|Regions with significant populations|
|United States ( Montana, Oklahoma)|
|Related ethnic groups|
Cheyenne (// shy-AN) are an indigenous people of the Great Plains, who are of the Algonquian language family. The Cheyenne Nation is composed of two tribes, the Só'taeo'o (more commonly spelled as Suhtai or Sutaio) and the Tsétsêhéstâhese (more commonly spelled as Tsitsistas). These merged to form a unified nation in the early 19th century. Today Cheyenne people are split geographically with the Southern Cheyenne in Oklahoma and the Northern Cheyenne in Montana. The Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes in Oklahoma and the Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in Montana are the two Cheyenne federally recognized tribes.
The Cheyenne are believed to have branched off other Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabiting lands around the Great Lakes in present-day Minnesota, perhaps ca. 1500. In historic times they moved west, migrating across the Mississippi River and into North and South Dakota. During the early 19th century, the Cheyenne formed a unified tribe, with more centralized authority through ritual ceremonies and structure than other Plains Indians. Having settled the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Powder River Country of present-day Montana, they introduced the horse culture to Lakota (Sioux) bands about 1730. Allied with the Arapaho, the Cheyenne pushed the Kiowa to the South. In turn, they were pushed west by the more numerous Lakota.
In the centuries before European contact, the Cheyenne were, at times, allied with bands of the Lakota and Arapaho. In the 18th century, they migrated west from Lakota warriors, but by the next century, bands of Lakota had followed them into the Black Hills and Powder River Country. By the mid-nineteenth century, they were sometimes allied with other Plains tribes.
The Cheyenne are one of the best known of the Plains tribes. The Cheyenne Nation formed into ten bands, spread across the Great Plains, from southern Colorado to the Black Hills in South Dakota. At the same time, they created a centralized structure through ritual ceremonies, such as the Sun Dance. When gathered, the bands leaders met in formal council. Alone among the Plains tribes, they waged war at the tribal level, first against their traditional enemy, the Crow, and later (1856–1879) against United States Army forces. In the mid-19th century, the bands began to split, with some bands choosing to remain near the Black Hills, while others chose to remain near the Platte Rivers of central Colorado.
The Northern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne either as Notameohmésêhese meaning "Northern Eaters" or simply as Ohmésêhese meaning "Eaters", live in southeast Montana on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. As of 1990 the population stood at 3,542. In the 2000 census, the reservation had a total population of 4,400, with 72.8%, or about 3,250 people, identifying as Cheyenne. The Northern Cheyenne Tribe reports 10,050 enrolled tribal members in 2013.
The Southern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne as Heévâhetaneo'o meaning "Roped People", together with the Southern Arapaho, form the federally recognized tribe, the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, situated in western Oklahoma. Their combined population is 12,130, as of 2008[update]. In 2003, about 8,000 of these identified as Cheyenne. With continued intermarriage, it is difficult to separate the tribes administratively.
The Cheyenne Nation is composed of two tribes, the Só'taeo'o (more commonly as Sutaio) and the Tsétsêhéstâhese (more commonly as the Tsitsistas; singular: Tsétsêhéstaestse), which translates to "those like us" or "Human Beings." These two tribes had always traveled together, becoming fully merged sometime after 1831, when they were still noted as having separate camps. The Suhtai were said to have originally had slightly different speech and customs from their traveling companions.
The name "Cheyenne" derives from Dakota Sioux exonym for them, Šahíyena (meaning "little Šahíya"). Though the identity of the Šahíya is not known, many Great Plains tribes assume it means Cree or some other people who spoke an Algonquian language related to Cree and Cheyenne. The Cheyenne word for Ojibwa is "Sáhea'eo'o," a word that sounds similar to the Dakota word Šahíya.
One of the most common etymologies for Cheyenne is "a bit like the [people of an] alien speech" (literally, "red-talker"). According to George Bird Grinnell, the Dakota had referred to themselves and fellow Siouan-language bands as "white talkers", and those of other language families, such as the Algonquian Cheyenne, as "red talkers" (Šahíyena).
The Cheyenne of Montana and Oklahoma speak the Cheyenne language, known as Tsêhésenêstsestôtse (common spelling: Tsisinstsistots). Only a handful of vocabulary differs between the two locations. The Cheyenne alphabet contains fourteen letters. The Cheyenne language is one of the larger Algonquian-language group.
The earliest known historical record of the Cheyenne comes from the mid-seventeenth century, when a group of Cheyenne visited the French Fort Crevecoeur, near present-day Chicago, Illinois. The Cheyenne at this time lived between the Mississippi River and Mille Lacs Lake in present-day Minnesota. The Cheyenne economy was based on collection of wild rice and hunting, especially of bison which lived in the prairies 70–80 miles west of the Cheyenne villages.
