Chhattisgarh

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Chhattisgarh
छत्तीसगढ़
State
Official seal of Chhattisgarh
Seal
Location of Chhattisgarh (marked in red) in India
Location of Chhattisgarh (marked in red) in India
Map of Chhattisgarh
Map of Chhattisgarh
Coordinates (Raipur): 21°16′N 81°36′E / 21.27°N 81.60°E / 21.27; 81.60Coordinates: 21°16′N 81°36′E / 21.27°N 81.60°E / 21.27; 81.60
Country  India
Established 1 November 2000
Capital Raipur
Largest city Raipur
Districts 27 (9 dist. new)
Government
 • Governor Balramji Das Tandon
 • Chief Minister Raman Singh (BJP)
 • Legislature Unicameral (90 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency 11 (year 2010)
 • High Court Chhattisgarh High Court
Area
 • Total 135,194.5 km2 (52,198.9 sq mi)
Area rank 10
Population (2011)
 • Total 25,545,198
 • Rank 16th
 • Density 190/km2 (490/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-CT
HDI Increase 0.516 (medium)
HDI rank 23rd (2005)
Literacy 71.04% (23rd)
Official languages Hindi, Chhattisgarhi
Website chhattisgarh.nic.in
Symbols of Chhattisgarh
Language Chhattisgarhi (a dialect of Hindi)
Animal Van Bhainsa (Wild Buffalo)
Bird Pahari Myna (Hill Myna)
Tree Sal or Sarai

Chhattisgarh (Chattīsgaṛh  pronounced [tʃʰʌttiːsɡʌɽʱ]) is a state in Central India. It is the 10th largest state in India, with an area of 135,190 km2 (52,200 sq mi). With a population of 25.5 million, Chhattisgarh is the 16th most-populated state of the nation. It is a source of electricity and steel for India.[1] Chhattisgarh accounts for 15% of the total steel produced in the country. Chhattisgarh is one of the fastest-developing states in India.[2]

The state was formed on 1 November 2000 by partitioning 16 Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh.[3][4] Raipur was made its capital city. Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Maharastra in the southwest Telangana and Andhra Pradesh[5][6][7] in the south, Odisha in the east, Jharkhand in the northeast and Uttar Pradesh in the north. Currently the state comprises 27 districts.

Contents

Etymology[edit]

There are several opinions on the origin of the word Chhattisgarh. In ancient times, this region was called Dakshin Kosala (South Kosala). The name Chhattisgarh was popularized during the Maratha period and was first used in an official document in 1795.[8]

It is widely believed that Chhattisgarh takes its name from the 36 pillars of Chhatishgarhin Devi temple (chhattis means "36" and garh means "fort"). The old state had 36 demesnes (feudal territories): Ratanpur, Vijaypur, Kharound, Maro, Kautgarh, Nawagarh, Sondhi, Aukhar, Padarbhatta, Semriya, Champa, Lafa, Chhuri, Kenda, Matin, Aparora, Pendra, Kurkuti-kandri, Raipur, Patan, Simaga, Singarpur, Lavan, Omera, Durg, Saradha, Sirasa, Menhadi, Khallari, Sirpur, Figeswar, Rajim, Singhangarh, Suvarmar, Tenganagarh and Akaltara.[9] However, experts do not agree with this explanation, as 36 forts cannot be archaeologically identified in this region.[8]

Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh which means Raj or "Empire of the Chedis" (Kalchuri Dynasty).[8]

Geography[edit]

The northern and southern parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is a fertile plain. Deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover roughly 44% of the state. The state animal is the van bhainsa, or wild water buffalo. The state bird is the pahari myna, or hill myna. The state tree is the Sal (Sarai) found in Bastar division.

Sal- The State Tree of Chhattisgarh

In, the north lies the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain. The Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain. The outline of Chhattisgarh is like a sea horse.

The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi river and its tributaries. This area has extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills (part of the Satpuras) and from the plains of Odisha to the east by ranges of hills. The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary, the Indravati River. The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. The other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk, Arpa and Shivnath. It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh.[clarification needed]

Climate[edit]

The climate of Chhattisgarh is tropical. It is hot and humid because of its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer and its dependence on the monsoons for rains. Summer in Chhattisgarh temperatures can reach 45 °C (113 °F). The monsoon season is from late June to October and is a welcome respite from the heat. Chhattisgarh receives an average of 1,292 millimetres (50.9 in) of rain. Winter is from November to January and it is a good time to visit Chhattishgarh. Winters are pleasant with low temperatures and less humidity.[10]

Temperature[edit]

The temperature varies between 30 and 45 °C (86 and 113 °F) in summer and between 0 and 25 °C (32 and 77 °F) during winter. However, extremes in temperature can be observed with scales falling to less than 0 °C to 49 °C.[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

Road, rail and air transportation from and to Chhattisgarh can be seen from the official website[dead link] of the Chhattisgarh Government.

Roads[edit]

Chhattisgarh has wide coverage of roads which have pan-nation connectivity. The district headquarters, tehsils and development blocks are well connected with good all-weather roads. 11 national highways passing through the state which are together 2,184 km in length. This includes NH 6, NH 16, NH 43, NH 12A, NH 78, NH 111, NH 200, NH 202, NH 216, NH 217, NH 221,[National Highway 30(India)NH30].[11][12]

The state highways and major district roads constitute another network of 8,031 km.As of 2012, there are a total of 6635 passenger vehicles plying on 2316 roads of the state. Transport is coordinated through 22 computerised transport offices in the state. A motor and driving school has also been proposed to be established.[13]

Rail network[edit]

Almost the entire railway network spread over the state comes under the geographical jurisdiction of the South East Central Railway Zone of Indian Railways centered around Bilaspur, which is the zonal headquarters of this zone. The construction of Nagpur-Chhattisgarh railway line began in 1878 and was completed in 1882. The main railway junction is Raipur, Durg and Bilaspur Junction, which is also a starting point of many long distance trains. These three junctions are well-connected to the major cities of India.[14] The state has the highest freight loading in the country and one-sixth of Indian Railway's revenue comes from Chhattisgarh. The length of rail network in the state is 1,108 km, while a third track has been commissioned between Raipur and Raigarh.[15] Construction of some new railway lines are under process. These include Dalli-Rajhara–Jagdalpur rail line, Pendra Road-Gevra Road Rail Line rail line, Raigarh-Mand Colliery to Bhupdeopur rail line and Barwadih-Chirmiri rail line.[16]

Major Railway heads are Mahasamund, Bilaspur, Durg, Champa, Rajnandgaon

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) has been engaged to conduct a pre-feasibility study of the Metro Rail project in the State. A New Metro line is proposed between Durg-Bhilai-Raipur-Naya Raipur. First phase work will start with Bhilai-Raipur connectivity.[17]

Air[edit]

Swami Vivekananda Airport, Raipur

The air infrastructure in Chhattisgarh is small compared to other states. Swami Vivekananda Airport in Raipur is its sole airport with scheduled commercial air services. A massive reduction in sales tax on aviation turbine fuel (ATF) from 25 to 4 per cent in Chhattisgarh in 2003 has contributed to a sharp rise in passenger flow. The passenger flow has increased by an overwhelming 58 per cent between 2011 and November 2012.[18] The State Government has signed a MOU with the Airports Authority of India (AAI) in July 2013 to develop Raigarh Airport as the state's second airport for domestic flights.[19] An "On Demand" Air-taxi service is available from Raipur to Korba, Jagdalpur, Raigarh, Ambikapur and Jashpur.

