007 U.S. District Judge Susan Illston, allowed a lawsuit brought by victims and victims' families against Chevron to proceed, saying that there may be evidence that Chevron had hired, supervised, and/or provided transportation to Nigerian military forces known for their "general history of committing abuses." In December 2008, a federal jury cleared Chevron of all charges brought against them in the case. Chevron had claimed that the military intervention was necessary to protect the lives of its workers and considers the jury's decision vindication for the accusations of wrongdoing.
2012 fire at Richmond, California refinery
On August 6, 2012, a large fire erupted at a Chevron refinery in Richmond, California. Flames were seen issuing from at least two of the refinery's towers. Contra Costa Health Services responded by notifying residents shelter in place. BART shut down local service. The shelter-in-place order was lifted at 11:15 PM. Initial reports estimated that 11,000 people sought treatment at area hospitals, and later reports placed the number above 15,000 people.
On April 15, 2013, the US Chemical Safety Board released their preliminary report citing Chevron for a chronic failure to replace aging equipment and called for an overhaul of regulatory oversight of the industry to prevent such accidents from happening again. In July 2013, the company pleaded no contest to six charges in connection with the fire, and agreed to pay $2 million in fines and restitution. Around the same time the settlement was announced, the Richmond city council voted to file suit against Chevron. The reasons for the suit included "a continuation of years of neglect, lax oversight and corporate indifference to necessary safety inspection and repairs."
Oil spill off the coast of Rio de Janeiro
On November 8, 2011, Chevron came under fire by Brazilian authorities for its role in the spill of crude oil off of the southeastern coast of Brazil. The Brazilian regulators said 416,400 liters of oil leaked over the course of two weeks from undersea rock near the well in the Frade oil project 370 km off the Brazilian coast. Prosecutors in Brazil are demanding $10.6bn in the subsequent lawsuit. The National Petroleum Agency (ANP) suspended Chevron's activities in Brazil until it has identified the cause of an oil spill off the coast of Rio de Janeiro.
KS Endeavor explosion
The KS Endeavor jackup rig exploded on January 16, 2012 while drilling an exploration well for Chevron in the Funiwa field in Nigeria. The explosion resulted in the death of two of the 154 workers on board and a fire that burned for 46 days before the well was sealed on June 18. According to a Reuters news report, workers on the KS Endeavor were ignored by Chevron when they requested evacuation due to concerns of increasing smoke billowing from the drilling borehole. A senior worker said the blowout was triggered by a massive build-up of pressure. A witness said that rig engineers advised Chevron to stop drilling and evacuate staff but Chevron told them to continue with drilling. Expecting an explosion, the rig manager, one of the two that later died, kept the lifeboats at hand and ready for use. A witness reported: "This is the reason so many of us survived because we were all aware that it was going to happen, but just didn't know when." In an email response to Reuters, Chevron said it did not receive requests to evacuate the rig and that staff on board had the right to call a halt to work if they believed conditions were unsafe.
Destruction of natural forest in Bangladesh
On June 26, 2008, a fire in Lawachara National Park (a natural forest; a major national park, rare of its kind in the region, and crucial to maintain the biodiversity of Bangladesh's flora & fauna) had broken out as Chevron Corp. carried out a 3D seismic survey that was to be six-months long. The company had violated the conditions of the government's environment clearance certificate by not informing the ministry about the cracks that had occurred in nearby residents' properties due to explosions caused by their activities.
Polish gas exploration
Chevron has experienced mass protests aimed at the company by local communities in Southern Poland when they started gas exploration in the region. Their complaint is that Chevron didn't provide all of the documents required for gas exploration in Poland, and that the company has not promised to share a percentage of the revenues with the local landholders. The landholders of the region view Chevron's presence in the region negatively since they may be forced to sell their properties at a low cost if gas is discovered in the region. As well, potential environmental disasters are a concern for local farmers. Another of the residents' primary concern is water pollution from the chemicals used in fracking. In response to some of the protests Chevron has sued some of the protesters from Żurawlów for disrupting their operations.
According to gas and oil expert Andrzej Szczesniak, one of the main reasons for the protest is the difference between Polish and American law. In the USA property owners typically receive 15-20% from the income of gas exploration. Though in Poland, the discovery of gas on private property usually results in a forced sale of the property, with the owner receiving only the prior value of the land and no percentage of the gas revenue. This is the result of outdated, Communist Era laws that are still on the books and which are often exploited by municipal governments if the can get a 'kick back' from a larger company.
