Cheyenne, Wyoming

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Cheyenne, Wyoming
State Capital
City of Cheyenne
Capitol Ave. in Downtown Cheyenne
Capitol Ave. in Downtown Cheyenne
Official seal of Cheyenne, Wyoming
Seal
Nickname(s): Magic City of the Plains; Capital City (of Wyoming); The Frontier City
Location in Laramie County and the state of Wyoming.
Location in Laramie County and the state of Wyoming.
Coordinates: 41°8′44″N 104°48′7″W / 41.14556°N 104.80194°W / 41.14556; -104.80194Coordinates: 41°8′44″N 104°48′7″W / 41.14556°N 104.80194°W / 41.14556; -104.80194
Country United States
State Wyoming
County Laramie
Founded 1867
Government
 • Mayor Richard Kaysen[1]
Area[2]
 • City 24.63 sq mi (63.79 km2)
 • Land 24.52 sq mi (63.51 km2)
 • Water 0.11 sq mi (0.28 km2)  0.45%
Elevation 6,062 ft (1,848 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 • City 59,466
 • Estimate (2012[4]) 61,537
 • Density 2,425.2/sq mi (936.4/km2)
 • Urban 71,775
 • Metro 91,738
Time zone Mountain (UTC-7)
 • Summer (DST) Mountain (UTC-6)
Area code(s) 307
FIPS code 56-13900[5]
GNIS feature ID 1609077[6]
Website www.cheyennecity.org
Most populous Wyoming City

Cheyenne (/ʃˈæn/ shy-AN or /ʃˈɛn/) (Arapaho: Hítesííno'óowú' [7]) is the capital and most populous city of the US state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County.[8] It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Wyoming, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County. The population was 59,466 at the 2010 census.[9] Cheyenne is the northern terminus of the extensive and fast-growing Front Range Urban Corridor that stretches from Cheyenne to Pueblo, Colorado, and has a population of 5,467,633 according to the 2010 United States Census.[3][10] Cheyenne is situated on Crow Creek and Dry Creek. The Cheyenne, Wyoming Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 91,738, making it the 354th most populous metropolitan area in the United States.

History[edit]

Bird's eye view of Cheyenne, Wyoming, in 1882

On July 5, 1867, General Grenville M. Dodge and his survey crew platted the site now known as Cheyenne in Dakota Territory (later Wyoming Territory). This site was chosen as the point at which the Union Pacific Railroad crossed Crow Creek, a tributary of the South Platte River. The city was not named by Dodge, as his memoirs state, but rather by friends who accompanied him to the area Dodge called "Crow Creek Crossing.[citation needed]" It was named for the American Indian Cheyenne nation, one of the most famous and prominent Great Plains tribes closely allied with the Arapaho.

The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad brought hopes of prosperity to the region when it reached Cheyenne on November 13, 1867. The population at the time numbered over 4,000,[citation needed] and grew rapidly. This rapid growth earned the city the nickname "Magic City of the Plains.[citation needed]"

1867 also saw the establishment of Fort D. A. Russell, 3 miles west of the city. The fort was later renamed Francis E. Warren Air Force Base.

The Wyoming Stock Growers Association met at The Cheyenne Club, which allegedly acted as an interim government for the territory. Many of the WSGA's rules and regulations became state laws.

The Wyoming State Capitol was constructed between 1886 and 1890, with further improvements being completed in 1917.

The Cheyenne Regional Airport was opened in 1920, initially serving as a stop for airmail. It soon developed into a civil-military airport, serving DC-3s and various military craft. During World War II, hundreds of B-17s, B-24s, and PBYs were outfitted and upgraded at the airfield. Today, it serves a number of military functions, as well as a high-altitude testbed for civilian craft.[11]

Geography and climate[edit]

Astronaut Photography of Cheyenne Wyoming taken from the International Space Station (ISS)

Cheyenne is located at 41°8′44″N 104°48′7″W / 41.14556°N 104.80194°W / 41.14556; -104.80194 (41.145548, −104.802042)[12]. Lying near the southeast corner of the state, it is one of the least centrally located state capitals in the nation (together with cities such as Carson City, Nevada; Juneau, Alaska; and Topeka, Kansas).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.63 square miles (63.79 km2), of which, 24.52 square miles (63.51 km2) is land and 0.11 square miles (0.28 km2) is water.[2]