Other airstrips

  • Bilaspur Airport, Bilaspur
  • Jagdalpur Airport, Jagdalpur
  • Nandini Airport, Bhilai
  • Baikunth Airstrip, Baikunth
  • JSPL’s Airstrip, Raigarh
  • Darima Airstrip, Ambikapur
  • Korba Airstrip, Korba
  • Agdih Airstrip, Jashpur
  • Dondi Airstrip, Dondi, Durg

Proposed airstrips

  • Kanker
  • Kabirdham
  • Surajpur
  • Dantewada
  • Bijapur
  • Korba
  • Balrampur
  • Rajnandgaon

History[edit]

Ancient and medieval history[edit]

In ancient times, this region was known as Dakshin-Kausal. This area also finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries, Sarabhpurias, Panduavanshi, Somvanshi, Kalachuri and Nagvanshi rulers dominated this region. Kalachuris ruled in Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1741 AD. The Bastar region of Chhattisgarh was invaded by Rajendra Chola I and Kulothunga Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century.[20][21][22]

Colonial and Post Independence history[edit]

Chhattisgarh was under Maratha rule (Bhonsales of Nagpur) from 1741 to 1845 AD. It came under British rule from 1845 to 1947 as the Chhattisgarh Division of the Central Provinces. Raipur gained prominence over the capital Ratanpur with the advent of the British in 1845. In 1905, the Sambalpur district was transferred to Odisha and the estates of Surguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh.

The area constituting the new state merged into on November 1, 1956, under the States Re-organization Act and remained a part of that state for 44 years. Prior to its becoming a part of the new state of Madhya Pradesh, the region was part of old Madhya Pradesh State, with its capital at Nagpur. Prior to that, the region was part of the Central Provinces and Berar province (CP and Berar) under the British rule. Some areas constituting the Chhattisgarh state were princely states under the British rule, but later on were merged into Madhya Pradesh.[23]

Separation of Chhattisgarh[edit]

Mantralaya in Naya (New) Raipur

The present state of Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh on November 1, 2000.[3][4] The demand for a separate state was first raised in the 1920s. Similar demands kept cropping up at regular intervals; however, a well-organized movement was never launched. Several all-party platforms were formed and they usually resolved around petitions, public meetings, seminars, rallies and strikes.[24] A demand for separate Chhattisgarh was raised in 1924 by the Raipur Congress unit and also discussed in the Annual Session of the Indian Congress at Tripuri. A discussion also took place of forming a Regional Congress organization for Chhattisgarh. When the State Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1954, the demand for a separate Chhattisgarh was put forward, but was not accepted. In 1955, a demand for a separate state was raised in the Nagpur assembly of the then state of Madhya Bharat.[24]

The 1990s saw more activity for a demand for the new state, such as the formation of a state-wide political forum, especially the Chhattisgarh Rajya Nirman Manch. Chandulal Chadrakar led this forum, several successful region-wide strikes and rallies were organized under the banner of the forum, all of which were supported by major political parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party.[24]

The new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government sent the redrafted Separate Chhattisgarh Bill for the approval of the Madhya Pradesh Assembly, where it was once again unanimously approved and then it was tabled in the Lok Sabha. This bill for a separate Chhattisgarh was passed in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, paving the way for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh. The President of India gave his consent to the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 on August 25, 2000. The Government of India subsequently set November 1, 2000, as the day the state of Madhya Pradesh would be divided into Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.[24]

Governance and administration[edit]

The State Legislative assembly is composed of 90 members of the Legislative Assembly. There are 11 members of the Lok Sabha from Chhattisgarh. The Rajya Sabha has five members from the state.

Districts[edit]

Chhattisgarh state consists of 27 districts:[26][27][28][29][30]

Bastar Division Durg Division Raipur Division Bilaspur Division Surguja Division

Municipal corporations[edit]

  1. Raipur
  2. Bhilai
  3. Durg
  4. Bilaspur
  5. Raigarh
  6. Korba
  7. Champa
  8. Ambikapur
  9. Rajnandgaon
  10. Jagdalpur
  11. Chirmiri
  12. Dhamtari
  13. Birgaon

Major cities[edit]

Human Development Indicators (HDIs)[31][edit]

HDI[edit]

As of 2011 Chhattisgarh had an HDI value of 0.358, the lowest of any Indian state. The national average is 0.467 according to 2011 Indian NHDR report.

Standard of living[edit]

Chhattisgarh has one of the lowest standard of living in India as per the Income Index (0.127) along with the states of Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Rajasthan. These states have incomes below the national average, with Bihar having the lowest income per capita.

These poor states, despite low absolute incomes, have witnessed high Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) growth rates especially Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Uttarakhand which had growth rates above 10 per cent per annum during the Tenth Five Year Plan period (2002–7).

Education Index[edit]

Chhattisgarh has an Education Index of 0.526 according to 2011 NHDR which is higher than that of states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan which are below the 0.5 mark. Though, it is lower than the national average of 0.563.

With respect to literacy, the state fared just below the national average. The recent estimates from Census (2011) also depict a similar picture with the literacy rate of 71 per cent (81.4% Males & 60.5% Females), which is close to the all India literacy rate of 74 per cent.

According to NSS (2007–8), the literacy rate for STs and SCs was better than the corresponding national average and this is a positive sign.

Among the marginalized groups, STs are at the bottom of the rankings, further emphasizing the lack of social development in the state. Bastar and Dantewada in south Chhattisgarh are the most illiterate districts and the drop out ratio is the highest among all the districts. The reason for this is the extreme poverty in rural areas.