According to tribal tradition, during the 17th century the Cheyenne had been driven by the Ho hé (Assiniboine) from the Great Lakes region to present-day Minnesota and North Dakota, where they established villages. The most prominent of the ancient Cheyenne villages is Biesterfeldt Village, in eastern North Dakota along the Sheyenne River. Tradition tells that they first reached the Missouri River in 1676. A more recent analysis of early records posits that at least some of the Cheyenne remained in the Mille Lac region of Minnesota until c. 1765, when the Chippewa (Ojibwe) defeated the Dakota with firearms — pushing the Cheyenne in turn to the Minnesota River, where they were reported in 1766.
On the Missouri, the Cheyenne came into contact with the neighboring Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara nations, and they adopted many of their cultural characteristics. They were first of the later Plains tribes into the Black Hills and Powder River Country. About 1730 they introduced the horse to Lakota bands. Conflict with migrating Lakota and Ojibwa nations forced the Cheyenne further west, and they in turn pushed the Kiowa to the south.
By 1776 the Lakota had overwhelmed the Cheyenne and taken over much of their territory near the Black Hills. In 1804, Lewis and Clark visited a surviving Cheyenne village in North Dakota. Such European American explorers learned many different names for the Cheyenne, and did not realize how the different sections were forming a unified tribe.
Despite being an oral culture, the Cheyenne developed a complex centralized authority and ritual ceremonialism that united the tribe. The ten bands had four leaders each, and the forty-four men (Council of Forty-Four) met to deliberate at regular tribal gatherings, centered around the Sun Dance. In addition, they developed the ceremony of the Sacred Arrows, which they carried when they waged tribal-level war.
By the mid-19th century, the Cheyenne had mostly abandoned their earlier sedentary agricultural and pottery traditions because of changed conditions. They fully adopted the classic nomadic Plains culture. They replaced their earth lodges with portable tipis and switched their diet from fish and agricultural produce, to mainly bison and wild fruits and vegetables. Having acquired horses, they adopted a nomadic lifestyle, with their range expanding from the upper Missouri River into what is now Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and South Dakota.
Historical Cheyenne bands 
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2012)|
Northern Cheyenne (known in Cheyenne either as Notameohmésêhese meaning "Northern Eaters" or simply as Ohmésêhese or Ôhmésêheseo'o meaning "Eaters")
- Notameohmésêhese proper ("Northern Eaters", also simply known as Omísis, Ohmésêhese or Ôhmésêheseo'o - "Eaters", went by this names because they were known as great hunters and therefore had a good supply of meat to feed their people, most populous Cheyenne group)
- Anskówînîs ("Narrow Nose", "narrow-nose-bridge", named after their first chief Anskówînîs)
- Mogtávhaitäniu (Moktavhetaneo - "Black Men", "Ute-like Men", because they had darker skin than other Cheyenne, they looked more like the Utes to their Cheyenne kin)
- Northern Oivimána (Northern Oévemana - "Northern Scabby", "Northern Scalpers")
- Totoimana (Tútoimanáh - "Backward Clan", "Shy Clan" or "Bashful Clan")
- Masikota ("Crickets", "Grasshoppers", perhaps a Lakotiyapi word mazikute - "iron (rifle) shooters", from mazi - "iron" and kute - "to shoot", mixed Cheyenne-Lakota band, were known by the latter as Sheo, lived southeast of the Black Hills along the White River, intermarried with Oglala Lakota and Sičháŋǧu Oyáte, was the first group of the tribal unit on the Plains, hence their name First Named)
- Hó'nawa (Honowa, Ononeo or Háovôhnóva - "Arikara People", because they were through intermarriage of mixed Cheyenne-Arikara heritage)
- Northern Só'taeo'o (Suhtai or Sutaio, married only other Só'taeo'o (Northern or Southern alike) and camped always separate from the other Cheyenne camps, maintained closest ties to the Notameohmésêhese band)
- first band
- second band
Southern Cheyenne (known in Cheyenne as Heévâhetaneo'o meaning "Roped People", also commonly known as Sówoniá - "the Southen People")
- Tsistsistas proper
- Heviksnipahis (Iviststsinihpah - "Aorta People" or "Burnt Aorta People")
- Moiseo (Monsoni - "Flint-Men", called after the Flintmen Society (Motsêsóonetaneo'o), were also called Otata-voha - "Blue Horses", after Blue Horse, the first leader of the Coyote Warriors Society (O'ôhoménotâxeo'o), both were branches of the Fox Warriors Society (Vóhkêséhetaneo'o or Monêsóonetaneo'o), one of the four original Cheyenne military societies)
- Hévhaitanio (Heévâhetaneo'o or Heévâhetane - "Haire Rope Men", "Hairy People")
