Chief Illiniwek

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The Chief Illiniwek symbol
Chief Illiniwek performing at a football game

Chief Illiniwek was the official mascot[1] and symbol of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign associated with the University's intercollegiate athletic programs from 1926 to February 21, 2007. The mascot was portrayed by a student dressed in Sioux regalia to represent the Illiniwek, the state's namesake. The student portraying Chief Illiniwek performed during halftime of Illinois football and basketball games, as well as during women's volleyball matches.

For more than two decades, Chief Illiniwek was the center of a controversy. At the root of the controversy is the view of several American Indian groups and supporters that the mascot was a misappropriation of indigenous cultural figures and rituals and that it perpetuated stereotypes about American Indian peoples. As a result of this controversy, the NCAA termed Chief Illiniwek a "hostile or abusive" mascot and image in August 2005[2] and banned the university from hosting postseason activities as long as it continued to use the mascot and symbol.

The University of Illinois retired Chief Illiniwek as mascot in 2007, with his last official performance on February 21, 2007.[3]

Background[edit]

Chief Illiniwek and the Chief Illiniwek logo—a stylized front view of an American Indian face and headdress—are trademarks of the University of Illinois. Licensed use of the logo by the university has been increasingly restrictive as a result of the ongoing controversy. Chief Illiniwek is not based on an actual American Indian chief, nor did a historical figure with this name ever exist.

Since he performed many of the functions of other schools’ mascots, Chief Illiniwek is generally referred to as the university’s mascot.[4][5][6] The use of Chief Illiniwek predates the use of mascots in most sports teams, making him one of the first.[7] In recent years he did not perform at road games, since other Big Ten universities refused to allow the character to perform at their home games, citing him as offensive.[8][9]

During sporting events, the Chief was portrayed by a student selected via audition and wearing traditional Lakota (Sioux) regalia. The portrayal also included a dance of unknown origins, possibly adapted from early 20th century fancy dancing as filtered through the Boy Scouts (see History, below). His dance corresponded to the music and lyrics of the "Three in One" performed by the university band, which is an arrangement of three original songs entitled "The March of the Illini", "Hail to the Orange", and "Pride of the Illini".[10] The Chief performed only at major sporting events hosted by the university. The stated intent of the Chief was to celebrate the Native American heritage of the state of Illinois.[citation needed]

History[edit]

The origin of Chief Illiniwek dates to 1926, when Ray Dvorak, assistant director of bands at the University of Illinois, conceived the idea of having a Native American war dance performed during halftime of Illinois football games. The first performance occurred on October 30, 1926 at Memorial Stadium during the halftime of a game against the University of Pennsylvania. At the conclusion of his performance, Illinwek was met at midfield by a drum major dressed as the University of Pennsylvania's Quaker mascot, offered a peace pipe, and walked off the field arm in arm.[2] Student Lester Leutwiler, an Eagle Scout, created the original costume and performed the dance based upon his experience as a Boy Scout. The expression Illiniwek (meaning "the complete human being - the strong, agile human body, and the indomitable human spirit")[11] was first used in conjunction with the University of Illinois football team by football coach Bob Zuppke, referring to the Illinois Confederation[12] of Native Americans who historically had inhabited much of present-day Illinois.

Another student, A. Webber Borchers, was the only Chief to ride on horseback around the field[2] and solidified the Chief tradition, continuing the performances and soliciting contributions for a permanent costume in 1930. Since then, the costume has been replaced several times, most recently in 1982. The current costume was sold to the University marching band by Frank Fools Crow, chief of the Oglala Sioux (a nation unrelated to the Illiniwek), after being sewn by his wife. He visited the campus in 1982 to present the regalia during halftime of a football game at the request of then-Assistant Director of Bands and Director of Athletic Bands Gary Smith. The costume contained real eagle feathers, but because eagle feathers are sacred to Native Americans, and because they came from a species protected by Lacey Treaty Act (1900), the Eagle Act (1940), the Migratory Bird Act, and at that time Endangered Species Act, the feathers in the headdresses worn by the Chief were replaced with dyed turkey feathers after requests from the family of Chief Fool's Crow.[13]

Chief Illiniwek's dance was derived from "Indian Lore" studies done by university students who had been Boy Scouts. The three- or four-minute dance is based on fancy dance, a style that originated from the Plains Indians as a means of providing a more secular display than purely sacred dancing, and which is practiced today by many Native Americans at pow-wows. The dance has evolved over time; each student who performs the role of the Chief augments the basic performance with his own movements and steps. Although it is claimed the dance is similar to traditional fancy dance, the Chief's routine includes mid-air splits, which are rarely found in Native fancy dance.[citation needed] Only the music has remained unchanged, with the Chief always performing to the Three in One. In the 1990s, literature distributed by the University ceased describing the dance as "authentic."[citation needed]

Since 1926 a total of 36 different students have performed the role of the Chief.[14] All but one have been men: one woman, Idelle (Stith) Brooks, served in 1943 due to the shortage of male students during World War II; she was called "Princess Illiniwek." No student portraying Chief Illiniwek was of American Indian heritage during the 82 year span,[15] although Brooks, a journalism major who had grown up on the Osage Reservation in Fairfax, Oklahoma, was described as an "honorary princess of the Osage Indian tribe".photo[16] Brooks weighed 90 pounds and her Chief regalia weighed 50.[2] However, more recently the most current "unofficial" Chief Illiniwek has been cited as to being half-Cherokee.[citation needed]