Health Index[edit]

Health Index of Chhattisgarh is less than 0.49, one of the lowest in the country. The Health Index is defined in terms of life expectancy at birth since a higher life expectancy at birth reflects better health outcomes for an individual.

Despite different health related schemes and programmes, the health indicators such as percentage of women with BMI<18.5, Under Five Mortality Rate and underweight children are poor. This may be due to the difficulty in accessing the remote areas in the state. The prevalence of female malnutrition in Chhattisgarh is higher than the national average—half of the ST females are malnourished. The performance of SCs is a little better than the corresponding national and state average. The Under Five Mortality Rate among STs is significantly higher than the national average. The percentage of under-weight children in Chhattisgarh is also higher than the national average, further underlining the appalling health condition of the state’s population.

Net state domestic product (NSDP)[edit]

Chhattisgarh is one of the emerging states with relatively high growth rates of NSDP (8.2% vs. 7.1% All India over 2002–2008) and per capita NSDP(6.2% vs. 5.4% All India over 2002-2008). The growth rates of the said parameters are above the national averages and thus it appears that Chhattisgarh is catching up with other states in this respect. However, Chhattisgarh still has very low levels of per capita income as compared to the other states.

Urbanisation[edit]

The demographic profile shows that about 80 per cent of the total population lived in rural areas.

Sex ratio[edit]

There are 1,30,32,895 (more than 1.28 crore) males and 1,29,12,303 (more than 1.27 crore) females in Chhattisgarh which is 2.11 per cent of the country’s total population. The sex ratio in the state is one of the best in India with 991 females per 1,000 males, as is the child sex-ratio with 969 females per 1,000 males (Census 2011)

Fertility rate[edit]

Chhattisgarh has a fairly high fertility rate (3.1) as compared to All India (2.6) and the replacement rate (2.1). Chhattisgarh has rural fertility rate of 3.2 and urban fertility rate of 2.1. as

ST population[edit]

With the exception of the hilly states of the north-east, Chhattisgarh has one of highest shares of Scheduled Tribe (ST) population within a state, accounting for about 10 per cent of the STs in India. Scheduled Castes and STs together constitute more than 50 per cent of the state’s population. The tribals of Chhattisgarh are an important part of the population and mainly inhabit the dense forests of Bastar and other districts of south Chhattisgarh. The total population of the scheduled caste people in Chhattisagrh stood at 78,22,902 in 2011. Similarly, the percentage increase in the population of the scheduled list of tribals during the 2001-2011 decade had been at the rate of 18.23 per cent. The share of the tribal population in the entire state had been 30.62 per cent which was 31.76 per cent during 2001.

Poverty[edit]

Tendu Patta (Leaf) collection in Chhattisgarh, India.

The incidence of poverty in Chhattisgarh is very high but is better than Odisha and Bihar. The estimated poverty ratio in 2004–5 based on uniform reference period consumption was around 50 per cent, which is approximately double the all India level. The incidence of poverty in the rural and urban areas is almost the same.

More than half of the rural STs and urban SCs are poor. In general, the proportion of poor SC and ST households in the state is higher than the state average and their community’s respective national averages (except for rural SC households). Given that more than 50 per cent of the state’s population comprises STs and SCs, the high incidence of income poverty among them is a matter of serious concern in the state.

This indicates that the good economic performance in recent years has not percolated to this socially deprived group, which is reflected in their poor performance in human development indicators.

Access to drinking water[edit]

In terms of access to improved drinking water sources, at the aggregate level, Chhattisgarh fared better than the national average and the SCs of the state performed better than the corresponding national average. Scheduled Tribes are marginally below the state average, but still better than the STs at the all India level.

The proportion of households with access to improved sources of drinking water in 2008–9 was 91 per cent. This proportion was over 90 per cent even in states like Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. This was largely because these states had over 70 per cent of their households accessing tube wells/ handpumps as sources of drinking water.

Victim of Fluorosis in Raigarh

Sanitation[edit]

Sanitation facilities in the state are abysmally low with only about 27 per cent having toilet facilities, which is far below the all-India average of 44%.[32][33] The STs are the most deprived section in this regard with only 18 per cent of the ST households having toilet facilities, which is lower than the all India average for STs. The SCs also have a lower proportion of households with toilet facilities as compared to the all India average.

States with low sanitation coverage in 2001 that improved coverage by 4-10% points are [Chhattisgarh], Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh, Daman and Diu, Haryana, Sikkim, Punjab, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa and Uttarakhand registered increased coverage by more than 20 percentage points.[32]

Teledensity[edit]

Across states, it has been found that teledensity was below 10 per cent in 2010 for Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, reflecting a lack of access to telephones in these relatively poorer states. On the other hand, for states like Delhi and Himachal Pradesh and metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, teledensity was over 100 per cent in 2010 implying that individuals have more than one telephone connection.

Road density[edit]

The road length per 100 km2 was less than the national average of 81 km (81,000 m) per 100 km2 in Chhattisgarh. The rural areas of Chhattisgarh failed to meet their targets of constructing new roads under PMGSY.[34]

Demographics[edit]

Chhattisgarh is primarily a rural state with only 20% of population (around 5,1 million people in 2011) residing in urban areas. According to the report from the government of India,[36] at least 34% are Scheduled Tribes, 12% are Scheduled Castes and over 50% belong to official list of OBC. Plain area is numerically dominated by castes such as Teli, Satnami and Kurmi; while forest area is mainly occupied by tribes such as Gond, Halbi, Halba and Kamar/Bujia and Oraon.

Tribal Youth of Bastar

Religion[edit]

There were 22.8 million people in Chhattisgarh as per the census 2011 of which 98.30% were Hindu, 1% Muslim and 0.7% Christian.[37] Chhattisgarh now has the highest Hindu percentage in the world by state.

Native of Chhattisgarh Plains with Neem Branches and Leaves on Hareli Festival

Language[edit]

The official language of the state is Hindi and is used by non-rural population of the state. Chhattisgarhi, a dialect of Hindi language, is spoken and understood by the majority of people in Chhattisgarh. Telugu is also spoken in parts of Chhattishgarh.

Chhattisgarhi was known as "Khaltahi" to the surrounding hill-people and as "Laria" to Sambalpuri and Oriya speakers. Kosali and Oriya are also spoken by a lot of people. As well as Bhojpuri is also spoken by a lot of people[quantify]

Adivasi woman and child

Status of women[edit]

Chhattisgarh has a high female-male sex ratio (991)[38] ranking at the 5th position among other states of India. Although this ratio is small compared to other states, it is unique in India because Chhattisharh is — the 10th largest state in India.