- Southern Oivimána (Southern Oévemana - "Southern Scabby", "Southern Scalpers", originally part of the Hevhaitanio)
- Hisíometanio (Hesé'omeétaneo'o or Issiometaniu - "Ridge People", originally part of the Hevhaitanio, lived in the hill country along the Upper Smoky River in Colorado)
- Ná'kuimana ("Bear People")
- Hotametaneo (Hotnowa, Hownowa - "Poor People")
- Wotápio (from the Lakotiyapi word Wutapiu: - "Eat with Lakota-Sioux", "Half-Cheyenne", "Cheyenne-Sioux", originally a band of Lakota Sioux which joined the Southern Cheyenne)
- Wóopotsît (Wóhkpotsit, Woxpometaneo - "White Wolf", "White River")
- Ohktounna (Oktogana, Oqtóguna or Oktoguna - "Bare Legged", "Protruding Jaw", referring to the art of dancing the Deer Dance before they were going to war, almost wiped out by an cholera epidemic in 1849)
- Southern Só'taeo'o (Suhtai or Sutaio, married only other Só'taeo'o (Northern or Southern alike) and camped always separate from the other Cheyenne camps, maintained closest ties to the Hisiometaneo band)
- first band
- second band
The Heviksnipahis, Hévhaitanio, Masikota, Omísis (Notameohmésêhese proper), Só'taeo'o (Suhtai or Sutaio, Northern and Southern), Wotápio, Oivimána (Northern and Southern), Hisíometanio, Ohktounna and the Hónowa were the ten principal bands that had the right to send four chief delegates representing them in the Council of Forty-Four.
After the Masikota had been almost wiped out through a cholera epidemic in 1849, the remaining Masikota joined the Dog Soldiers warrior society (Hotamétaneo'o). They effectively became a separate band and in 1850 took over the position in the camp circle formerly occupied by the Masikota. The members often opposed policies of peace chiefs such as Black Kettle. Over time the Dog Soldiers took a prominent leadership role in the wars against the whites. In 1867, most of the band were killed by United States Army forces in the Battle of Summit Springs.
Due to an increasing division between the Dog Soldiers and the council chiefs with respect to policy towards the whites, the Dog Soldiers became separated from the other Cheyenne bands. They effectively became a third division of the Cheyenne people, between the Northern Cheyenne, who ranged north of the Platte River, and the Southern Cheyenne, who occupied the area north of the Arkansas River.
19th century and Indian Wars 
Migration south 
At the beginning of the 19th century, many Cheyenne lived near the Black Hills, but engaged in hunting and trading for horses as far south as the Arkansas River. They may have ranged into Nuevo Mexico for horse-stealing raids. Some bands followed Kiowa and Arapaho to the southern areas. They traded both with the Spaniards, the French, and with other American Indian tribes, trading goods and materials obtained on the upper Missouri River with those of southern tribes.
As early as 1820, traders and explorers reported contact with Cheyenne at present-day Denver, Colorado and on the Arkansas River. They were probably hunting and trading in that area earlier. They may have migrated to the south for winter. The Hairy Rope band is reputed to have been the first band to move south, capturing wild horses as far south as the Cimarron River Valley.
In addition to endemic warfare with the Assiniboine to the north, and occasional conflict with the Lakota, the Cheyenne warred with the Crow. They suffered a major defeat at their hands in 1819. The following year, they took many Crow prisoners, who were adopted and incorporated into the tribe. Endemic warfare with the Crow, the Ute, and the Pawnee were a regular pattern of Cheyenne life until the 1860s.
Following reports in the 1820s of Cheyenne and other tribes' raids on parties on the Santa Fe Trail, US Army troops were sent out from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas to protect settlers on the trail. In 1834 Charles Bent and his partners established Bent's Fort on the Arkansas River in southeast present-day Colorado. The Bents had been trading on the upper Missouri River but were unsuccessful. As they were good friends with the Cheyenne, they relocated to the Arkansas, where the Cheyenne and Arapaho traded with them.
Treaty of 1825 
In the summer of 1825, the tribe was visited on the upper Missouri by a US treaty commission consisting of General Henry Atkinson and Indian agent Benjamin O'Fallon, accompanied by a military escort of 476 men. General Atkinson and his fellow commissioner left Fort Atkinson on May 16, 1825. Ascending the Missouri, they negotiated treaties of friendship and trade with tribes of the upper Missouri, including the Arikara, the Cheyenne, the Crow, the Mandan, the Ponca, and several bands of the Sioux. At that time the US had competition from British traders on the upper Missouri, who came down from Canada.