Climate[edit]

Cheyenne, like most of the rest of Wyoming, is semi-arid (Köppen BSk), and is part of USDA Hardiness zone 5b, with the suburbs falling in zone 5a.[13] Winters are cold and moderately long, but relatively dry, with a December average of 28.8 °F (−1.8 °C), highs that fail to breach freezing occur 35 days per year, and lows dip to the 0 °F (−18 °C) mark on 9.2 nights.[14] However, the cold is often interrupted, with chinook winds blowing downslope from the Rockies that can bring warm conditions, bringing the high above 50 °F (10 °C) on 20 days from December to February.[14] Snowfall is greatest in March and April, seasonally averaging 60 inches (152 cm), historically ranging from 13.1 in (33 cm) in 1965–66 to 121.5 in (309 cm) in 1979–80, yet thick snow cover rarely stays.[15] Summers are warm, with a high diurnal temperature range; July averages 69.4 °F (20.8 °C), and highs reach 90 °F (32 °C) on an average 12 days annually. Spring and autumn are quick transitions, with the average window for freezing temperatures being September 29 thru May 14, allowing a growing season of 106 days.[14] Official record temperatures range from −38 °F (−39 °C) on January 9, 1875, up to 100 °F (38 °C) on June 23, 1954, the last of four occurrences; the record cold daily maximum is −21 °F (−29 °C) on January 11, 1963, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 68 °F (20 °C) on July 31, 1960.[14] The annual precipitation of 15.9 in (400 mm) tends to be concentrated from May to August and is low during fall and winter; it has historically ranged from 5.04 in (128 mm) in 1876 to 23.69 in (602 mm) in 1942.[14] The city averages below 60% daily relative humidity in each month and receives an average 2,980 hours (~67% of the possible total) of sunshine annually. On July 16, 1979 an F3 tornado struck Cheyenne causing one death and 40 injuries.[16] It was the most destructive tornado in Wyoming history.[17]



Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1870 1,450
1880 3,456 138.3%
1890 11,690 238.3%
1900 14,087 20.5%
1910 11,320 −19.6%
1920 13,829 22.2%
1930 17,361 25.5%
1940 22,474 29.5%
1950 31,935 42.1%
1960 43,505 36.2%
1970 41,254 −5.2%
1980 47,283 14.6%
1990 50,008 5.8%
2000 53,011 6.0%
2010 59,466 12.2%
Est. 2013 62,448 5.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[20]
1870-2000 census[21]
2012 estimate[4][22]

At the 2005–2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, the city's population was 89.3% White (79.2% non-Hispanic White alone), 12.7% Hispanic or Latino (of any race), 4.5% Black or African American, 2.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.1% Asian and 6.4% from some other race.[23] 22.5% of the total population had a Bachelor's degree or higher.[24]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[3] of 2010, there were 59,466 people, 25,557 households, and 15,269 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,425.2 inhabitants per square mile (936.4 /km2). There were 27,283 housing units at an average density of 1,112.7 per square mile (429.6 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 87.44% White, 2.88% African American, 0.96% Native American, 1.23% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 4.0% from other races, and 3.28%% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.45% of the population.

There were 25,557 households of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 40.3% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.92.

The median age in the city was 36.5 years. 24% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.9% were from 25 to 44; 26.2% were from 45 to 64; and 13.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.3% male and 50.7% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[5] of 2000, there were 53,011 people, 22,324 households, 14,175 families residing in the city, and 81,607 people residing in the Metropolitan Statistical Area making it the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Wyoming. The population density was 2,511.4 inhabitants per square mile (969.6/km²). There were 23,782 housing units at an average density of 1,126.7 per square mile (435.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 88.1% White, 2.8% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.4% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. 12.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 22,324 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.93.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $38,856, and the median income for a family was $46,771. Males had a median income of $32,286 versus $24,529 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,809. About 6.3% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over.

Government[edit]

Cheyenne's government consists of a mayor and a city council. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. The city council has nine members each of whom are elected from one of three wards. Each ward elects three members. The Mayors Office is responsible for managing the various City Departments which consist of Street/Alley, Police, Fire, Parks, Fleet Maintenance, Traffic, Sanitation, Downtown Historic District, Weed and Pest, Facilities Maintenance, and Cemetery. The Cheyenne Board of Public Utilities is owned by the city but is semi autonomous.[25]

Education[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Public education in the city of Cheyenne is provided by Laramie County School District #1. The district is served by four high schools, Central High on the northwest side, East High on the east side, South High on the south side, and Triumph High, also on the south side.