Romanian gas exploration
In October 2013, Chevron suspended its drilling plans in Pungesti, Vaslui County, where villagers had been opposing shale gas exploration due to fears of ground water contamination. Thousands more protested throughout Romania, and in December protests became violent when Chevron announced plans to resume exploration. Following the incident, Chevron said it was again suspending activities in the area.   
- RAV4 EV
- Patent encumbrance of large automotive NiMH batteries
- Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc.
- Gordon L. Park
- Jack 2
- Trans-Caribbean pipeline
- "Company Profile". Chevron.com. Retrieved August 9, 2011.
- "Chevron Corp, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Feb 22, 2013". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "Chevron". Fortune Global 500. CNN.com. 2013.
- M. S. Vassiliou (March 2, 2009). Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum Industry. Scarecrow Press. pp. 128–. ISBN 978-0-8108-6288-3. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- Antonia Juhasz (October 6, 2009). The Bush Agenda. HarperCollins. pp. 106–. ISBN 978-0-06-197761-9. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Joshua Karliner (1997). The Corporate Planet: Ecology and Politics in the Age of Globalization. University of California Press. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-0-87156-434-4. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- M. S. Vassiliou (September 24, 2009). The A to Z of the Petroleum Industry. Scarecrow Press. pp. 128–. ISBN 978-0-8108-7066-6. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Toyin Falola (January 1, 2005). The Politics of the Global Oil Industry: An Introduction. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-275-98400-7. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Charles A. S. Hall; Carlos A. Ramírez-Pascualli (December 5, 2012). The First Half of the Age of Oil: An Exploration of the Work of Colin Campbell and Jean Laherr√®re. Springer. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-1-4614-6064-0. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- Juhasz, Antonia (September 28, 2010). "Chevron Throws Book at Shareholder Activist (Me)". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Letzing, John (September 29, 2010). "Activist Faces Charges in Chevron Meeting Outburst". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- "Protesters Disrupt BP's First Shareholder Meeting Since Oil Spill". Environment News Service. April 14, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
- Antonia Juhasz (October 6, 2009). The Tyranny of Oil: The World's Most Powerful Industry--and What We Must Do to Stop It. HarperCollins. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-0-06-198201-9. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- Baker, David R. (May 10, 2005). "Chevron drops the Texaco from its name". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- "Chevron and Calso". Landscape Change Program, University of Vermont.
- "Whatever happened to Standard Oil?". Robert V. Droz, US-Highways.com.
- "Vintage Calso Gasoline / Standard Oil of California pump". Gaspumps.info.[better source needed]
- Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619
- "The King of Giant Fields". Retrieved June 5, 2013.
- Chevron acquires Kmart property in Moon for possible regional headquarters - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
- "Gulf Oil acquires brand rights for entire US". Vermont Business Magazine. January 13, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
- "Chevron Corp, Form 10-Q, Quarterly Report, Filing Date Nov 8, 1996". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Mar 6, 2000". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date May 25, 2007". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "Chevron's Profit Rises 24%, With Help From Its Refineries". The New York Times. Reuters. July 28, 2007. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- "Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Oct 16, 2000". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "Oil giant Chevron buys rival Texaco". BBC News. October 16, 2000. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- "Chevron to Acquire Texaco". The Street.com. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- Raine, George (October 10, 2001). "The Chevron - Texaco Merger / An oil giant emergers / Shareholders approval of Chevron-Texaco deal creates industy's lates behemoth.". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- "Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date May 10, 2005". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Apr 7, 2005". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "Chevron Corp, Form 8-K, Current Report, Filing Date Aug 10, 2005". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- Baker, David R. (April 5, 2005). "Chevron plans to buy Unocal for $18.4 billion / Deal would bolster East Bay oil giant's strategically located sources of gas, crude". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- Blum, Justin (August 11, 2005). "Shareholders Vote in Favor Of Unocal Acquisition". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- "Chevron claims energy debate". BBC News. February 19, 2006. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
- "Chevron and Los Alamos Jointly Research Oil Shale Hydrocarbon Recovery". Green Car Congress. September 25, 2006. Retrieved April 12, 2009.
- "Interior Department Issues Oil Shale Research, Development and Demonstration Leases for Public Lands in Colorado" (Press release). Bureau of Land Management. December 15, 2006. Retrieved April 12, 2009.