The treaties acknowledged that the tribes lived within the United States, vowed perpetual friendship between the US and the tribes, and, recognizing the right of the United States to regulate trade, the tribes promised to deal only with licensed traders. The tribes agreed to forswear private retaliation for injuries, and to return or indemnify the owner of stolen horses or other goods. The commission's efforts to contact the Blackfoot and the Assiniboine were unsuccessful. Along their return to Fort Atkinson at the Council Bluff in Nebraska, the commission had successful negotiations with the Ota, the Pawnee and the Omaha.
Effects of the Emigrant Trail 
Increased traffic of emigrants along the related Oregon, Mormon and California trails, beginning in the early 1840s, heightened competition with Native Americans for scarce resources of water and game in arid areas. With resource depletion along the trails, the Cheyenne became increasingly divided into the Northern Cheyenne and Southern Cheyenne, where they could have adequate territory for sustenance.
During the California Gold Rush, emigrants brought in cholera. It spread in mining camps and waterways due to poor sanitation. The disease was generally a major cause of death for emigrants, about one-tenth of whom died during their journeys.
Perhaps from traders, the cholera epidemic reached the Plains Indians in 1849, resulting in severe loss of life during the summer of that year. Historians estimate about 2,000 Cheyenne died, one-half to two-thirds of their population. There were significant losses among other tribes as well, which weakened their social structures. Perhaps because of severe loss of trade during the 1849 season, Bent's Fort was abandoned and burned.
Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 
In 1846 Thomas Fitzpatrick was appointed US Indian agent for the upper Arkansas and Platte River. His efforts to negotiate with the Northern Cheyenne, the Arapaho and other tribes led to a great council at Fort Laramie in 1851. Treaties were negotiated by a commission consisting of Fitzpatrick and D.D. Mitchell, US Superintendent of Indian Affairs, with the Indians of the northern plains.
To reduce inter-tribal warfare on the Plains, the government officials "assigned" territories to each tribe and had them pledge mutual peace. In addition, the government secured permission to build and maintain roads for European-American travelers and traders through Indian country on the Plains, such as the Emigrant Trail and the Santa Fe Trail, and to maintain forts to guard them. The tribes were compensated with annuities of cash and supplies for such encroachment on their territories. The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 affirmed the Cheyenne and Arapaho territory on the Great Plains between the North Platte River and the Arkansas. This territory included what is now Colorado, east of the Front Range of the Rockies and north of the Arkansas River; Wyoming and Nebraska, south of the North Platte River; and extreme western Kansas.
Punitive US expedition of 1857 
In April 1856, an incident at the Platte River Bridge (near present-day Casper, Wyoming), resulted in the wounding of a Cheyenne warrior. He returned to the Cheyenne on the plains. During the summer of 1856, Indians attacked travelers along the Emigrant Trail near Fort Kearny. In retaliation, the US Cavalry attacked a Cheyenne camp on Grand Island in Nebraska. They killed ten Cheyenne warriors and wounded eight or more.
Cheyenne parties attacked at least three emigrant settler parties before returning to the Republican River. The Indian agent at Fort Laramie negotiated with the Cheyenne to reduce hostilities, but the Secretary of War ordered the 1st Cavalry Regiment (1855) to carry out a punitive expedition under the command of Colonel Edwin V. Sumner. He went against the Cheyenne in the spring of 1857. Major John Sedgwick led part of the expedition up the Arkansas River, and via Fountain Creek to the South Platte River. Sumner's command went west along the North Platte to Fort Laramie, then down along the Front Range to the South Platte. The combined force of 400 troops went east through the plains searching for Cheyenne.
Under the influence of the medicine man White Bull (also called Ice) and Grey Beard (also called Dark), the Cheyenne went into battle believing that strong spiritual medicine would prevent the soldiers' guns from firing. They were told that if they dipped their hands in a nearby lake, they had only to raise their hands to repel army bullets. Hands raised, the Cheyenne surrounded the advancing troops as they advanced near the Solomon River. Sumner ordered a cavalry charge and the troops charged with drawn sabers; the Cheyenne fled. With tired horses after long marches, the cavalry could not engage more than a few Cheyenne, as their horses were fresh.
This was the first battle which the Cheyenne fought against the US Army. Casualties were few on each side; J.E.B. Stuart, then a young lieutenant, was shot in the breast while attacking a Cheyenne warrior with a sabre. The troops continued on and two days later burned a hastily abandoned Cheyenne camp; they destroyed lodges and the winter supply of buffalo meat.