The gender ratio (number of females per 1000 males) has been steadily declining over 20th century in Chhattisgarh. But it is conspicuous that Chhattisgarh always had a better female-to-male ratio compared with national average.

Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
India 972 964 955 950 945 946 941 930 934 927 933 940
Chhattisgarh 1046 1039 1041 1043 1032 1024 1008 998 998 985 989 991

Probably, such social composition also results in some customs and cultural practices that seem unique to Chhattisgarh: The regional variants are common in India's diverse cultural pattern.

Rural women, although poor, are independent, better organized, socially outspoken.[39] According to another local custom, women can choose to terminate a marriage relationship through a custom called chudi pahanana, if she desires. Most of the old temples and shrines here are related to 'women power' (e.g., Shabari, Mahamaya, Danteshwari) and the existence of these temples gives insight into historical and current social fabric of this state. However, a mention of these progressive local customs in no way suggests that the ideology of female subservience does not exist in Chhattisgarh. On the contrary, the male authority and dominance is seen quite clearly in the social and cultural life.

Detailed information on aspects of women's status in Chhattisgarh can be found in 'A situational analysis of women and girls in Chhattisgarh'[dead link] prepared in 2004 by the National Commission of Women, a statutory body belonging to government of India.

Witchcraft[edit]

In order to bring about social reforms and with a view to discourage undesirable social practices, Chhattisgarh government has enacted the Chhattisgarh Tonhi Atyachar (Niwaran) Act, 2005 against witchery.[40] Much has to be done on the issue of law enforcement by judicial authorities to protect women in this regard, bringing such persecution to an end.[41]

Some sections of tribal population of Chhattisgarh state believe in witchcraft.[41] Women are believed to have access to supernatural forces and are accused of being witches (tonhi) often to settle personal scores.

As of 2010, they are still hounded out of villages on the basis of flimsy accusations by male village sorcerers paid to do so by villagers with personal agendas, such as property and goods acquisition.[41] According to National Geographic Channel’s investigations, those accused are fortunate if they are only verbally bullied and shunned or exiled from their village.

Social Mission Against Blind Faith
Adivasi Woman at Farasgaon Market
Natives of Kamar Tribe

Culture[edit]

A carving in the 10th- or 11th-century Hindu temple of Malhar village. This area, 40 km from Bilaspur, was supposedly a major Buddhist center in ancient times.

The state hosts many religious sects such as Satnami Panth, Kabirpanth, Ramnami Samaj and others. Champaran (Chhattisgarh) is a small town with religious significance as the birthplace of the Saint Vallabhacharya, increasingly important as a pilgrimage site for the Gujarati community.

Chhattisgarh has a significant role in the life of lord Rama.[42] Lord Rama along with his wife Sita and his younger brother Lakshaman had started his Vanvas (exile) in the Bastar[43] region (more precisely Dandakaranya region[44]) of Chhattisgarh. They lived more than 10 years of their 14 years of Vanvas in different places of Chhattisgarh. One of the remarkable place is Shivrinarayan[45] which is nearby Bilaspur[46] district of Chhattisgarh. Shivrinarayan was named after an old lady Shabari.[47] When Ram visited Shabari she said "I do not have anything to offer other than my heart, but here are some berry fruits. May it please you, my Lord." Saying so, Shabari offered the fruits she had meticulously collected to Rama. When Rama was tasting them, Lakshmana raised the concern that Shabari had already tasted them and therefore unworthy of eating. To this Rama said that of the many types of food he had tasted, "nothing could equal these berry fruits, offered with such devotion. You taste them, then alone will you know. Whomsoever offers a fruit, leaf, flower or some water with love, I partake it with great joy." More details at Shabari.[47]

The Oriya culture is prominent in the eastern parts of Chhattisgarh bordering Odisha.

Crafts[edit]

Chhattisgarh is known for "Kosa silk" and "lost wax art". Besides saris and salwar suits, the fabric is used to create lehengas, stoles, shawls and menswear including jackets, shirts, achkans and sherwanis. Works by the internationally renowned sculptor, Sushil Sakhuja's Dhokra Nandi, are available at government's Shabari handicrafts emporium, Raipur.

Dance[edit]

Panthi, Rawat Nacha Pandwani, Chaitra, Kaksar, Saila and Soowa are the several indigenous dance styles of Chhattisgarh.

Panthi[edit]

Panthi, the folk dance of the Satnami community, has religious overtones. Panthi is performed on Maghi Purnima, the anniversary of the birth of Guru Ghasidas. The dancers dance around a jaitkhamb set up for the occasion, to songs eulogizing their spiritual head. The songs reflect a view of nirvana, conveying the spirit of their guru's renunciation and the teachings of saint poets like Kabir, Ramdas and Dadu. Dancers with bent torsos and swinging arms dance, carried away by their devotion. As the rhythm quickens, they perform acrobatics and form human pyramids.[48]

Pandwani[edit]

Pandavani is a folk ballad form performed predominantly in Chhattisgarh. It depicts the story of the Pandavas, the leading characters in the epic Mahabharata. The artists in the Pandavani narration consist of a lead artist and some supporting singers and musicians. There are two styles of narration in Pandavani, Vedamati and Kapalik. In the Vedamati style the lead artist narrates in a simple manner by sitting on the floor throughout the performance. The Kaplik style is livelier, where the narrator actually enacts the scenes and characters.[49]

Pandwani

Rawat Nacha[edit]

Rawat Nacha, the folk dance of cowherds, is a traditional dance of Yaduvanshis (clan of Yadu) as symbol of worship to Krishna from the 4th day of Diwali(Goverdhan Puja) till the time of Dev Uthani Ekadashi (day of awakening of the gods after a brief rest) which is the 11th day after Diwali according to the Hindu calendar . The dance closely resembles Krishna's dance with the gopis (milkmaids).[50][51]

In Bilaspur, the Rawat Nach Mahotsav folk dance festival is organized annually since 1978. Tens of hundreds of Rawat dancers from remote areas participate.[52]

Raut Nacha

Soowa Nacha[edit]

Soowa or Suwa tribal dance in Chhattisgarh is also known as Parrot Dance. It is a symbolic form of dancing related to worship. Dancers keep a parrot in a bamboo-pot and form a circle around it. Then performers sing and dance, moving around it with clapping. This is one of the main dance form of tribal women of Chhattisgarh.[53]

Sua Nacha at Khudmudi Village, Chhattisgarh

Karma[edit]

Tribal groups like Gonds, the Baigas and the Oraons in Chhattisgarh have Karma dance as part of their culture. Both men and women arrange themselves in two rows and follow the rhythmic steps, directed by the singer group. The Karma tribal dance marks the end of the rainy season and the advent of spring season.[clarification needed][54][55]

Other state people cultural contribution[edit]

  • Lata mangeshkar sing song for Chhattisgarhi film Bhakla of Dhriti pati sarkar.
  • Mohmd Rafi sing song for Chhattisgarhi film. He had also sung songs for various chhattisgarhi films like Ghardwaar, Kahi Debe Sandes, Punni Ke Chanda, etc.