Colleges and universities[edit]

Cheyenne is home to the Laramie County Community College (LCCC), as well as a branch of Institute of Business & Medical Careers, and a branch of University of Phoenix.

Economy[edit]

Government is the largest sector of Cheyenne's economy. The state of Wyoming operates a multitude of offices in downtown Cheyenne. Many area residents are employed by or are dependent on the U.S. Air Force, through F.E. Warren Air Force Base to the west of the city, or by the Wyoming National Guard. Railroads remain a major economic force for the city, with both the Burlington Northern Santa Fe and Union Pacific employing many residents.[26]

Due much in part to work done by Cheyenne's economic development agency "Cheyenne Leads," successful steps have been taken in recent years to diversify the city's economy. Lowe's and Wal-Mart both operate distribution centers on the city's outskirts. Sierra Trading Post is headquartered in the city and also operates its distribution and fulfillment centers in the city.[27] In addition, because of the towns cooler summers and abundant electricity supplies (both renewable and non-renewable), Cheyenne has been able to attract a number of data centers including the NCAR supercomputing center, along with a Microsoft data center, powered by bio gas and Green House Data's data centers powered by wind energy.

On 2 January 2014, Magpul Industries announced that it was moving its production, distribution and shipping operations to Cheyenne from Erie, Colorado.[28]

Cheyenne's high elevation, coupled with its position on the continent, make it one of the windiest cities in America. The abundance of wind makes Cheyenne an opportune place to develop wind energy. Wind turbines are currently being placed around Laramie County. Laramie County Community College is home to a leading wind energy technician program, where students learn to maintain these turbines. The opening of a Vestas wind turbine blade assembly in nearby Weld County, Colorado, as well as other alternative energy manufacturing facilities around Colorado, are transforming the region into a center for alternative energy.

Great Lakes Airlines, Taco John's, and Green House Data are headquartered in Cheyenne.[29][30]

Cheyenne has one of only three enclosed shopping malls in Wyoming, the Frontier Mall. The other two are the Eastridge Mall in Casper, and the White Mountain Mall in Rock Springs.

List of tallest buildings in Cheyenne:

  • Wyoming State Capitol 146 ft.
  • Wyoming Financial Center 110 ft.
  • Joseph C. O'Mahoney Federal Building 80 ft.
  • Burke Senior Center 80 ft.
  • Cheyenne Regional Medical Center 70 ft.

Parks and Recreation[edit]

The Cheyenne Parks and Recreation Department operates an Ice and Events center, swimming pool, spray park, skateboard park, two golf courses, Cheyenne Botanic Gardens (including the Paul Smith Children's Village at the Gardens), paddle boat rentals in Lions Park (summers only), cemeteries, forestry operations, community house, Youth Activity Center and a miniature golf park. The Cheyenne Parks and Recreation Department also operates a 37 mile Greater Cheyenne Greenway system. The greenway connects parks and neighborhoods of greater Cheyenne. It includes many bridges and underpasses where travelers can avoid high traffic roads and travel above waterways and drainages. In 1996, as a result of the greenway, Cheyenne was named "Trail Town USA" by the National Park service and the American Hiking Society.[citation needed]

Professional sports[edit]

The Cheyenne Warriors were founded as an American Professional Football League team in 2012. After playing a season in the APFL, they announced a move to the Indoor Football League. Shortly after the owner of the team died in December 2012, the Warriors announced that they were forming the new Developmental Football League. After playing several games in this new league, the team folded in May 2013.