Sumner continued to Bent's Fort. To punish the Cheyenne, he distributed their annuities to the Arapaho. He intended further punitive actions, but the Army ordered him to Utah because of an outbreak of trouble with the Mormons. (This became known as the Utah War.) The Cheyenne moved below the Arkansas into Kiowa and Comanche country. In the fall, the Northern Cheyenne returned to their country north of the Platte.
The Pikes Peak Gold Rush 
Starting in 1859 with the Colorado Gold Rush, European-American settlers moved into lands reserved for the Cheyenne and other Plains Indians. Travel greatly increased along the Emigrant Trail along the South Platte River and some emigrants stopped before going on to California. For several years there was peace between settlers and Indians. The only conflicts were related to the endemic warfare between the Cheyenne and Arapaho of the plains and the Utes of the mountains.
US negotiations with Black Kettle and other Cheyenne favoring peace resulted in the Treaty of Fort Wise: it established a small reservation for the Cheyenne in southeastern Colorado in exchange for the territory agreed to in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851. Many Cheyenne did not sign the treaty, and they continued to live and hunt on their traditional grounds in the Smokey Hill and Republican basins, between the Arkansas and the South Platte, where there were plentiful buffalo.
Efforts to make a wider peace continued, but in the spring of 1864, John Evans, governor of Colorado Territory, and John Chivington, commander of the Colorado Volunteers, a citizens militia, began a series of attacks on Indians camping or hunting on the plains. They killed any Indian on sight and initiated the Colorado War. General warfare broke out and Indians made many raids on the trail along the South Platte which Denver depended on for supplies. The Army closed the road from August 15 until September 24, 1864.
On November 29, 1864, the Colorado Militia attacked a Cheyenne and Arapaho encampment under Chief Black Kettle, although it flew a flag of truce and indicated its allegiance to the US government. The Sand Creek massacre, as it was known, resulted in the death of between 150 and 200 Cheyenne, mostly unarmed women and children. The survivors fled northeast and joined the camps of the Cheyenne on the Smokey Hill and Republican rivers. There warriors smoked the war pipe, passing it from camp to camp among the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho.
In January 1865 they planned and carried out an attack with about 1000 warriors on Camp Rankin, a stage station and fort at Julesburg. The Indians made numerous raids along the South Platte, both east and west of Julesburg, and raided the fort again in early February. They captured much loot and killed many European Americans. Most of the Indians moved north into Nebraska on their way to the Black Hills and the Powder River. (See Battle of Julesburg, Battle of Mud Springs, Battle of Rush Creek, Powder River Expedition, Battle of Platte Bridge)
Black Kettle continued to desire peace. He did not join in the second raid or in the plan to go north to the Powder River country. He left the large camp and returned with 80 lodges of his tribesmen to the Arkansas River, where he intended to seek peace with the US.
Battle of Washita River 
Four years later, on November 27, 1868, George Armstrong Custer and his troops attacked Black Kettle's band at the Battle of Washita River. Although his band was camped on a defined reservation, complying with the government's orders, some of its members had been linked to raiding into Kansas by bands operating out of the Indian Territory. Custer and his men killed more than 100 Cheyenne, mostly women and children.
There are conflicting claims as to whether the band was hostile or friendly. Historians believe that Chief Black Kettle, head of the band, was not part of the war party within the Plains tribes. But, he did not command absolute authority over members of his band and the European Americans did not understand this. When younger members of the band took part in raiding parties, European Americans blamed the entire band for the incidents and casualties.
Battle of the Little Bighorn 
The Northern Cheyenne fought in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, which took place on June 25, 1876. The Cheyenne, together with the Lakota, the Sioux and a small band of Arapaho, killed General Custer George Armstrong Custer and much of his 7th Cavalry contingent of Army soldiers. Historians have estimated the population of the Cheyenne, Lakota and Arapaho encampment along the Little Bighorn River was approximately 10,000, making it one of the largest gatherings of Native Americans in North America in pre-reservation times. News of the event traveled across the United States and reached Washington, D.C., just as the nation was celebrating its Centennial. Public reaction arose in outrage against the Cheyenne.
Northern Cheyenne Exodus 
Following the Battle of the Little Bighorn, the US Army increased attempts to capture the Cheyenne. In 1879, after the Dull Knife Fight, when Crazy Horse surrendered at Fort Robinson, a few Cheyenne chiefs and their people surrendered as well. They were Dull Knife, Standing Elk and Wild Hog with around 130 Cheyenne. Later that year Two Moons surrendered at Fort Keogh, with 300 Cheyenne. The Cheyenne wanted and expected to live on the reservation with the Sioux in accordance to an April 29, 1868 treaty of Fort Laramie, which both Dull Knife and Little Wolf had signed.
