Chi studied on the college level at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (Cal Poly Pomona) in Pomona, California, where she received most of her athletic training. As a student there, she won four U.S. national championships and over a two-year period was the winner of 153 of the 154 events she entered. Representing the Republic of China (as Taiwan), she won the bronze medal in the women's 80-meter hurdles in the 1968 Summer Olympics. In 1969 she broke three world records. In 1970, she broke or tied three world records, accomplishing this feat in the space of just one week. She was first woman to run 10.0 second for 100 yards. She won the gold medal in the 100 metres at the Asian Games in Bangkok in a games record time. For her achievement, Chi Cheng was named the Associated Press Athlete of the Year. Also, she became the Director of Women's Athletics at the University of Redlands, California, from 1974 to 1976.