- "Chevron leaving Western Slope oil shale project". Denver Business Journal. February 28, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
- "Eastern Withdrawal for Chevron | CSP Daily News / Magazine | Petroleum - CSP Information Group, Inc. - news for convenience & petroleum retailing". Cspnet.com. December 7, 2009. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "Chevron Corp, Form DFAN14A, Filing Date Nov 9, 2010". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- Kaplan, Thomas (November 9, 2010). "Chevron to Buy Atlas Energy for $4.3 Billion". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2011.
- "Chevron Corp, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Feb 24, 2011". secdatabase.com. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- "Chevron Continues Aggressive Expansion into Marcellus Shale in PA – Buys Leases for Additional 228K Acres from Chief Oil & Gas | Marcellus Drilling News". Marcellusdrilling.com. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Louise Heavens (18 September 2013). "France's Total snaps up Chevron's Pakistan retail network". Reuters.
- Ordonez, Isabel (April 8, 2011). "Chevron Rekindles Old Texas Flame". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Chevron celebrates 5 billion barrels of Permian Basin crude - Mywesttexas.com: Local Newsroom". Mywesttexas.com. February 16, 2011. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Garrett, Geoffrey (August 13, 2011). "Why this love triangle works". The Australian.
- "Chevron's Gorgon project taking shape | Latest Business & Australian Stock market News". Perth Now. February 2, 2011. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Burrell, Andrew (June 15, 2011). "Chevron's Wheatstone LNG project to generate 6,500 jobs, says Roy Krzywosinski". The Australian.
- "Escravos Gas-to-Liquids Project, Niger Delta". Hydrocarbons Technology. June 15, 2011. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Chevron Corporation (CVX) Stock Description". Seeking Alpha. December 31, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Angola LNG". Angola Today. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Chevron Rises To $104 As Kazakhstan Kicks Up Production". Forbes. October 13, 2011. Retrieved June 23, 2013.
- "Caspian Pipeline Consortium: Private Company Information - Businessweek". Investing.businessweek.com. September 20, 2011. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Stanley Reed (July 23, 2013). "Chevron to Spend $770 Million on Remote Projects". The New York Times. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "e10vk". Sec.gov. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Robert V. Droz. "Standard Oil Today". Us-highways.com. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- Paton, James (August 22, 2011). "Caltex Australia Starts Review of Refineries as Margins Drop". Bloomberg L.P.
- Tanveer Ahmed (July 1, 2010). "PSO willing to raise stakes in PRL". 'Daily Times. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "N.Z. Refining Jumps After Valero Said to Plan Bid (Update2)". Bloomberg L.P. July 24, 2009.
- "Refining Crude Oil - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy". Eia.gov. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Marinucci, Carla (May 5, 2001). "Chevron redubs ship named for Bush aide". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 13, 2008.
- Hsu, Tiffany (March 22, 2010). "Chevron is putting solar technologies to the test". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
- "Harnessing the Heat of Indonesia's Volcanoes". Bloomberg Businessweek. July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Chevron bets on $30B volcanoes beneath rainforest". Financial Post. June 15, 2011. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Chevron to expand its geothermal sites in the Philippines". Think GeoEnergy. June 21, 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Aboitiz, Chevron eye more drillings at Tiwi-Makban geothermal fields". Business. Phillipines: Philstar.com. July 13, 2009.
- "Chevron backs green and slimy answer to biofuel problems - 02 Nov 2007 - News from". BusinessGreen. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Chevron investigates wood-fired cars - 04 Mar 2008 - News from". BusinessGreen. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Chevron Defies California On Carbon Emissions" Bloomberg.com. April 18, 2013.
- "Chevron forms $12M biofuel research alliance". Bizjournals.com. June 15, 2006.
- "BioSelect, Chevron unveil Galveston biodiesel plant". Bizjournals.com. May 29, 2007.
- Swartz, Jon (May 26, 2011). "Big companies aggressively jump into clean tech". USA Today.
- Woody, Todd (May 22, 2010). "Chevron Testing Solar Technologies". The New York Times. Retrieved June 23, 2013.
- "Solar energy powers production of heavy oil in California". Oil & Gas Journal. May 2, 2007. (subscription required). Retrieved June 23, 2013.
- "Chevron adds solar power to area mine". UPI. February 24, 2010. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Solar farm a sign of things to come". U-T San Diego. April 20, 2011. Retrieved June 23, 2013.
