|• Mayor||Richard Kaysen|
|• City||63.79 km2 (24.63 sq mi)|
|• Land||63.51 km2 (24.52 sq mi)|
|• Water||0.28 km2 (0.11 sq mi) 0.45%|
|Elevation||1,848 m (6,062 ft)|
|• Estimate (2012)||61,537|
|• Density||936.4/km2 (2,425.2/sq mi)|
|Time zone||Mountain (UTC-7)|
|• Summer (DST)||Mountain (UTC-6)|
|GNIS feature ID||1609077|
Cheyenne (// shy-AN or //) (Arapaho: Hítesííno'óowú' ) is the capital and most populous city of the US state of Wyoming and the county seat of Laramie County. It is the principal city of the Cheyenne, Wyoming, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Laramie County. The population was 59,466 at the 2010 census. Cheyenne is the northern terminus of the extensive and fast-growing Front Range Urban Corridor that stretches from Cheyenne to Pueblo, Colorado, and has a population of 5,467,633 according to the 2010 United States Census. Cheyenne is situated on Crow Creek and Dry Creek. The Cheyenne, Wyoming Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 91,738, making it the 354th most populous metropolitan area in the United States.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Education
- 6 Economy
- 7 Parks and Recreation
- 8 Landmarks
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Cheyenne Frontier Days
- 11 Media
- 12 Fictional references to Cheyenne
- 13 Sister cities
- 14 Notable people
- 15 References
- 16 External links
On July 5, 1867, General Grenville M. Dodge and his survey crew platted the site now known as Cheyenne in Dakota Territory (later Wyoming Territory). This site was chosen as the point at which the Union Pacific Railroad crossed Crow Creek, a tributary of the South Platte River. The city was not named by Dodge, as his memoirs state, but rather by friends who accompanied him to the area Dodge called "Crow Creek Crossing." It was named for the American Indian Cheyenne nation, one of the most famous and prominent Great Plains tribes closely allied with the Arapaho.
The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad brought hopes of prosperity to the region when it reached Cheyenne on November 13, 1867. The population at the time numbered over 4,000, and grew rapidly. This rapid growth earned the city the nickname "Magic City of the Plains."
1867 also saw the establishment of Fort D. A. Russell, 3 miles west of the city. The fort was later renamed Francis E. Warren Air Force Base.
The Wyoming Stock Growers Association met at The Cheyenne Club, which allegedly acted as an interim government for the territory. Many of the WSGA's rules and regulations became state laws.
The Wyoming State Capitol was constructed between 1886 and 1890, with further improvements being completed in 1917.
The Cheyenne Regional Airport was opened in 1920, initially serving as a stop for airmail. It soon developed into a civil-military airport, serving DC-3s and various military craft. During World War II, hundreds of B-17s, B-24s, and PBYs were outfitted and upgraded at the airfield. Today, it serves a number of military functions, as well as a high-altitude testbed for civilian craft.
Geography and climate
Cheyenne is located at . Lying near the southeast corner of the state, it is one of the least centrally located state capitals in the nation (together with cities such as Carson City, Nevada; Juneau, Alaska; and Topeka, Kansas).(41.145548, −104.802042)
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.63 square miles (63.79 km2), of which, 24.52 square miles (63.51 km2) is land and 0.11 square miles (0.28 km2) is water.
Cheyenne, like most of the rest of Wyoming, is semi-arid (Köppen BSk). Winters are cold and moderately long, but relatively dry, with a December average of 28.8 °F (−1.8 °C), highs that fail to reach freezing occur 35 days per year, and lows dip to the 0 °F (−18 °C) mark on 9.2 nights. However, the cold is often interrupted, with chinook winds blowing downslope from the Rockies that can bring warm conditions, bringing the high above 50 °F (10 °C) on 20 days from December to February. Snowfall is greatest in February through April, averaging 60 inches (152 cm) for the season, yet thick snow cover rarely stays. Summers are warm, with a July average of 69.4 °F (20.8 °C), and highs reaching 90 °F (32 °C) on 12 days. Spring and autumn are quick transitions, with the median freeze dates being May 14 and September 29. The annual precipitation tends to be concentrated from May to August and is low during fall and winter, contributing to the area's 2980 hours (~68% of the possible total) of sunshine per year. On July 16, 1979 an F3 tornado struck Cheyenne causing one death and 40 injuries. It was the most destructive tornado in Wyoming history.