Landmarks[edit]

Lions Park

Historic places[edit]

Over fifty different locations in Cheyenne are listed on the National Register of Historical Places, including:

  • The Historic Plains Hotel (added 1978)
  • the Atlas Theatre (added 1973)
  • Union Pacific Depot (1973)
  • the Governor's Mansion (1969)
  • Nagle-Warren Mansion (1976)
  • First Presbyterian Church (1869)
  • First United Methodist Church (1975)
  • St. Mark's Episcopal Church (1970)
  • St. Mary's Catholic Cathedral (1974)
  • Cheyenne High School (2005)
  • High Plains Horticulture Research Station a.k.a. High Plains Arboretum (1930 - 1974)
  • Storey Gymnasium (2005)
  • Park Addition School (1970)
  • Big Boy Steam Engine (1956)
  • Botanic Gardens Rotary Century Plaza & Steam Locomotive (1921)

Several districts in the city are also listed, including:

  • the Downtown District (1978, with boundary increase in 1980, 1988, 1996. Encompasses 205 acres (0.83 km2) and 67 buildings)
  • Lakeview District (1996, 350 acres 109 buildings)
  • Rainsford District (1984, 1980 acres 288 buildings)
  • Capitol North District (1980, 204 acres 112 buildings)
  • Fort David A. Russell (1969, 6300 acres 19 buildings)
  • Union Pacific Roundhouse, Turntable and Machine Shop (1992, 113 acres 2 buildings)
  • South Side District (2006)

Transportation[edit]

Highways[edit]

Plaque depicting Cheyenne's street grid along with historic districts
Map of Cheyenne Road Network

Interstate highways[edit]

I‑25

  • North-South Interstate running from New Mexico to Wyoming intersects I-80 southwest of Cheyenne.

I‑80

  • East-West Interstate running from California to New Jersey. Intersects I-25 southwest of Cheyenne.

I‑180

  • North-South interstate that runs concurrent with US 85 from I-80 to US 30.
    (It is the only Interstate Highway that is not up to Interstate Highway standards along its entire route)

US routes[edit]

US 30 (Lincoln Highway)

  • East-West route through Cheyenne

US 85 (South Greely Highway, Central Avenue (Southbound), Warren Avenue (Northbound))

  • North-South route through Cheyenne

US 87

  • North-South through Cheyenne that runs concurrent with I-25 through Cheyenne

Wyoming state highways[edit]

WYO 210 (Happy Jack Road)

  • East-West route from I-25/US 87 (Exit 10) west out of Cheyenne towards Laramie

WYO 212 (College Drive, Four Mile Road)

  • North-South route that forms a beltway around Cheyenne. From I-25 (Exit 7) to WYO 219

WYO 219 (Yellowstone Road)

  • North-South route from US 85 in Cheyenne near the Cheyenne Airport north out of the city

WYO 221 (Fox Farm Road)

  • East-west route from US 85 east to WYO 212 in Cheyenne

WYO 222 (Fort Access Road)

  • North-South route from WYO 225 just southeast of Cheyenne and travels north to F.E. Warren Air Force Base and continues on its north route east of the city to WYO 221

WYO 225 (Otto Road)

  • East-West route from I-80/US 30 southwest of Cheyenne west

Local bus service[edit]

Cheyenne provides local hourly bus service from 6 a.m.-7 p.m. Monday-Friday and 10 a.m.-5 p.m. on Saturday. There is no Sunday service.

Airports[edit]

Cheyenne Regional Airport features daily service from Great Lakes Airlines to Denver.

Railroads[edit]

The Union Pacific and BNSF railroads intersect in Cheyenne. The city is home to a BNSF railyard, as well as the Union Pacific's steam program. UP's 844, 3985 and 4014 reside in the steam shop.[31]

Cheyenne Frontier Days[edit]

Cheyenne Frontier Days, which occurs during 10 days centered around the last full week in July, is the largest outdoor rodeo in the US. The events include professional bull riding, calf roping, barrel racing, steer wrestling, team roping, bronc riding, steer roping, bareback riding and many others. During this week there are many parades and other events. Additionally there is a carnival with numerous rides, games and shops.[32]

Media[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Cheyenne's sister cities are:

