St. Charles Air Line
|St. Charles Air Line|
Amtrak's Saluki traverses the Air Line in 2010.
|Owner||BNSF, UP, CN|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
Its line is currently used by the Canadian National Railway for freight trains and by Amtrak passenger trains. The line runs east from south of Union Station to the shore of Lake Michigan just north of 16th Street, where it turns south under McCormick Place, passing over and then paralleling the Metra Electric Line.
The line was first chartered in 1852 as the Chicago, St. Charles and Mississippi Air Line Railroad, planned to run from Chicago west to the Mississippi River at Savanna via St. Charles. The Chicago depot would be at the northeast corner of Stewart Avenue and 16th Street. This line would compete with the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, which thus opposed the project, and chartered the Dixon Air Line Railroad from St. Charles west to Dixon, Illinois.
Eventually the St. Charles Air Line, an unincorporated jointly-owned line, was formed as a reorganization[clarification needed] of the project. It only built from the Illinois Central Railroad (also used by the Michigan Central Railroad) on Lake Michigan, near 14th Street, west along the original alignment to Western Avenue. From there a connection was built north to the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, finished January 1, 1856. (The west end of the jointly-owned line was, and still is, the west bank of the Chicago River.) On March 30 the G&CU and Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad began using it to access the Illinois Central's Central Station. The planned alignment west of Western Avenue was later used by the Chicago and Northern Pacific Railroad, and piers in the Fox River at St. Charles had influenced predecessors of the Chicago Great Western Railway to build their line through that town.
The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad also built a line into Chicago, intersecting the Air Line at Western Avenue. Eventually the line was under equal control of the four companies that used it—the Illinois Central Railroad, Michigan Central Railroad, Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad and Chicago and North Western Railway (successor to the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad).
The Air Line's track was originally on ground level with numerous street crossings. In the late 1890s work was begun to raise the line onto fill and replace the grade crossings with overpasses.
As originally constructed, the east end of the Air Line connected with the IC with connections that curved to the north to serve both Central Station and the yards and warehouses through downtown up to the Chicago River. There was a shorter, steeper ramp down for passenger trains to get into Central Station while a longer, less severe incline was used by freight trains. In 1968 a southward facing connection was constructed generally known as the South Leg because together with the original lines a "Y" was formed which was occasionally used to turn passenger trains around. The South Leg enables trains using the Air Line to travel directly to and from the south. With the coming of Amtrak in May 1971 eventually the remaining passenger trains were shifted from Central Station to Union Station and the northern connections were removed. This coincided with the gradual elimination of yards to the north (this area is the Illinois Center office, hotel, and retail complex today). Central Station closed in 1972 and was razed in 1974. Now the South Leg is the only connection from the IC mainline to the Air Line.
The CB&Q has since become part of the BNSF Railway, and the C&NW is now part of the Union Pacific Railroad, each of which still owns a 1/4 share. The MCRR has sold its share to the Illinois Central Railroad, now owned by the Canadian National Railway.
Amtrak's City of New Orleans, Illini and Saluki use the line, backing into Union Station from its west end. CN also uses it as a freight connection, though this will end when trains are rerouted to the Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway. A planned connection at Grand Crossing would allow the line to be abandoned.