|Climate data for Cheyenne, Wyoming (Cheyenne Regional Airport), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1872−present|
|Record high °F (°C)||66
|Average high °F (°C)||39.5
|Average low °F (°C)||18.0
|Record low °F (°C)||−38
|Precipitation inches (mm)||0.33
|Snowfall inches (cm)||5.9
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||4.9||6.2||8.6||10.3||12.4||11.4||10.7||11.0||8.3||7.4||6.4||6.2||103.8|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||5.7||6.5||7.8||6.1||1.8||0.1||0||0||0.7||3.4||6.1||6.8||45.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||192.2||203.4||254.2||273.0||291.4||303.0||316.2||297.6||261.0||235.6||180.0||176.7||2,984.3|
|Source: NOAA HKO (sun only, 1961−1990)|
At the 2005–2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, the city's population was 89.3% White (79.2% non-Hispanic White alone), 12.7% Hispanic or Latino (of any race), 4.5% Black or African American, 2.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.1% Asian and 6.4% from some other race. 22.5% of the total population had a Bachelor's degree or higher.
As of the census of 2010, there were 59,466 people, 25,557 households, and 15,269 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,425.2 inhabitants per square mile (936.4 /km2). There were 27,283 housing units at an average density of 1,112.7 per square mile (429.6 /km2). The racial makeup of the city was 87.44% White, 2.88% African American, 0.96% Native American, 1.23% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 4.0% from other races, and 3.28%% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.45% of the population.
There were 25,557 households of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 40.3% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.92.
The median age in the city was 36.5 years. 24% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.9% were from 25 to 44; 26.2% were from 45 to 64; and 13.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.3% male and 50.7% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 53,011 people, 22,324 households, 14,175 families residing in the city, and 81,607 people residing in the Metropolitan Statistical Area making it the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Wyoming. The population density was 2,511.4 inhabitants per square mile (969.6/km²). There were 23,782 housing units at an average density of 1,126.7 per square mile (435.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 88.1% White, 2.8% Black or African American, 0.8% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 4.4% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. 12.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 22,324 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the city the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $38,856, and the median income for a family was $46,771. Males had a median income of $32,286 versus $24,529 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,809. About 6.3% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over.
Cheyenne's government consists of a mayor and a city council. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. The city council has nine members each of whom are elected from one of three wards. Each ward elects three members. The Mayors Office is responsible for managing the various City Departments which consist of Street/Alley, Police, Fire, Parks, Fleet Maintenance, Traffic, Sanitation, Downtown Historic District, Weed and Pest, Facilities Maintenance, and Cemetery. The Cheyenne Board of Public Utilities is owned by the city but is semi autonomous.
Primary and secondary schools
Public education in the city of Cheyenne is provided by Laramie County School District #1. The district is served by four high schools, Central High on the northwest side, East High on the east side, South High on the south side, and Triumph High, also on the south side.
Colleges and universities
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2009)|
Government is the largest sector of Cheyenne's economy. The state of Wyoming operates a multitude of offices in downtown Cheyenne. Many area residents are employed by or are dependent on the U.S. Air Force, through F.E. Warren Air Force Base to the west of the city, or by the Wyoming National Guard. Railroads remain a major economic force for the city, with both the Burlington Northern Santa Fe and Union Pacific employing many residents.
Due much in part to work done by Cheyenne's economic development agency "Cheyenne Leads," successful steps have been taken in recent years to diversify the city's economy. Lowe's and Wal-Mart both operate distribution centers on the city's outskirts. Sierra Trading Post is headquartered in the city and also operates its distribution and fulfillment centers in the city. In addition, because of the towns cooler summers and abundant electricity supplies (both renewable and non-renewable), Cheyenne has been able to attract a number of data centers including the NCAR supercomputing center, along with a Microsoft data center, powered by bio gas and Green House Data's data centers powered by wind energy.
Cheyenne's high elevation, coupled with its position on the continent, make it one of the windiest cities in America. The abundance of wind makes Cheyenne an opportune place to develop wind energy. Wind turbines are currently being placed around Laramie County. Laramie County Community College is home to a leading wind energy technician program, where students learn to maintain these turbines. The opening of a Vestas wind turbine blade assembly in nearby Weld County, Colorado, as well as other alternative energy manufacturing facilities around Colorado, are transforming the region into a center for alternative energy.
List of tallest buildings in Cheyenne:
- Wyoming State Capitol 146 ft.
- Wyoming Financial Center 110 ft.
- Joseph C. O'Mahoney Federal Building 80 ft.
- Burke Senior Center 80 ft.