As part of a US increase in troops following the Battle of the Little Bighorn, the Army reassigned Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie and his Fourth Cavalry to the Department of the Platte. Stationed initially at Camp Robinson, they formed the core of the Powder River Expedition. It departed in October 1876 to locate the northern Cheyenne villages. On November 25, 1876, his column discovered and defeated a village of Northern Cheyenne in the Dull Knife Fight in Wyoming Territory. After the soldiers destroyed the lodges and supplies, and confiscated the horses, the Northern Cheyenne soon surrendered. They hoped to remain with the Sioux in the north but the US pressured them to locate with the Southern Cheyenne on their reservation in Indian Territory. After a difficult council, the Northern Cheyenne eventually agreed to go South.
When the Northern Cheyenne arrived at Indian Territory, conditions were very difficult: rations were inadequate, there were no buffalo near the reservation and according to several sources, there was malaria among the people. On 9 September 1878, a portion of the Northern Cheyenne, led by Little Wolf and Dull Knife started their trek back to the north. Upon reaching the northern area, they split into two bands. That led by Dull Knife (mostly women, children and elders) surrendered and were taken to Fort Robinson, where subsequent events became known as the Fort Robinson tragedy. Dull Knife's group was first offered food and firewood, and then after a week and a half, they were to told to go back to Indian territory. When they said no, they were then locked in the wooden barracks with no food, water or firewood for heat for four days. Most escaped in an estimated forty degrees below zero on January 9, 1879, but all were recaptured or killed.
Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation 
The Cheyenne who traveled to Fort Keogh (present day Miles City, Montana), including Little Wolf, settled near the fort. Many of the Cheyenne worked with the army as scouts. The Cheyenne scouts were pivotal in helping the Army find Chief Joseph and his band of Nez Percé in northern Montana. Fort Keogh became a staging and gathering point for the Northern Cheyenne. Many families began to migrate south to the Tongue River watershed area, where they established homesteads.
The US established the Tongue River Indian Reservation, now named the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, of 371,200 acres (1,502 km2) by the executive order of President Chester A. Arthur November 16, 1884. It excluded Cheyenne who had homesteaded further east near the Tongue River. The western boundary is the Crow Indian Reservation. On March 19, 1900, President William McKinley extended the reservation to the west bank of the Tongue River, making a total of 444,157 acres (1,797 km2). Those who had homesteaded east of the Tongue River were relocated to the west of the river.
The Northern Cheyenne sharing land of the Lakota at Pine Ridge Indian Reservation were finally allowed to return to the Tongue River on their own reservation. Along with the Lakota and Apache, the Cheyenne were the last nations to be subdued and placed on reservations. (The Seminole tribe of Florida never made a treaty with the US government.)
The Northern Cheyenne earned their right to remain in the north near the Black Hills, land they considered sacred. The Cheyenne also managed to retain their culture, religion and language. Today, the Northern Cheyenne Nation is one of the few American Indian nations to have control over the majority of its land base, currently 98%.
Over the past 400 years, the Cheyenne have gone through four stages of culture. First they lived in the Eastern Woodlands and were a sedentary and agricultural people, planting corn, squash, beans, and harvesting wild rice. Next they lived in present-day Minnesota and South Dakota and continued their farming tradition. They started hunting bison of the Great Plains. During the third stage, the Cheyenne abandoned their farming lifestyle and became a full-fledged Plains horse culture tribe. The fourth stage is the reservation phase.
The traditional Cheyenne government system is a politically unified North American indigenous nation. Most other nations were divided into politically autonomous bands, whereas the Cheyenne bands were politically unified. The central traditional government system of the Cheyenne was the "Arrow Keeper" followed by the "Council of Forty-Four". The name denotes the number of seated chiefs on the council. Early in Cheyenne history, three related tribes known as the Heviqsnipahis, the Só'taeo'o and the Masikota, unified themselves to form the Tsé-tsêhéstâhese or the "Like Hearted People" who are known today as the "Cheyenne." The unified tribe then divided themselves into ten principal bands:
- Heviksnipahis (Iviststsinihpah)
- Hévhaitanio (Heévâhetaneo'o)
- Omísis (Ôhmésêheseo'o, the Notameohmésêhese proper)
- Só'taeo'o (Suhtai or Sutaio, Northern and Southern)
- Oivimána (Oévemana, Northern and Southern)
- Hisíometanio (Hesé'omeétaneo'o or Issiometaniu)
- Ohktounna (Oqtóguna)
- Hónowa (Háovôhnóva)
Each of the ten bands had four seated chief delegates; the remaining four chiefs were the principal advisers of the other delegates. Smaller bands or subbands had no right to send delegates to the council. This system also regulated the Cheyenne military societies that developed for planning warfare, enforcing rules, and conducting ceremonies. By the time the Cheyenne reached the Great Plains, they had developed this government.