- Korosec, Kirsten (October 3, 2011). "Chevron uses solar power to produce more oil". SmartPlanet. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "AP/ January 27, 2012, 12:21 PM Chevron 4Q profit falls on refinery decline". CBS News. January 27, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Raine, George (September 6, 2001). "Ending an era, Chevron abandons S.F. headquarters / Exodus to San Ramon complete". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Daugherty, Deon (July 8, 2013). "Chevron plans new Houston tower, hiring spree". Houston Business Journal. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
- Chevron donates $2.5 million to GOP super PAC
- Chomsky, Noam (1999). Year 501: the Conquest Continues. South End Press. ISBN 0896084442.
- "Caltex, Chevron, and Texaco financials". SEC. Archived from the original on 2009-09-18 – via hawaii.edu user PDF archive.
- Johnston, David C. (2003). Perfectly Legal. New York: Penguin Group. pp. 253–255. ISBN 1591840694.
- Juan Forero "Rain Forest Residents, Texaco Face Off In Ecuador". NPR, April 30, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2012
- "Finally, the polluter is commanded to pay". The Independent (London). February 16, 2011. p. 2.
- Bogumil Terminski "Oil-Induced Displacement and Resettlement: Social Problem and Human Rights Issue". Conflictrecovery.org.
- Paul Barrett “Top U.S. Law Firms Battle in Chevron's Pollution Case”. Businessweek, January 15, 2013. Retrieved January 17, 2013
- Patrick Radden Keefe “Reversal of Fortune”. The New Yorker, January 9, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
- “Texaco faces $1bn lawsuit”. BBC News, October 22, 2003. Retrieved January 22, 2013
- George Raine “The Chevron - Texaco Merger”. Seeking Alpha, October 10, 2001. Retrieved January 15, 2013
- “Chevron fined for Amazon pollution by Ecuador court”. BBC News, February 15, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2013
- Font size Print E-mail Share 130 Comments Page 2 of 4 (May 3, 2009). "60 Minutes "Amazon Crude", May 3, 2009". CBS News. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "Chevron annual meeting heats up over Ecuador suit". sify.com. Associated Press. May 31, 2009.
- "Chevron fined for Amazon pollution by Ecuador court". BBC News. February 15, 2011. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- "Ecuador court orders Chevron to pay $8 bln -lawyer". Reuters. February 15, 2011. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- "Ecuador plaintiffs say Chevron ruling falls short". Reuters. February 15, 2011. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- Chevron fails to block $18 billion Ecuador judgment. Reuters, October 9, 2 . Retrieved January 25, 2013
- Joe Carroll et al. “Chevron’s $19 Billion ‘Disaster’ Gets Hearing”. Businessweek, November 29, 2012. Retrieved January 15, 2013
- Tribunal presses Ecuador to halt Chevron case enforcement | Reuters
- CTV "Judge dismisses $19B Ecuador judgment against Chevron's Canadian subsidiary"
- Wall Street Journal "Argentina's Top Court Unfreezes Chevron Assets"
- Panel Rules for Chevron in Ecuador Amazon Case - ABC News
- "Environmental Justice Case Study: Richmond, CA". Umich.edu. June 2, 1994. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "CHEVRON RICHMOND REFINERY TO PAY $540,000 ENVIRONMENTAL PENALTY | Newsroom | US EPA". Yosemite.epa.gov. October 15, 1998. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "Responsible Shopper Profile: Chevron". COOP America. Archived from the original on 2006-06-02.
- "Chevron, Oil Pollution, and Human Rights". AfricaResource.com. October 30, 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-10-30.
- "Business | Angola fines Chevron for pollution". BBC News. July 1, 2002. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "U.S. Announces Clean Air Agreement with Chevron U.S.A.". Environmental Protection Agency. October 16, 2003. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- "U.S. Announces Clean Air Settlement with Chevron U.S.A.". Department of Justice. October 16, 2003. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- "Chevron Agrees to Record $7 Million Environmental Settlement". Department of Justice. August 11, 2000. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- "Quest for clean energy / Chevron, PG&E cited for positive steps to combat global warming". Sfgate.com. March 22, 2006. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- http://investor.shareholder.com/ovonics/secfiling.cfm?filingID=950123-10-82515[dead link]
- http://investor.shareholder.com/ovonics/secfiling.cfm?filingID=950123-09-38450[dead link]
- "ECD Ovonics Definitive Proxy Statement". Shareholder.com.[dead link] of January 15, 2003
- Boschert, S. (2007) Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that Will Recharge America (Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers) ISBN 978-0-86571-571-4
- Brigis, Alvis (October 14, 2008). "The Edison of our Age: Stan Ovshinsky and the Future of Energy [Video Interview Part 1]". The Energy Roadmap. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "ECD Ovonics Amended General Statement of Beneficial Ownership". Shareholder.com.[dead link] of December 2, 2004
- ECD Ovonics 10-Q Quarterly Report. Shareholder.com.[dead link] for the period ending September 30, 2007
- ECD Ovonics 10-Q Quarterly Report for the period ending March 31, 2008
- "Mercedes sues Cobasys over battery deal" Automotive News Europe
- "Transcript of Drilling and Killing Documentary". Democracy Now!. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- Egelko, Bob (August 15, 2007). "Chevron can be sued for attacks on Nigerians, U.S. judge rules". The San Francisco Chronicle.