- Cheyenne Regional Medical Center 70 ft.
Parks and Recreation
The Cheyenne Parks and Recreation Department operates an Ice and Events center, swimming pool, spray park, skateboard park, two golf courses, Cheyenne Botanic Gardens (including the Paul Smith Children's Village at the Gardens), paddle boat rentals in Lions Park (summers only), cemeteries, forestry operations, community house, Youth Activity Center and a miniature golf park. The Cheyenne Parks and Recreation Department also operates a 37 mile Greater Cheyenne Greenway system. The greenway connects parks and neighborhoods of greater Cheyenne. It includes many bridges and underpasses where travelers can avoid high traffic roads and travel above waterways and drainages. In 1996, as a result of the greenway, Cheyenne was named "Trail Town USA" by the National Park service and the American Hiking Society.
The Cheyenne Warriors were founded as an American Professional Football League team in 2012. After playing a season in the APFL, they announced a move to the Indoor Football League. Shortly after the owner of the team died in December 2012, the Warriors announced that they were forming the new Developmental Football League. After playing several games in this new league, the team folded in May 2013.
- Wyoming State Capitol
- F.E. Warren Air Force Base, one of the nation's oldest, continuously active installations (orig. U.S. Army).
- Nagle Warren Mansion
Over fifty different locations in Cheyenne are listed on the National Register of Historical Places, including:
- The Historic Plains Hotel (added 1978)
- the Atlas Theatre (added 1973)
- Union Pacific Depot (1973)
- the Governor's Mansion (1969)
- Nagle-Warren Mansion (1976)
- First Presbyterian Church (1869)
- First United Methodist Church (1975)
- St. Mark's Episcopal Church (1970)
- St. Mary's Catholic Cathedral (1974)
- Cheyenne High School (2005)
- High Plains Horticulture Research Station a.k.a. High Plains Arboretum (1930 - 1974)
- Storey Gymnasium (2005)
- Park Addition School (1970)
- Big Boy Steam Engine (1956)
- Botanic Gardens Rotary Century Plaza & Steam Locomotive (1921)
Several districts in the city are also listed, including:
- the Downtown District (1978, with boundary increase in 1980, 1988, 1996. Encompasses 205 acres (0.83 km2) and 67 buildings)
- Lakeview District (1996, 350 acres 109 buildings)
- Rainsford District (1984, 1980 acres 288 buildings)
- Capitol North District (1980, 204 acres 112 buildings)
- Fort David A. Russell (1969, 6300 acres 19 buildings)
- Union Pacific Roundhouse, Turntable and Machine Shop (1992, 113 acres 2 buildings)
- South Side District (2006)
- East-West Interstate running from California to New Jersey. Intersects I-25 southwest of Cheyenne.
- North-South interstate that runs concurrent with US 85 from I-80 to US 30.
(It is the only Interstate Highway that is not up to Interstate Highway standards along its entire route)
US 30 (Lincolnway)
- East-West route through Cheyenne
US 85 (South Greely Highway, Central Avenue (Southbound), Warren Avenue (Northbound))
- North-South route through Cheyenne
- North-South through Cheyenne that runs concurrent with I-25 through Cheyenne
Wyoming state highways
WYO 210 (Happy Jack Road)
- East-West route from I-25/US 87 (Exit 10) west out of Cheyenne towards Laramie
WYO 212 (College Drive, Four Mile Road)
- North-South route that forms a beltway around Cheyenne. From I-25 (Exit 7) to WYO 219
WYO 219 (Yellowstone Road)
- North-South route from US 85 in Cheyenne near the Cheyenne Airport north out of the city
WYO 221 (Fox Farm Road)
- East-west route from US 85 east to WYO 212 in Cheyenne
WYO 222 (Fort Access Road)
- North-South route from WYO 225 just southeast of Cheyenne and travels north to F.E. Warren Air Force Base and continues on its north route east of the city to WYO 221
WYO 225 (Otto Road)
- East-West route from I-80/US 30 southwest of Cheyenne west
Local Bus Service
Cheyenne provides local hourly bus service from 6 a.m.-7 p.m. Monday-Friday and 10 a.m.-5 p.m. on Saturday. There is no Sunday service.
Cheyenne Regional Airport features daily service from Great Lakes Airlines to Denver.
Cheyenne Frontier Days
Cheyenne Frontier Days, which occurs during 10 days centered around the last full week in July, is the largest outdoor rodeo in the US. The events include professional bull riding, calf roping, barrel racing, steer wrestling, team roping, bronc riding, steer roping, bareback riding and many others. During this week there are many parades and other events. Additionally there is a carnival with numerous rides, games and shops.