Anthropologists debate about Cheyenne society organization. When the Cheyenne were fully adapted to the classic Plains culture, they had a bi-lateral band kinship system. However, some anthropologists reported that the Cheyenne had a matrilineal band system. Studies into whether the Cheyenne developed a matrilineal clan system are inconclusive.
Traditional Cheyenne plains culture 
As they abandoned their agricultural villages near the Missouri River and acquired horses, the Cheyenne adopted the Plains Indian culture. In this nomadic life, the men hunted and occasionally fought with and raided other tribes. The women did the tanning and dressing of hides for clothing, shelter and other uses. They also gathered roots, berries and other useful plants. From the products of hunting and gathering, they made lodges, clothing, and other equipment. Their lives were active and physically demanding. The range of the Cheyenne was first the area in and near the Black Hills, but later all the Great Plains from Dakota to the Arkansas River.
Role models 
A Cheyenne woman has a higher status if she is part of an extended family with distinguished ancestors. Also, if she is friendly and compatible with her female relatives and does not have members in her extended family who are alcoholics or otherwise in disrepute. It is expected of all Cheyenne women to be hardworking, chaste, modest, skilled in traditional crafts, knowledgeable about Cheyenne culture and history and speak Cheyenne fluently.
A young woman with these characteristics would have an advantage in a Powwow Princess competition.
Notable Cheyenne 
- Black Kettle (in Cheyenne: Moke-tav-a-to or Mo'ôhtavetoo'o, since 1854 member of the Council of Forty-four and chief of the Wotapio band of Southern Cheyenne, killed by George Armstrong Custer at Battle of Washita River)
- Morning Star (in Cheyenne: Vóóhéhéve, better known as Dull Knife, a translation of his Lakota name Tamílapéšni, Head chief of the Northern Cheyenne)
- Little Wolf (in Cheyenne: Ó'kôhómôxháahketa, more correctly translated Little Coyote, Northern Só'taeo'o chief and Sweet Medicine Chief, was one of the "Old Man" chiefs among the Council of Forty-four, belonged to the Elk Horn Scrapers (Hémo'eoxeso), one of the four original Cheyenne military societies)
- Owl Woman, daughter of White Thunder and wife of William Bent
- Roman Nose (in Cheyenne: Woo-ka-nay, Northern Cheyenne, legendary war hero and chief of the Elk Horn Scrapers (Hémo'eoxeso), one of the four original Cheyenne military societies)
- Tall Bull, chief of the Cheyenne Dog Soldiers, killed at Battle of Summit Springs
- Wooden Leg, Northern Cheyenne, warrior fought at Little Bighorn
- Wolf Robe, chief, Southern Cheyenne, peacemaker
- George Bent, son of Owl Woman, interpreter and Cheyenne historian
- Jimmy Carl Black, drummer and vocalist for The Mothers of Invention
- Ben Nighthorse Campbell, Northern Cheyenne, former US Senator, State of Colorado, United States Congress
- Chris Eyre, Southern Cheyenne and Southern Arapaho, directed the films: Smoke Signals and Skins
- Joseph Fire Crow, Northern Cheyenne, Cheyenne flutist and recording artist, Grammy Nominee and Nammy winner
- Suzan Shown Harjo, Southern Cheyenne and Muscogee (Creek), Founding Trustee, Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian; President, Morning Star Institute (a Native rights advocacy organization based in Washington DC).
- Eugene Little Coyote, Northern Cheyenne, former president of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation
- St. David Pendleton Oakerhater, Okuhhatuh or "Making Medicine," Southern Cheyenne (1847–1931), veteran of the Red River War, Fort Marion prisoner of war, ledger artist, deacon of Whirlwind Mission, sun dancer, canonized saint in the Episcopal Church
- Harvey Pratt, Southern Cheyenne and Southern Arapaho, painter, sculptor and a leading forensic artist in the United States
- W. Richard West Jr., Southern Cheyenne, Founding Director, Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian
- W. Richard West, Sr., "Dick West" or Wahpahnahyah, Southern Cheyenne painter, educator, and Director of Art at Bacone College
See also 
- Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes
- Native American tribes in Nebraska
- Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation
- The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Lifeways
- "Northern Cheyenne Tribe website". Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- Oklahoma Indian Affairs. Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory. 2008:7
- As of 1990, according to Pritzker, 308
- "Cheyenne, Southern", Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed 10 March 2020
- Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, p. 2.
- "What is the origin of the word "Cheyenne"?". Cheyenne Language Web Site. 2002-03-03. Archived from the original on 2009-08-07. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
- Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 95
- Moore, John H. The Cheyenne. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Co., 1999, pp. 15-16
- Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, p. 1–8.