Theatre[edit]

Theater is known as Gammat in Chhattisgarh. Pandavani is one of the lyrical forms of this theater. Several acclaimed plays of Habib Tanvir, such as Charandas Chor, are variations of Chhattisgarhi theater.

Natya Samaroh by IPTA

Film Industry[edit]

Chhollywood is Chhattisgarh's film industries. Every year many Chhattisgarhi film produced by local producers.

Traditional food[edit]

The State of Chhattisgarh is known as the rice bowl of Central India and has a rich tradition of food culture.[56][57][58]

Most of the traditional and tribal foods are made of rice and rice flour, curd and a variety of green leafy vegetables like lal bhaaji, chowlai bhaaji, chech bhaji, kaanda bhaaji, kochai patta, kohda and bohar bhaji. Badi and Bijori are optional food categories; gulgula (bobra), bidiya, dhoodh fara, bafauli, kusli, balooshahi and khurmi fall in sweet categories. Some well known breakfast dishes made out of rice & rice flour include fara/muthiya (rice rolls in white sauce), cheela(dosa like dish made with rice batter), angakar roti, chousera roti (rice puri's), etc. One of the common meal had during the scroching summer is Bore Baasi ( literally means dipped rice from last cooked meal) which mainly consists of cooked rice dipped water/dahi/buttermilk. It is mostly accompanied by pickle and raw onion. It helps maintain the water levels in the body, keeping it cool and hydrated during the hot and arid summer days.

One of the well known traditional dishes of Chhattisgarh is “Iddhar”. It is made with grinded urad dal and kochai patta. Both are arranged in alternate layers 2-3 time and then rolled. This roll is then cooked in steam and cut into pieces. After that it is prepared with curd like curry. Some people also make it with gram flour (besan) instead of urad dal.

The tribal and village population enjoys delicacy brew made of small, creamy white fruit of a local tree called Mahuwa.

Red Velvet Mite is used as Medicine in Traditional Healing of Chhattisgarh

Economy[edit]

Chhattisgarh's gross state domestic product for 2010 is estimated at INR 60,079 crore in current prices. The economy of Chhattisgarh has grown rapidly in recent years with a growth rate of 11.49 per cent in GDP for 2009–2010.[59] Chhattisgarh’s success factors in achieving high growth rate are growth in agriculture and industrial production.

Tea production

Chhattisgarh State is ranked as the 17th tea production state in India. The districts Jashpur & Surguja are favorable tea production areas. In the Jashpur district the first tea plantation in "BRAHMNISHTHALAYA SOGARA ASHRAM" the direction of "PUJYA PAD GURUPAD BABA JI". Tea production start after two years by Sogara Ashram. Tea processing unit established in Sogara Ashram & the unit name is "AGHOR TEA PROCESSING PLANT". Forest department also start tea plantation motiveted by SOGARA ASHRAM. In Surguja distt. "TEA NERSURY" developing by "MARGDARSHAN SANSTHAN AGRICULTURE COLLEGE" Ambikapur, Surguja.

Agriculture[edit]

Agriculture is counted as the chief economic occupation of the state. According to a government estimate, net sown area of the state is 4.828 million hectares and the gross sown area is 5.788 million hectares.[60] Horticulture and animal husbandry also engage a major share of the total population of the state.[61] About 80% of the population of the state is rural and the main livelihood of the villagers is agriculture and agriculture-based small industry.

The majority of the farmers are still practicing the traditional methods of cultivation, resulting in low growth rates and productivity. The farmers have to be made aware of modern technologies suitable to their holdings. Providing adequate knowledge to the farmers is essential for better implementation of the agricultural development plans and to improve the productivity.[62]

Chloroxylon is used for Pest Management in Organic Rice Cultivation in Chhattisgarh, India

Considering this and a very limited irrigated area, the productivity of not only rice but also other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence agriculture till now.

Medicinal Rice of Chhattisgarh used as Immune Booster
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Aloe vera
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Gulbakawali
Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Safed Musli with Arhar

Agricultural products[edit]

The main crops are rice, maize,[63] kodo-kutki and other small millets and pulses (tuar[64] and kulthi); oilseeds, such as groundnuts (peanuts), soybeans[65] and sunflowers, are also grown. In the mid-1990s, most of Chhattisgarh was still a monocrop belt. Only one-fourth to one-fifth of the sown area was double-cropped. When a very substantial portion of the population is dependent on agriculture, a situation where nearly 80% of a state's area is covered only by one crop, immediate attention to turn them into double crop areas is needed. Also, very few cash crops are grown in Chhattisgarh, so there is a need to diversify the agriculture produce towards oilseeds and other cash crops. Chhattisgarh is also called the "rice bowl of central India".[60]

Kodo Millet is used as Life Saving Medicine in Chhattisgarh, India
Bastar Beer prepared from Sulfi

Irrigation[edit]

In Chhattisgarh, rice, the main crop, is grown on about 77% of the net sown area. Only about 20% of the area is under irrigation; the rest depends on rain. Of the three agroclimatic zones, about 73% of the Chhattisgarh plains, 97% of the Bastar plateau and 95% of the northern hills are rainfed. The irrigated area available for double cropping is only 87,000 ha in Chhattisgarh plains and 2300 ha in Bastar plateau and northern hills. Due to this, the productivity of rice and other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence agriculture till now, though agriculture is the main occupation of more than 80% of the population.[62]

In Chhattisgarh region about 22% of net cropped area was under irrigation as compared to 36.5% in Madhya Pradesh in 1998-99, whereas the average national irrigation was about 40%. The irrigation is characterized by a high order of variability ranging from 1.6% in Bastar to 75.0% in Dhamtari. Based on an average growth trend in irrigated area, about 0.43% additional area is brought under irrigation every year as compared to 1.89% in Madhya Pradesh and 1.0% in the country as a whole. Thus, irrigation has been growing at a very low rate in Chhattisgarh and the pace of irrigation is so slow, it would take about 122 years to reach the 75% level of net irrigated area in Chhattisgarh at the present rate of growth.[62]

Chhattisgarh has a limited irrigation system, with dams and canals on some rivers. Average rainfall in the state is around 1400 mm and the entire state falls under the rice agroclimatic zone. Large variation in the yearly rainfall directly affects the production of rice. Irrigation is the prime need of the state for its overall development and therefore the state government has given top priority to development of irrigation.[60]

A total of four major, 33 medium and 2199 minor irrigation projects have been completed and five major, 9 medium and 312 minor projects are under construction, as of 31 March 2006.