- Wyoming Tribune Eagle newspaper
- The Cheyenne Herald (OCLC 51310460) was written and published by Dave Featherly from 2002–2012.
Fictional references to Cheyenne
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (January 2010)|
Movies and television
In the Spike TV series Blue Mountain State, the main characters Alex Moran and Sammy Cacciatore are from Cheyenne.
In the animated series Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam, Amuro Ray is held under House Arrest, confined to Cheyenne.
Three novels by Philip K. Dick are partly set in Cheyenne. In The Man in the High Castle, Hawthorne Abendsen lives in the eponymous "High Castle" in Cheyenne. In Dr. Bloodmoney, it is the seat of a military dictatorship. In The Penultimate Truth, several characters are linked by post-apocalyptic Cheyenne.
In the American serial drama Jericho, Cheyenne is the capital city of the Allied States of America, a separatist faction of the United States formed after a surprise nuclear attack on the country's major metropolitan areas.
In the 1984 motion picture Red Dawn, Cheyenne is the farthest north that the Cuban, Soviet, and Nicaraguan forces have pushed American forces. In the motion picture Ready to Rumble, the two main protagonists go to a live WCW Monday Night Nitro in Cheyenne.
- Garth Brooks recorded the song "The Beaches of Cheyenne".
- James McMurtry wrote and recorded a song titled, "Lights of Cheyenne".
- Guided by Voices have a song titled "Cheyenne" on Universal Truths and Cycles.
- A B-side of The Hold Steady's Stay Positive is titled "Cheyenne Sunrise" ("there's nothing like a Cheyenne sunrise to make us has-beens feel too old").
- Country singer George Strait recorded the song "I Can Still Make Cheyenne".
- Country singer Eric Church makes reference to spurring a bull in Cheyenne in the song "These Boots".
- Country singer Chris Young's song "Neon" starts off with a reference to the skies in Cheyenne, Wyoming ("The sky in Cheyenne, Wyoming is just about as blue as it gets").
- The 80's and 90's rock'n roll band Del Lords made a song "Cheyenne" about the city.
- The band The Grateful Dead make reference to Cheyenne in the song "Jack Straw".
- Progressive bluegrass group Yonder Mountain String Band makes reference to Cheyenne in the song "The Winds of Wyoming".
Cheyenne's sister cities are:
- Taichung, Taiwan
- Lourdes, France
- Hammam Sousse, Tunisia
- Voghera, Italy
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (November 2012)|
- Vernon Baker, Medal of Honor recipient
- James Emmett Barrett, United States federal judge
- Harriet Elizabeth Byrd, first African-American to serve in the Wyoming Legislature
- Dino Costa, National sports talk host, SiriusXM Radio
- Rich Crandall, former member of the Arizona State Senate, moved to Cheyenne in 2013 to assume the new position of "director" of the Wyoming Department of Education
- Sammy Davis, Jr., entertainer, drafted in 1944 and attended boot camp at Fort Warren
- Neil Diamond, singer, lived in Cheyenne during his father's military service in the World War II era
- David R. Edwards, late state representative from Converse County was born in Cheyenne in 1938.
- Floyd Esquibel, member of the Wyoming Senate and former member of the Wyoming House of Representatives
- James M. Flinchum, editor-in-chief of former Wyoming State Tribune from 1961 to 1985
- Shirley E. Flynn, Cheyenne historian and author
- John Frullo, former Cheyenne resident and member of the Texas House of Representatives from Lubbock
- John Godina, Shot putter, won a silver medal at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics and a bronze medal at the 2000 Sydney games
- Mark Gordon, state treasurer since 2012
- Curt Gowdy, national sportscaster
- Robert Mills Grant, rancher, expert in branding law, state representative, was born and died in Cheyenne but spent his life in Platte County.