- Moore, John H. The Cheyenne. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Co., 1999, p. 18
- Liberty, Dr. Margot. "Cheyenne Primacy: The Tribes' Perspective As Opposed To That Of The United States Army; A Possible Alternative To "The Great Sioux War Of 1876". Friends of the Little Bighorn. Retrieved 13 January 2008.
- Berthrong, pp. 13–21
- Berthrong, p. 17
- Berthrong, p. 23
- Berthrong, pp. 24–26
- Page 143, Francis Paul Prucha, American Indian treaties: the history of a political anomaly, University of California Press (March 15, 1997), trade paperback, 562 pages ISBN 0-520-20895-1 ISBN 978-0-520-20895-7
- Berthrong, pp. 113–114
- Berthrong, pp. 106–123
- Berthrong, pp. 133–140
- Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, pp. 111–121
- Hyde, pp. 99–105
- Berthrong, pp. 133 to 140
- Page 97-98, David Fridtjof Halaas and Andrew E. Masich, Halfbreed: The Remarkable True Story Of George Bent – Caught Between The Worlds Of The Indian And The White Man, Da Capo Press (March 15, 2005), hardcover, 458 pages, ISBN 0-306-81410-2 ISBN 978-0306814105
- Hyde, pp. 99 to 105
- Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, pp. 124 to 158
- Hyde, pp. 168 to 195
- Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, p. 188
- Brown, pp. 332–349
- Brown, pp. 332–349.
- Maddux Albert Glenn, In Dull Knife's Wake: The True Story of the Northern Cheyenne Exodus of 1878, Horse Creek Publications (2003), ISBN 0-9722217-1-9 ISBN 978-0-9722217-1-9
- Brown, pp. 332–349.
- Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, pp. 398–427
- "WE, THE NORTHERN CHEYENNE PEOPLE: Our Land, Our History, Our Culture", Chief Dull Knife College. Page 30. Accessed September 20, 2009
- Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 1, pp. 258–311
- Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 2, pp. 1–57
- Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 1, pp. 247–311
- Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 1, 209-246
- Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 1, pp. 63–71, 127-129, 247-311
- Moore, pp. 154–156
- recorded as Tah-me-la-pash-me; from ta (his) + míla (big knife) + péšni (dull)
- Berthrong, Donald J. The Southern Cheyenne. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.
- Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970. ISBN 0-8050-1730-5.
- Bourke, John G. Mackenzie's Last Fight with the Cheyenne. New York: Argonaut Press, 1966.
- Grinnell, George Bird. The Fighting Cheyenne. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1956. (original copyright 1915, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons). ISBN 0-87928-075-1.
- Grinnell, George Bird. The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Ways of Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1923. 2 volumes; trade paperback, reprints: The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 1: History and Society, Bison Books, 1972. ISBN 978-0-8032-5771-9; The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 2: War, Ceremonies, and Religion, Bison Books, 1972. ISBN 978-0-8032-5772-6.
- Hyde, George E. Life of George Bent: Written From His Letters, ed. Savoie Lottinville, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968. Reprint, trade paperback, March 1983. ISBN 978-0-8061-1577-1
- Moore, John H. (1996). The Cheyenne. The peoples of America. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55786-484-0. OCLC 34412067.
- Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.
Further reading 
- Ambler, Marjane; Little Bear, Richard E; et al. (2008) We, The Northern Cheyenne People. Lame Deer, MT: Chief Dull Knife College
- Bringing the Story of the Cheyenne People to the Children of Today. Northern Cheyenne Social Studies Units. Northern Cheyenne Curriculum Committee, Montana Office of Public Instruction. 2006. Retrieved 2012-05-12.
- John Stands In Timber and Margot Liberty (2013). A Cheyenne voice : the complete John Stands in Timber interviews. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806143798.
- Kroeber, A L (July–September 1900). "Cheyenne Tales". Journal of American Folklore 13 (50): 161–190. JSTOR 533882.
|Cheyenne people edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cheyenne|
- Cheyenne Arapaho Tribe (Official Site)
- Northern Cheyenne Nation (Official Site)
- "Cheyenne Culture and History Links", Native Languages
- Montana Office of Public Instruction. "Symbols of Our People". Retrieved 2012-05-12.
- Jomay Steen, "Indian remains finally at rest", The Rapid City Journal, 31 March 2005
- "The Cheyenne Outbreak: The Battle of Turkey Springs and Red Hills", Freedom Oklahoma
- "Cheyenne perform Victory Dance to honor Marine tank driver", Turtle Track
- Minnesota State University eMuseum Article on the Cheyenne