Notable people[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Official records for Cheyenne kept at the City Office from January 1871 to August 1935 and at Cheyenne Regional since September 1935.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mayor's Office, Cheyenne. Accessed January 18, 2009.
  2. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  3. ^ a b c "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-14. 
  4. ^ a b "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-01. 
  5. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ "English-Arapaho dictionary". Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  8. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  9. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Cheyenne city, Wyoming". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  10. ^ http://www.america2050.org/front_range.html
  11. ^ "Cheyenne Regional Airport History". Cheyenne Regional Airport. Retrieved September 27, 2013. 
  12. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  13. ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". http://planthardiness.ars.usda.gov/PHZMWeb/. United States Department of Agriculture. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  15. ^ a b "Station Name: WY CHEYENNE". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  16. ^ http://www.tornadohistoryproject.com
  17. ^ http://www.bangladeshtornadoes.org/071679/071679terrain.html
  18. ^ ThreadEx
  19. ^ "WMO Climate Normals for CHEYENNE WSFO, WY 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 
  20. ^ U.S. Decennial Census
  21. ^ HISTORICAL DECENNIAL CENSUS POPULATION FOR WYOMING COUNTIES, CITIES, AND TOWNS
  22. ^ 2012 estimate
  23. ^ American FactFinder. Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on April 11, 2012.
  24. ^ American FactFinder. Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on April 11, 2012.
  25. ^ Cheyenne, WY – Official Website – City Council. Wy-cheyenne.civicplus.com. Retrieved on April 11, 2012.
  26. ^ The Cheyenne-Laramie County Corporation for Economic Development. Cheyenne LEADS. Retrieved on April 11, 2012.
  27. ^ Bowman, Robert J. (May 1, 2007). "A Random Walk Through Sierra Trading Post’s Warehouse". Global Logistics & Supply Chain Strategies. 
  28. ^ "US gun magazine producer to leave Colo. over gun laws". Fox News. 2 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  29. ^ "Contact Us". Great Lakes Airlines. Retrieved May 25, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Contact Us". Taco John's. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  31. ^ "UP: Steam". Retrieved May 28, 2014. 
  32. ^ Cheyenne Frontier Days. Cfdrodeo.com (April 3, 2012). Retrieved on April 11, 2012.
  33. ^ Cheyenne Herald: About us
  34. ^ "Vernon Baker". nationalww2museum.org. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  35. ^ "Harriet Elizabeth Byrd". University of Wyoming. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  36. ^ posted at 12:07 pm on Tue, Aug 14, 2012. (2012-08-14). "For SiriusXM host Dino Costa, Cheyenne is Radio City - WyoSports.net: Other Sports". WyoSports.net. Retrieved 2012-11-08. 
  37. ^ "Wyoming Gov. Mead appoints Arizona senator to run education department, June 27, 2013". Casper Star-Tribune. Retrieved July 21, 2013. 
  38. ^ "Neil Diamond". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  39. ^ "David Richard Edwards". wyomingnews.com. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Senator Floyd A. Esquibel". State of Wyoming Legislature. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  41. ^ "James M. Flinchum". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  42. ^ "Shirley E. Flynn". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  43. ^ "John Frullo". http://vote-tx.org/. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  44. ^ "John Godina". USA Track & Field, Inc. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  45. ^ "Mark Gordon". The Billings Gazette. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  46. ^ "Curt Gowdy". http://baseballhall.org/. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  47. ^ "For the Record: Robert Mills Grant, May 2, 2012". Platte County Record Times. Retrieved August 10, 2013. 
  48. ^ "Charles G. Hall". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  49. ^ "Wild Bill Hickok". ebraska State Government Homepage. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  50. ^ "Cindy Hill". wyyr.org. Retrieved July 21, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Robert Holding". by the U.S. National Ski Hall of Fame. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  52. ^ "Tom Horn". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  53. ^ "James Patrick Johnson". Basketball-Reference.Com. Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  54. ^ "James Chilton, Hall of Fame inductee grew alongside aviation industry, September 26, 2013". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved September 26, 2013. 
  55. ^ "Daniel Junge". Casper Star Tribune. Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  56. ^ "William T. Kane". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  57. ^ "Chris LeDoux". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  58. ^ "Cynthia Lummis". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  59. ^ 'Proceedings of the State Bar Association of Wisconsin 1907,' Wisconsin Bar Association: 1907, Biographical Sketch of Edgar Warner Mann, pg. 306
  60. ^ "Joseph Meyer". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  61. ^ "Jennifer Nichols". United States Olympic Committee. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  62. ^ "Brandon Nimmo". BASEBALL REFERENCE. COM. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  63. ^ "Leslie Osterman". MProject Vote Smart. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  64. ^ "Charles E. Richardson". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  65. ^ "Tracy Ringolsby". MLB Advanced Media, L.P. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  66. ^ "Edwin H. Whitehead". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 

External links[edit]