Industrial sector[edit]

Power sector[edit]

Chhattisgarh is one of the few states of India where the power sector is effectively developed. Based on the current production of surplus electric power, the position of the State is comfortable and profitable. The Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) is in a strong position to meet the electricity requirement of the new state and is in good financial health. Chhattisgarh provides electricity to several other states because of surplus production and its power hubs are Korba and Bilaspur.

In Chhattisgarh, NTPC has a thermal plant with the capacity of 2980 MW[66] at Sipat, Bilaspur and a thermal plant with a capacity of 2600 MW at korba,[67] while CSEB's units have a thermal capacity of 1780 MW and hydel capacity of 130 MW. Apart from NTPC and CSEB, there are a number of private generation units of large and small capacity. The state government has pursued a liberal policy with regard to captive generation which has resulted in a number of private players coming up.[68]

As per a study made by the Power Finance Corporation Ltd., New Delhi, the state has potential of 61000 MW of additional thermal power in terms of availability of coal for more than 100 years and more than 2500 MW hydel capacity. To use this vast potential, substantial additions to the existing generation capacity are already under way.[68]

Steel sector[edit]

The steel industry is one of the biggest heavy industries of Chhattisgarh. Bhilai Steel Plant, Bhilai operated by SAIL, with a capacity of 5.4 million tonnes per year, is regarded as a significant growth indicator of the state. More than 100 steel rolling mills, 90 sponge iron plants and ferro-alloy units are in Chhattisgarh. Along with Bhilai, today Raipur, Bilaspur, Korba and Raigarh have become the steel hub of Chhattisgarh. Today, Raipur has become the center of the steel sector, the biggest market for steel in India.[69]

Aluminium sector[edit]

The aluminium industry of Chhattisgarh was established by Bharat Aluminum Company Limited, which has a capacity of around one million tonnes each year.[69]

Natural resources[edit]

Forest[edit]

Forests occupy 41.33% of the total area (as per the latest report by the Indian Forest Service) and the rich forest resources include wood, tendu leaves, honey and lac.

Flora of Kabirdham District
Indian Luna Moth in Chhattisgarh Forest
Ventilago in Biodiversity Rich Chhattisgarh Forest
Mahua
Mineral deposits[edit]

Chhattisgarh is rich in minerals. It produces 20% of the country's total cement produce. It ranks first in the nation for coal production and second in reserves, third in iron ore production and first in tin production. Limestone, dolomite and bauxite are abundant. It is the only tin-ore producing state in the country. Other minerals include corandum, garnet, quartz, marble, alexandrite and diamonds.

Maikal Hills in Chhattisgarh
Mineral Wealth from Chandidongri, Chhattisgarh
Information and technologies[edit]

In recent years, Chhattisgarh is also getting exposure in information technology (IT) projects and consultancy. Its government is also promoting IT and has set up a body to take care of the IT solutions. The body, known as CHIPS, is providing large IT projects such as Choice, Swan, etc.

Major companies[edit]

Major companies with a presence in the state include:

Exports[70][edit]

Chhattisgarh’s total exports were US$353.3 million in 2009-10. Nearly 75 per cent of exports comes from Bhilai and the remaining from Urla, Bhanpuri and Sirgitti. The major exports products include steel, handicrafts, handlooms, blended yarn, food and agri-products, iron, aluminium, cement, minerals and engineering products. CSIDC (Chhattisgarh State Industrial Development Corporation Limited) is the nodal agency of the Government of Chhattisgarh for export promotion in the state.

Tourism[edit]

Chhattisgarh, situated in the heart of India, is endowed with a rich cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The state is full of ancient monuments, rare wildlife, exquisitely carved temples, Buddhist sites, palaces, water falls, caves, rock paintings and hill plateaus. Most of these sites are untouched and unexplored and offer a unique and alternate experience to tourists, compared to traditional destinations which have become overcrowded. For tourists who are tired of the crowds at major destinations will like the Bastar district, with its unique cultural and ecological identity. The green state of Chhattisgarh has 41.33% of its area under forests and is one of the richest bio-diversity areas in the country.

View of Chitrakot Falls, Jagdalpur

Waterfalls[edit]

Beautiful waterfalls in Chhattisgarh are Akuri Nala and Amrit Dhara waterfalls, Gavar Ghat waterfall, Ramdaha waterfall in Koriya district, Tiger point waterfall at Mainpat in Surguja district and Chitrakot and Tirathgarh waterfalls in Bastar district.

View of Amritdhara falls, Chirmiri

Hot spring[edit]

Known as Taat Pani, (taat means hot, pani means water) the hot spring flows in balrampur district. This hot spring flows throughout the year. It is reputed to have medicinal properties due to high amount of sodium in it. and ntpc national thermal power corp is developing a geothermal power plant here which is described as first geothermal power plant of India.

Caves[edit]

Gadiya mountain in Kanker district, Kotumsar cave in Bastar district, Kailash gufa, Ramgarh and Sita Bengra in Surguja district and Singhanpur cave in Raigarh district with pre-historic paintings are well known.

National parks and wildlife sanctuaries[edit]

Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary in the Bilaspur district, Gamarda Reserve forest at Sarangarh in the Raigarh district, Indravati National Park and Kanger Ghati National Park in the Bastar district, Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary in the Mahasamund district,[71] Udanti Wildlife Sanctuary in the Raipur district,[72] and Sitanagi Wildlife Sanctuary in the Dhamtari district[73] are good places for eco-tourism.

Archaeological sites[edit]

Archaeological sites worth seeing are Barsoor in Dantewada district, Malhar and Ratanpur in Bilaspur district, Sirpur in Mahasamund district, koriya in koriya district and Surguja in Surguja district. A small picnic spot with waterfall on the extremity of Satpura range along with a stone inscription of c. 1st century CE is found at Damau dhara in Janjgir-Champa district.

