Chicago Harbor Light
|Year first constructed||1893, moved 1919|
|Year first lit||1893|
|Foundation||Rubble stone with concrete pier|
|Construction||Brick, cast iron and glass|
|Tower shape||Cylindrical base/Frustum of a cone tower, with attached buildings|
|Markings / pattern||White, red on roofs|
|Height||66 ft (20 m) tower|
|Focal height||Focal plane – 82 feet (25 m)|
|Original lens||Third-order Fresnel|
|Range||24 miles (39 km)|
|Characteristic||Fl R 5s floodlighted. Apr. to Dec.
Horn: 2 blasts ev 30 s (1 s bl). Operates from April to Dec
Chicago Harbor Lighthouse
1930s U.S. Coast Guard photo of the light
|Location||North Breakwater, Chicago, Illinois|
|Area||1 acre (0.40 ha)|
|Architect||United States Lighthouse Board|
|Governing body||U.S. Coast Guard|
|MPS||U.S. Coast Guard Lighthouses and Light Stations on the Great Lakes TR|
|NRHP Reference #||84000986|
|Added to NRHP||July 19, 1984|
|Designated CL||April 9, 2003|
The Chicago Harbor Lighthouse is an automated active lighthouse, and stands at the end of the northern breakwater protecting the Chicago Harbor, to the east of Navy Pier and the mouth of the Chicago River.
It was constructed in 1893 for the World's Columbian Exposition and moved to its present site in 1919. The United States Lighthouse Board prominently displayed "its 'state of the art' wares and engineering achievements." Prominently featured was "the engineering marvel" of Spectacle Reef Light and a 111-foot-tall (34 m) skeletal cast iron lighthouse tower.
Also displayed were a number of Fresnel lenses, including a stunning Third Order Fresnel lens which previously was awarded first prize at a Paris glass exhibition. The lens featured alternating red and white panels, and had been ordered for installation in the new lighthouse at Point Loma Light (new) in California. The coincidental conclusion of construction of the new Chicago Harbor light and the close of the Exhibition prompted the Lighthouse Board keep the lens in Chicago, and thus the lens was installed in the lantern room of the new tower.
The design is "unique . . . similar to that of the offshore sparkplug towers, but this tower is taller." Except for the additions made at the time of the move, it "bears some resemblance" to the Rock of Ages Light near Isle Royale on Lake Superior, which is its contemporary.
The original Third Order Fresnel lens // was removed, and is now on display at Cabrillo National Monument in California. It had been originally intended for and was destined for the Point Loma (California) light, but was diverted (for almost a century) and kept in Chicago following its display at the exposition.
In 2005, the light was declared excess by the Coast Guard. It was offered at no cost to eligible entities, including federal, state, and local agencies, non-profit corporations, and educational organizations under the provisions of the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act of 2000. After an unusually long delay, United States Secretary of the Interior Kenneth Salazar initiated transfer to the City of Chicago on February 24, 2009. The city had designated the lighthouse a Chicago Landmark on April 9, 2003.
The Lighthouse's "significant role in the development of Chicago" is commemorated in a relief sculpture, entitled The Spirit of the Waters located near the LaSalle Street entrance of Chicago City Hall.
"Illinois has two well-known and historic light stations in the Chicago area, plus two pierhead lights." The Chicago Department of Water maintains lights on each of its four water intake cribs.
Chicago has no area lighthouse preservation group, and this light has been the primary beneficiary of attention on preservation attention. However, Illinois and Indiana pierhead lights may need defense against demolition in the future. The Calumet Harbor Light, just across the border in Indiana, was demolished in 1995.
Seeing the Light
From I-94 in Chicago, take exit 50B and proceed east to Lake Michigan and Navy Pier. There is parking on Navy Pier. A good view may be had from its end, from a private boat, or from various tour boats in the area.
- "Historic Light Station Information and Photography: Illinois". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- Pepper, Terry. "Database of Tower Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com.
- Pepper, Terry. "Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com.
- "Chicago Harbor Light". Nat'l Park Service. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- Light List, Volume VII, Great Lakes (PDF). Light List. United States Coast Guard.
- "Amateur Radio Lighthouse Society, Chicago Harbor (Lake Michigan) Light ARLHS USA-171".
- "Amateur Radio Lighthouse Society, World List of Lights.".
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- "Chicago Harbor Lighthouse". City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division. 2003. Retrieved 2007-05-09.
- "Terry Pepper, Seeing the Light, Chicago Breakwater Light.".
- Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of the United States: Illinois". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
- Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of the United States: Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
- National Park Service Maritime Heritage Program, Inventory of Historic Lights, Chicago Harbor Light.
- "Wobser, David, Chicago Harbor Light, boatnerd.com.".
- Chicago Lighthouse transfer.
- "Anderson, Kraig, Lighthouse friends, Chicago Harbor Light.".
- Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of the United States: Indiana". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
- Aerial photos, Chicago Breakwater Light, marinas.com.
- Exceptional photograph of Chicago Harbor Light.
- Photo of Chicago Harbor light.
- Satelite view of Chicago Harbor Light by Google maps.
Specialized Additional reading
- Andreas, A.T. (1884) History of Chicago from the Earliest Period to the Present Time,
- Chicago's Front Door, Chicago Public Library Digital Collection, website.
- Chicago, Scribner's Monthly (September 1875) Vol. X, No. 5.
- Hyde, Charles K., and Ann and John Mahan. (1995) The Northern Lights: Lighthouses of the Upper Great Lakes. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2554-8 ISBN 978-0-8143-2554-4.
- Havighurst, Walter (1943) The Long Ships Passing: The Story of the Great Lakes, Macmillan Publishers.
- Karamanski, T. Ed., Historic Lighthouses and Navigational Aids of the Illinois Shore of Lake Michigan Loyola University Chicago & Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, (1989).
- Longstreet, Stephen (1973) Chicago 1860-1919 (New York: McKay).
- Lopez, Victor. "This Old Lighthouse: Chicago Harbor Beacon Gets a Facelift." Coast Guard (September, 1997), pp. 24–25.
- Mayer, Harold M. (1957) The Port of Chicago University of Chicago Press.
- Pepper, Terry. "Seeing the Light: Lighthouses on the western Great Lakes".
- Rice, Mary J., Chicago: Port to the World (Follet Publishers, 1969).
- Sapulski, Wayne S., (2001) Lighthouses of Lake Michigan: Past and Present (Paperback) (Fowlerville: Wilderness Adventure Books) ISBN 0-923568-47-6; ISBN 978-0-923568-47-4.
- Wagner, John L. "Beacons Shining in the Night: The Lighthouses of Michigan". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University.