- S.F. jury clears Chevron of protest shootings. Bob Egelko, sfgate.com. Published December 2, 2008. Last accessed December 3, 2008.
- Ewen MacAskill in Washington. "WikiLeaks cables: Chevron discussed oil project with Tehran, claims Iraqi PM | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- "US embassy cables: Iraqi PM claims US oil company in contact with Iran | Business | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
- Bender, Kristin J.; Jimenez, Daniel M. (August 6, 2012 url=http://www.contracostatimes.com/california/ci_21250598/large-fire-burning-at-chevron-refinery-richmond). "Massive fire at Chevron refinery in Richmond fully contained; shelter in place lifted". Contra Costa Times.
- Bender, Kristin J.; Jimenez, Daniel M. (August 6, 2012). "Massive fire at Chevron refinery in Richmond fully contained; shelter in place lifted". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
- Justin Berton, Kevin Fagan and Vivian Ho (August 7, 2012). "Fire at Chevron refinery in Richmond: East Bay residents told to stay inside as thick smoke spews into sky from Chevron plant", SFGate.com. San Francisco Chronicle.
- Jaxon Van Derbeken (August 20, 2012). "Chevron refinery fire a 'close call'". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- "Chevron to Pay $2 Million for 2012 Refinery Fire in Richmond, CA; 200 Arrested at Protest". Democracy Now!. August 6, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013. "It was one year ago when a massive fire at a Chevron refinery in Richmond, California, sent toxic smoke billowing into the air about 10 miles northeast of San Francisco. In the aftermath, more than 15,000 people sought medical treatment for respiratory problems. On Monday, Chevron pleaded no contest to six criminal charges related to the fire and agreed to submit to additional oversight over the next few years and pay $2 million in fines and restitution as part of a plea deal with state and county prosecutors. Two days earlier, thousands of people marched to condemn safety issues at Chevron’s plant and to call for renewable alternatives to fossil fuels."
- "Fire At Chevron Refinery, Shelter-in-Place Warning". Berkeley Patch. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- "Chevron Refinery Fire: Huge Blaze In Richmond Can Be Seen For Miles". Huff Post. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- Luschek, Mathew. "Fire Erupts at Richmond, Calif., Refinery". NBC. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- Rogers, Robert. "Richmond: Federal agency blames Chevron for refinery fire". Mercury News. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Chevron pays $2m fines and pleads no contest to Richmond fire charges". The Guardian (UK). Associated Press. August 5, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
- "Chevron Takes Responsibility for Brazil Oil Spill, May Face $51M Fine". Foxnews.com. November 21, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-11-21. Retrieved September 24.
- "Chevron takes full responsibility for Brazil oil spill spill". BBC.co.uk. November 11, 2011.
- "Chevron faces $10.6bn Brazil legal suit over oil spill". BBC News. December 14, 2011. "On March 16, 2012 the Brazilian Federal Justice prohibited 17 key people (including George Buck and other foreigners) connected to Chevron Brazil from leaving the country without judicial permission because of evident guilt on the 2011 oil spills."
- Exclusive: Riggers sought evacuation before deadly Chevron blast | Reuters
- Schmidt, Kathrine (January 17, 2012). "Chevron prepares to drill Nigeria relief well". Upstream Online (NHST Media Group). (subscription required). Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- "Chevron violated terms of environmental clearance from govt". BangladeshNews.com.bd. May 6, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- Polish TVP interview and material about gas exploration in Poland, first broadcast in Wiadomosci, on 7-11-2013
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chevron (company).|
- Chevron Corporate Site
- Chevron Alumni Site
- Chevron Proposed Oil Refinery in Scotland
- SWOT Analysis of Chevron Corporation