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Chhayavaad (Hindi: छायावाद) ("romanticism") refers to the era of Neo-romanticism in Hindi literature particularly Hindi poetry, 1922–1938,[1] and was marked by an upsurge of romantic and humanist content. Chhayavad was marked by a renewed sense of the self and personal expression, visible in the writings of time. It is known for its leaning towards themes of love and nature, as well as an individualistic reappropriation of the Indian tradition in a new form of mysticism, expressed through a subjective voice.


In, Chhayavad Yug is 1918 to 1937, and is preceded by Bharatendu Yug (1868–1900), and Dwivedi Yug (1900–1918), and is in turn, followed by the Contemporary Period, 1937 onwards.[1][2]

Chhayavad continued till later half of the 1930s, when the golden era of modern Hindi poetry was gradually replaced by social didacticism inspired by the uprising nationalist fervour, when some of the later poets of this era, like Dinkar, Mahadevi and Bachchan took nationalist and social critiquing within their poetry.

Notable authors[edit]

Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Sumitranandan Pant and Mahadevi Varma[3] are considered as the four pillars of Chhayavaadi school of Hindi literature. Other important figures of this literary movement were Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar', Harivansh Rai Bachchan and Makhanlal Chaturvedi.

Pandit Narendra Sharma नरेन्द्र शर्मा.

Though Harivansh Rai Bachchan became excessively critical of Chhayavaad later in his career and was associated with other genres like Rahasyavaad, Pragativaad and Haalaavaad.

Notable works[edit]

Jaishankar Prasad's Kamayani (Hindi:कामायनी) (1936) is considered an important magnum opus of this school, followed by Mahadevi Verma's, Nihar (Mist, 1930), Harivansh Rai Bachchan's, Madhushala (Hindi: मधुशाला) (1935).Ramdhari singh dinkarlohe ke pade hare hogene,Kavi Indra Bahadur Khare (Dec 1922- Apl 1953) [1940-46,Bhor ke Geet, Surbala,Vijan ke Phul, Rajani ke Pal]*1 Side by side Kavi Indra Bahadur khare written hundreds of poems in Veer ras (Rashtreey geet)in same time and later in his career and was associated with [[Pragativaad] Azadi ke phile aour Azadi ke bad] .

Criticism of Chhayavaad[edit]

When it arrived, Chhayavaad was very well received by readers and critics alike. However, subsequent scholars have criticized Chhayavaad for excessive use of decorative language, romanticism aloof from contemporary social and economic malaise and setting stricter rules on meter, rhyme etc.