Temples[edit]

Notable and ancient temples in Chhattisgarh include: Bhoramdeo temple near Kawardha in Kabirdham district, Rajivlochan temple at Rajim and Champaran in Raipur district, Chandrahasini Devi temple at Chandrapur, Vishnu temple at Janjgir, Damudhara (Rishab Tirth) and Sivarinarayana Laxminarayana temple in Janjgir-Champa district, Bambleshwari Temple at Dongargarh in Rajnandgaon district, Danteshwari Temple in Dantewada district, Deorani-Jethani temple at Tala gram and Mahamaya temple at Ratanpur in Bilaspur district, Laxman temple at Sirpur in Mahasamund district, Uwasaggaharam Parshwa Teerth at Nagpura in Durg district, Pali with Lord Shiva temple and Kharod with Lakshmaneswar temple, Patal Bhairavi temple in outer area of Rajnandgaon.

SRI Field2.JPG

Giraudhpuri is a religious place for the Satnamis. They are the followers of Satnam Panth.

Sirpur is proposed world heritage site and Malhar are of historical significance, as they were visited by Xuanzang, the Chinese historian. Mama- bachha temple at Barsoor.

Dams[edit]

Hasdev Bango Dam (105 km from Bilaspur), Khudiya Dam in Lormi and Khutaghat Dam in Ratanpur and Gangrel Dam and Murrum Silli Dam in Dhamtari are some of the important dams in Chhattisgarh.

Education[edit]

School children in Chhattisgarh

According to the census of 2011, Chhattisgarh's literacy, the most basic indicator of education was at 71.04 percent. Female literacy is at 60.59 percent.

Absolute literates and literacy rate[edit]

Data from Census of India, 2011.[74]

Description 2001 census 2011 census
Total 11,173,149 15,598,314
Male 6,711,395 8,962,121
Female 4,461,754 6,636,193
 % Total 64.66 71.04
 % Male 77.38 81.45
 % Female 55.85 60.59

Universities[edit]

Bastar Vishwavidyalaya, is one of the new universities erected at the same time as Surguja university. Bastar University is bifurcated from Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur.

Premier institutes in Chhattisgarh[edit]

There are a number of premier professional institutes in the state of Chhattisgarh.

  1. Indian Institute of Management Raipur
  2. National Institute of Technology Raipur[75]
  3. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur
  4. Hidayatullah National Law University

Other universities[edit]

  1. Guru Ghasidas University
  2. Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
  3. Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University
  4. Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
  5. Pandit Sundarlal Sharma (Open) University[76]
  6. MATS University

Guru Ghasidas University[edit]

Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya is the Central University of the Chhattisgarh state. Established in the year 1983, the university was centralized under the act 2009. The first Vice Chancellor of the University after it got centralized was Dr. Lakshman Chaturvedi, who retired on 28 February 2014. At present, the acting VC is Dr, Khokkhar. The university provides hons degree in various courses like BA, B.Sc., B.Tech, B.E., etc.

Sarguja University[edit]

Surguja Vishwavidyalaya was established and incorporated by Chhattisgarh Vishwavidyalaya Adhiniyam No. 18 of 2008. The territorial jurisdiction of the University is the entire Surguja division comprising the revenue districts of Koriya, Surguja, and Jaspur. It started functioning from September 2, 2008. Surguja is a fast-growing industrial area, having a large number of small industrial units. The jurisdiction is the nerve centre of business, especially coal, forestry, and natural resources, including medicinal trees. The region has a very rich historical and cultural heritage. The university is situated in a tribally enriched, socially and economically challenged area of Chhattisgarh State. At present the university is partially residential and fully one, having its jurisdiction spread over the Surguja revenue division. At present the university has 42 affiliated colleges offering various courses in arts, science, commerce, education, law, management, and social science. Ambikapur town is a Municipal Corporation and is well connected with all parts of the country by road and rail also. Recently this town is connected with Durg, Raipur, Bilaspur and Anuppur of SECR. The railway station is 4 km away from town. Frequent local transport is available for reaching the university. The nearest railway zone and main railway is Bilaspur in SECR, 235 km away. Raipur, the capital of Chhattishgarh is 350 km away which is the nearest airport.[77]

Dr. C. V. Raman University[edit]

Dr. C.V. Raman University was established on 3 November 2006, and inaugurated on October 14, 2007 by Hon. Shri Suresh Pachouri (Minister of State for Personnel and Parliamentary Affairs, Government of India), in the presence of Senior Ministers of GoCG - Shri Amar Agarwal (Minister of Commerce) and Dr. Krishnamurti Bandhi (Minister of Higher Education), Shri Santosh Kumar Choubey (Chancellor), Dr. A.S. Zadgaonkar (Vice Chancellor) along with other Members of the Parliament and MLAs of various constituencies. The Dr. C.V. Raman University, Chhattisgarh is a premium University that maintains a unique pedagogy and innovative teaching methodology. The cool serene ambience of the campus provides an ideal academic environment for the students, away from the concrete jungle of the city.[78]

Media and communications[edit]

Telecommunications

Television

Radio

See also[edit]

