Chiang Fang-liang

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Faina Chiang
Chiang Fang-liang

蔣方良
Фаина Ипатьевна Вахрева
Faina Chiang.jpg
Photo with Chiang Ching-kuo
(with Chiang outside the picture)
First Lady of the Republic of China
In office
May 20, 1978 – January 13, 1988
Preceded by Soong May-ling
Succeeded by Tseng Wen-hui
Personal details
Born May 15, 1916
Russian Empire near Orsha, Vitebsk Governorate, Russian Empire
Died December 15, 2004(2004-12-15) (aged 88)
Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan
Nationality Belarussian
Spouse(s) Chiang Ching-kuo
Children Chiang Hsiao-wen, Chiang Hsiao-wu, Chiang Hsiao-yung (son) and Chiang Hsiao-chang (daughter)
Occupation First Lady of the Republic of China

Faina Chiang Fang-liang (simplified Chinese: 蒋方良; traditional Chinese: 蔣方良; pinyin: Jiǎng Fāngliáng; 15 May 1916 – 15 December 2004) was the wife of President Chiang Ching-kuo and served as First Lady of the Republic of China on Taiwan from 1978 to 1988.

Biography[edit]

Born Faina Ipat'evna Vakhreva (Russian: Фаина Ипатьевна Вахрева, Belarusian: Фаіна Іпацьеўна Вахрава, Fayina Ipaćjeŭna Vachrava) near Orsha, Vitebsk Governorate in a Belarusian family of Lithuanian Jewish[1] descent which moved to Yekaterinburg during World War I, she was orphaned at a young age and raised by her older sister Anna.[2][3] To escape anti-Jewish prejudice, Faina started using Elena as her first name. A member of the Soviet Union's Communist Youth League, Vakhreva, at the age of 16, reported and worked for Chiang Ching-kuo at the Ural Heavy Machinery Plant. They married two years later on 15 March 1935.[3][4][5] Chiang had been exiled to work in Siberia under direction from Stalin after his father, Chiang Kai-shek, had expelled the leftists from the Kuomintang (KMT). The couple's first child, a son originally named Èrik (Эрик) but better known by his Chinese name Hsiao-wen (蔣孝文), was born on December 1935.[4] The couple had a daughter, Hsiao-chang (蔣孝章, born 1938 in Nanchang), and two more sons, Hsiao-wu (蔣孝武, born 1945 in Chongqing) and Hsiao-yung (蔣孝勇, born 1948 in Shanghai). Each of her three younger children were born in different parts of China, reflecting turbulent years as an official of China.[5]

In December 1936, Joseph Stalin finally granted Chiang's return to China.[3] After the couple was received by Chiang Kai-shek and Soong May-ling in Hangzhou, they traveled to the Chiang home in Xikou, Zhejiang, where they held a second marriage ceremony.[5] Chiang Fang-liang stayed behind to live with Chiang Ching-kuo's mother, Mao Fumei. She was assigned a tutor to learn Mandarin Chinese, but she learned the local Ningbo form of Wu Chinese instead.[3][2] She reportedly got along well with Mao Fumei and did her own housework.[3][5]

When Chiang Ching-kuo became President, Fang-liang rarely performed the traditional roles of First Lady. That is partly due to her lack of formal education; her husband also encouraged her not to get into politics.[6] She largely stayed out of the public spotlight[2][4] and little was ever known of her in an anti-communist atmosphere in the government. She never returned to Russia, and traveled abroad only three times in the last 50 years of her life, all to visit her children and their families. In 1992, she received a visit from a delegation including the mayor of Minsk, the capital of Belarus.[5][7] It was the only time that she made contact with anyone from her homeland.

All her children were sent to study in foreign universities[5] – Hsiao-wen to West Point and Park College, MO, Hsiao-wu to Munich, West Germany and the remaining children to the United States. All three sons died shortly after Ching-kuo's death in 1988: Hsiao-wen in April 1989, Hsiao-wu in July 1991, and Hsiao-yung in December 1996.[4] Fang-liang then lived in the suburbs of Taipei. She received occasional visitors, such as some prominent politicians who went to pay their respects every few years. In the Taiwanese media, if she ever received coverage, she was depicted as a virtuous wife who never complained and endured her loneliness with dignity.[2][3][8]

She died of respiratory and cardiac failure stemming from lung cancer in the Taipei Veterans General Hospital at the age of 89 (or 90 according to East Asian age reckoning).[2][8][9][10] Her funeral was held on 27 December 2004, with President Chen Shui-bian and Vice President Annette Lu in attendance.[11] Kuomintang politicians Wang Jin-pyng, Lin Cheng-chih, P. K. Chiang, and Ma Ying-jeou draped her casket with the Kuomintang party flag, and Kuomintag party elders Lee Huan, Hau Pei-tsun, Chiu Chuang-huan, and Shih Chi-yang draped her casket with the ROC national flag.[12][13] She was cremated and her ashes taken to her husband's temporary mausoleum in Touliao, Taoyuan County (now Taoyuan City). They are scheduled to be buried together in the Wuchih Mountain Military Cemetery.[2] As of 2006, she is survived by her daughter Amy Hsiao-Chang who had emigrated to the United States. Hsiao-Chang is the only child who could speak her native Russian with her.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://buhex.ru/fizicheskaja-antropologija-evreev-rossii-i-vsego-mira-s-fotografijami-vazhno
  2. ^ a b c d e f Tsai, Wen-Ting; Tsai, Julius (January 2005). "Farewell, Faina — Chiang Fang-liang Dies Aged 90". Taiwan Panorama (Taipei, Taiwan). Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Wu, Pei-shih (May 18, 2003). "Forgotten first lady served as model traditional wife". Taipei Times (Taipei, Taiwan). Retrieved November 7, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d Wen, Stephanie (December 16, 2004). "Chiang Fang-liang remembered". Taipei Times (Taipei, Taiwan). Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Wang, Jaifeng; Hughes, Christopher (January 1998). "Cover Story — Love to Fang-Liang – the Chiang Family Album". Taiwan Panorama (Taipei, Taiwan). Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
  6. ^ "The lonely widow of Huaihai Rd in sealed memory". China Daily (Beijing). January 12, 2005. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  7. ^ Yu, Susan (June 16, 1992). "Mensk officials meet Chiang Fang-liang Chiang Ching-kuo's widow breaks precedent to receive countrymen". Taiwan Today (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) (Taipei, Taiwan). Retrieved November 7, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b Yiu, Cody (December 16, 2004). "A sad life ends for Chiang Fang-liang". Taipei Times (Taipei, Taiwan). Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Faina Chiang dies at 88 in Taipei". China Daily (Beijing). December 15, 2004. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  10. ^ "President Chen pays tribute to former first lady Faina Chiang". China Post (Taipei). December 17, 2004. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Nation bids farewell to former first lady Faina Chiang". China Post (Taipei). December 27, 2004. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  12. ^ Chuang, Jimmy (December 25, 2004). "Faina Chiang's funeral will be held on Monday". Taipei Times (Taipei, Taiwan). Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Faina Chiang's funeral held in Taiwan". sina.com. December 27, 2004. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 

External links[edit]