- Charles G. Hall, photojournalist
- Wild Bill Hickok, gunfighter and lawman
- Cindy Hill, Wyoming superintendent of public instruction since 2011
- Robert Holding, founder of Little America Hotels
- Tom Horn, American Old West lawman, scout, soldier, hired gunman, detective, outlaw and assassin
- James Johnson, forward for the Sacramento Kings
- Raymond A. Johnson, aviation pioneer
- William T. Kane, physicist in field of fiber optics
- Chris LeDoux, rodeo champion and country music legend; graduate of Cheyenne Central High
- Cynthia Lummis, former Wyoming state treasurer and member of the United States House of Representatives
- Edgar Warner Mann, Wyoming territorial legislator and lawyer
- Joseph B. Meyer, Wyoming attorney general and state treasurer
- Jennifer Nichols, archer who competed in the 2004, 2008 and 2012 Summer Olympics
- Brandon Nimmo, Professional Baseball player for the New York Mets
- Leslie Osterman, member of the Kansas House of Representatives from Wichita; Cheyenne native
- Charles E. Richardson, newspaper publisher, Rock Springs Daily Rocket-Miner; retired to Cheyenne
- Tracy Ringolsby, sportswriter and sportscaster
- Edwin H. Whitehead, former member of the Wyoming House of Representatives and leader of the John F. Kennedy forces in Wyoming in 1960
- George J Wienbarg lll, journalist, actor and nephew of Buffalo Bill
- Daniel Junge, Documentary Filmmaker/Academy Award Winner for his film Saving Face
- Mayor's Office, Cheyenne. Accessed January 18, 2009.
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-14.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-14.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "English-Arapaho dictionary". Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Cheyenne city, Wyoming". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- "Cheyenne Regional Airport History". Cheyenne Regional Airport. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 19, 2012.
- "Climatography of the United States No. 20 (1971–2000)" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2004. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- "Climatological Normals of Cheyenne". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- U.S. Decennial Census
- HISTORICAL DECENNIAL CENSUS POPULATION FOR WYOMING COUNTIES, CITIES, AND TOWNS
- 2012 estimate
- American FactFinder. Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on April 11, 2012.
- American FactFinder. Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on April 11, 2012.
- Cheyenne, WY – Official Website – City Council. Wy-cheyenne.civicplus.com. Retrieved on April 11, 2012.
- The Cheyenne-Laramie County Corporation for Economic Development. Cheyenne LEADS. Retrieved on April 11, 2012.
- Bowman, Robert J. (May 1, 2007). "A Random Walk Through Sierra Trading Post’s Warehouse". Global Logistics & Supply Chain Strategies.
- "Contact Us". Great Lakes Airlines. Retrieved May 25, 2009.
- "Contact Us". Taco John's. Retrieved February 25, 2010.
- "UP: Steam". Retrieved August 18, 2010.
- Cheyenne Frontier Days. Cfdrodeo.com (April 3, 2012). Retrieved on April 11, 2012.
- Cheyenne Herald: About us
- "Vernon Baker". nationalww2museum.org. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Judge James E. Barrett". Find A Grave. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- "Harriet Elizabeth Byrd". University of Wyoming. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- posted at 12:07 pm on Tue, Aug 14, 2012. (2012-08-14). "For SiriusXM host Dino Costa, Cheyenne is Radio City - WyoSports.net: Other Sports". WyoSports.net. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
- "Wyoming Gov. Mead appoints Arizona senator to run education department, June 27, 2013". Casper Star-Tribune. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
- "Neil Diamond". jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "David Richard Edwards". wyomingnews.com. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
- "Senator Floyd A. Esquibel". State of Wyoming Legislature. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- "James M. Flinchum". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Shirley E. Flynn". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "John Frullo". http://vote-tx.org/. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "John Godina". USA Track & Field, Inc. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Mark Gordon". The Billings Gazette. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Curt Gowdy". http://baseballhall.org/. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "For the Record: Robert Mills Grant, May 2, 2012". Platte County Record Times. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- "Charles G. Hall". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Wild Bill Hickok". ebraska State Government Homepage. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Cindy Hill". wyyr.org. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
- "Robert Holding". by the U.S. National Ski Hall of Fame. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "Tom Horn". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "James Patrick Johnson". Basketball-Reference.Com. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- "James Chilton, Hall of Fame inductee grew alongside aviation industry, September 26, 2013". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
- "William T. Kane". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Chris LeDoux". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Cynthia Lummis". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- 'Proceedings of the State Bar Association of Wisconsin 1907,' Wisconsin Bar Association: 1907, Biographical Sketch of Edgar Warner Mann, pg. 306
- "Joseph Meyer". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Jennifer Nichols". United States Olympic Committee. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Brandon Nimmo". BASEBALL REFERENCE. COM. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Leslie Osterman". MProject Vote Smart. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Charles E. Richardson". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Tracy Ringolsby". MLB Advanced Media, L.P. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Edwin H. Whitehead". Wyoming Tribune-Eagle. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Daniel Junge". Casper Star Tribune. Retrieved 7 March 2014.