Gyan Vani

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Chhatisgarh State – Power Hub". Retrieved 22 July 2011. [dead link]
  2. ^ "Chhattisgarh -Steel". Retrieved 22 July 2011. [dead link]
  3. ^ a b http://cgfinance.nic.in/Rules%20&%20Act/Reorganisation%20Act-2000/Reorganisation%20Act,2000(English).PDF
  4. ^ a b Chhattisgarh profile- Know all you want to know about state
  5. ^ Khammam mandals to be in AP. The Siasat Daily. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  6. ^ Ordinance gives more mandals to Andhra Pradesh. Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  7. ^ 205 Khammam villages merge with Andhra Pradesh. Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  8. ^ a b c "Origin of Name of Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011. [dead link]
  9. ^ Dr. Bhagvan Singh Verma, Chhattisgarh ka Itihas (A History of Chhattisgarh – in Hindi), Madhya Pradesh Hindi Granth Academy, Bhopal (M.P.), 4th edition (2003), p.7
  10. ^ Pragati Infosoft Pvt. Ltd. "Chhattisgarh Climate, Climate of Chhattisgarh, Chhattisgarh Temperature, Temperature of Chhattisgarh". Chhattisgarhonline.in. Retrieved 29 August 2011. [dead link]
  11. ^ "Welcome to NHAI". Nhai.org. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  12. ^ http://www.nhai.org/Doc/16feb12/NH_Statewise.pdf
  13. ^ "Chhattisgarh - Varshik Prasaskiy Prativedan 2013". Government of Chhattisgarh. 
  14. ^ "South East Central Railways". South East Central Railway. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  15. ^ "Department of Commerce & Industry Chhattisgarh". Government of Chhattisgarh. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  16. ^ "Proposed new rail line to bring Mumbai, Kolkata closer". Business Standard. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  17. ^ "Urban Infrastructure Sector Profile". Government of Chhattisgarh. Retrieved 23 May 2013. [dead link]
  18. ^ Bagchi, Suvojit (8 November 2012). "Pranab hopes Raipur airport’s new terminal will support Chhattisgarh’s growth". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  19. ^ "Chhattisgarh's second airport worth Rs 280 crore in Raigarh soon". The Times of India. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  20. ^ Dimensions of Human Cultures in Central India by Professor S.K. Tiwari p.161
  21. ^ Dimensions of Human Cultures in Central India: by Professor S.K. Tiwari p.163
  22. ^ Tribal Roots of Hinduism by Shiv Kumar Tiwari p.209
  23. ^ http://cgfinance.nic.in/FSFC/State%20Finance%20Report/English/Chap-4.pdf
  24. ^ a b c d "Prithak Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011. [dead link]
  25. ^ "chhattisgarh". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. 18 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-23. [dead link]
  26. ^ "Chhattisgarh carves out nine more districts". The Times Of India. 1 January 2012. [dead link]
  27. ^ "Electoral rolls". Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, Chhatisgarh. [dead link]
  28. ^ [1][dead link]
  29. ^ List of Chhattisgarh District Centres[dead link] at NIC, Chhatisgarh official Portal
  30. ^ Mathew, K.M. (ed.). Manorama Yearbook 2008, Kottayam: Malayala Manorama, ISSN 0542-5778, p.518
  31. ^ India Human Development Report, 2011 (Oxford)
  32. ^ a b "Indicus Analytics: The real dirty picture". Business-standard.com. 2012-04-12. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  33. ^ [2][dead link]
  34. ^ Completed Roads(CGRRDA)
  35. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 18 December 2008. 
  36. ^ "NCW Report, page 4". National Commission of Women, Government of India. Retrieved 22 August 2010. [dead link]
  37. ^ Religious landscape of Chhattisgarh[dead link]
  38. ^ "Chhattisgarh, At a glance". Census 2011, Ministry of Home Affair, India. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  39. ^ "Social Structure in Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  40. ^ "Dark Spell". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  41. ^ a b c "India: Protective Laws Fall Short for Women Charged with Witchcraft". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  42. ^ "Rama". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  43. ^ "Bastar". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  44. ^ "Dandakaranya". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  45. ^ "Shivrinarayan". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  46. ^ "Bilaspur". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  47. ^ a b "Shabari". Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  48. ^ "Panthi Dance". Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  49. ^ "Pandawani". Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  50. ^ "Rawat Nacha Traditions". Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  51. ^ "Raut nacha". Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  52. ^ "Rawat nacha mahotsva". Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  53. ^ "Suwa Dance". Retrieved 27 July 2011. [dead link]
  54. ^ "Arts and Culture of Chhatisgarh". Retrieved 27 July 2011. [dead link]
  55. ^ "Karma Tribal Dance in India". Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  56. ^ Oudhia, P. (1999) Chhattisgarh farmer's response on control of weeds in direct seeded rice. Agril. Sci. Digest. 19(4): 261-263.
  57. ^ Das, G.K. and Oudhia, P. (2001). Rice as medicinal plant in Chhattisgarh (India): A survey. Agric. Sci. Digest. 21(3):204-205.
  58. ^ Oudhia, P. (2002). Rice-Acorus intercropping: A new system developed by innovative farmers of Chhattisgarh (India). International Rice Research Notes (IRRN).27(1):56.
  59. ^ "Chhattisgarh's GDP growth highest in 2009–10". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  60. ^ a b c "Agriculture in Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011. [dead link]
  61. ^ "Economy of Chhatisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  62. ^ a b c http://nhm.nic.in/ActionPlan/ActionPlan_Chhatisgarh.pdf
  63. ^ Oudhia, P. (1999) Allelopathic effects of Lantana camara L. on germination of soybean. Legume Research 22(4): 273-274.
  64. ^ Oudhia, P. (2000). Positive (inhibitory) allelopathic effects of some obnoxious weeds on germination and seedling vigour of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.). Research on Crops. 1 (1):116-118.
  65. ^ Oudhia, P. (2001). Stimulatory allelopathic effects of Ageratum conyzoides L. on soybean. Agric. Sci. Digest. 21 (1):55-56.
  66. ^ 2980 MW
  67. ^ 2600 mw
  68. ^ a b "Power Sector in Chhatisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  69. ^ a b "Industries in Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  70. ^ http://www.ibef.org/download/Chhattisgarh_271211.pdf
  71. ^ Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary
  72. ^ Udanti Wildlife Sanctuary
  73. ^ Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuary
  74. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/data_files/Chhattishgarh/2.%20Chhattishgarh%20Figures%20at%20a%20glance.pdf
  75. ^ http://www.nitrr.ac.in/
  76. ^ "Pt. sundarlal sharma (Open) University Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur". Pssou.ac.in. Retrieved 2013-02-07. 
  77. ^ "Welcome to Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University". Prsu.ac.in. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  78. ^ Dr.C.V Raman University http://cvru.ac.in/university_objectives.html

References[edit]

  • Books on Chhattisgarh
    • ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की जनजातियाँ Tribes और जातियाँ Castes (मानसी पब्लीकेशन,दिल्ली 6, ISBN 978-81-89559-32-8)
    • ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की पूर्व रियासतें और जमीन्दारियाँ (वैभव प्रकाशन,रायपुर 1, ISBN 81-89244-96-5) http://www.scribd.com/doc/72030961/Dr-Sanjay-Alung-CG-Ki-Riyaste-Jamindariya-Hindi
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "सन्दर्भ छत्तीसगढ़"
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "छत्तीसगढ़ के तीर्थ और पर्यटन स्थल"
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "Chhattisgarh: Beautiful & Bountiful (Study in Biodiversity of Chhattisgarh)"
    • Ramesh Dewangan & Sunil Tuteja, "Chhattisgarh Samagra"
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Shabadkosh" ....
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Manak Chhattisgarhi Vyakaran"
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Muhawara Kosh"
    • Lawrence Babb, "The Divine Hierarchy: Popular Hinduism in Central India"
    • Saurabh Dube, "Untouchable Pasts: Religion, Identity and Power among a Central Indian Community, 1780–1950" (on the Satnamis)
    • Ramdas Lamb, "Rapt in the Name: Ramnamis, Ramnam and Untouchable Religion in Central India"
    • Chad Bauman, "Identifying the Satnam: Hindu Satnamis, Indian Christians and Dalit Religion in Colonial Chhattisgarh, India (1868–1947) (Ph. D. dissertation, Princeton Theological Seminary, 2005)
    • "List of books by Prof H. L. Shukla

External links[edit]