The actual descendants of the Illiniwek opposed the Chief (see Controversy, below). Whereas, when in May 1995, a WICD reporter interviewed members of the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Chief Don Giles said, "We do not have a problem with the mascot.",[17] by 2000, the tribal council, under a new chief, passed a resolution opposing the use of the Chief by the University.[18] On January 17, 2007, the Executive Committee of the Oglala Sioux Tribal Council, issued a resolution asking that the University of Illinois return the regalia to the family of Frank Fools Crow and cease the use of the Chief Illiniwek mascot. The resolution was delivered to the university's Board of Trustees, UI President B. Joseph White, and Chancellor Richard Herman. The campus' Native American House was authorized by the Oglala Sioux to distribute the resolution to the public.[19]

The Chief appeared at the University's homecoming parade and pep rally until 1991.[2]

Controversy[edit]

From the mid-1970s, the Chief was the subject of debate at the University of Illinois.[11] In October 1989, Charlene Teters, a graduate student from the Spokane tribe, began protesting the Chief at athletic events after her young son and daughter's reaction to the Chief's dance at a basketball game.[20] Soon, individuals and organizations, some from outside of the University, began to support the Chief's elimination. Some academic departments adopted official stances in favor of retirement of the symbol. External organizations including the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the National Education Association, Amnesty International, the Modern Language Association, and Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas also took positions in favor of retiring the Chief.[21] In November 1989, the Illinois state legislature passed a resolution in support of the Chief.[2]

Student and alumni organizations, such as the Honor the Chief Society and Chief Illiniwek Educational Foundation, are dedicated to explaining and preserving the tradition of Chief Illiniwek. The Students for the Chief group formed in 1990.[2] Among the national Native American organizations which called for the retirement of the symbol were the National Congress of American Indians and the National Indian Education Association. At the Urbana-Champaign campus, the Native American House, the American Indian Studies program, and the Native American student organizations all called for its retirement.

Chief Illiniwek with the University of Illinois Marching Illini

Those in favor of retiring the Chief contended that the Chief misappropriates Native American culture and perpetuates harmful racial or ethnic stereotypes. They argued that this obstructed the creation of a diverse and tolerant learning community, harmed the reputation of the University, and promoted an inaccurate image of Native Americans. Those in support of the Chief claimed that he was a revered symbol representing not only a proud people but the great spirit of a great university.

A 1995 ruling by the United States Department of Education found that the Chief did not violate Native American students' civil rights. Also in 1995, the state legislature approved a bill making the Chief the "official symbol" of the University, but Governor Jim Edgar's amendatory veto allowed the decision to remain with the University.[2]

As a result of student activism calling for support for Native American students and an American Indian Studies program, the Urbana-Champaign campus established the Native American House and American Indian Studies program in 2003. As reported in the University of Illinois student databook in 2003, students of Native American descent made up 0.2% of the overall student population, and only 0.1% of the faculty are of Native American origin. This is in contrast with the national average of 0.4%. However, it should be noted that the state of Illinois has a lower than average proportion of Native Americans.[22] Some Illiniwek were forcibly removed from the state of Illinois during the time of Indian removal. The forced relocation of Indian nations between 1818 and 1833 made way for non-Indians to claim the territory as the state of Illinois. Due to government-sponsored assimilation programs, many Native people moved in the 1950s to large urban areas such as Chicago. Founded in 1953, Chicago's American Indian Center is the oldest urban Indian center in the country, and there is a substantial American Indian population in Chicago.

In 2006, the University Board of Trustees opted to study the issue and passed a resolution calling for "a consensus conclusion to the matter of Chief Illiniwek." Many on both sides of the issue found this resolution problematic, given that former trustee Roger Plummer determined that a compromise on the issue was not possible. At that point, the Board of Trustees has not consulted on the matter with the faculty of the American Indian Studies Program.

In the past few years, opinion polls on the subject have not been much help in defining Native American opinion on the subject. In 2002, a Peter Harris Research Group poll of those who declared Native American ethnicity on a U.S. census showed that 81% of Native Americans support the use of Indian nicknames in high school and college sports, and 83% of Native Americans support the use of Indian mascots and symbols in professional sports. However, the methods and results of this poll have been disputed.[23] A separate poll conducted by the Native-run newspaper Indian Country Today in 2001 reported that 81% of those polled "indicated use of American Indian names, symbols and mascots are predominantly offensive and deeply disparaging to Native Americans."

A non-binding student referendum on Chief Illiniwek was conducted in March 2004. Of the approximately one-third of the student body who cast ballots, 69% of the voters favored retention of the Chief.[24] Faculty have tended to be critical of the Chief.[25][26] Another non-binding student referendum on Chief Illiniwek was conducted in February 2008. Of the approximately 23% of the student body who cast ballots, 79% (7,718) voted to show support for Chief Illiniwek, while 21% (2,052) voted to not show support.[27]

Position of the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma[edit]

The Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma are the closest living descendants of the Illiniwek Confederacy, having been relocated to Oklahoma in the 19th century. The position of the tribal leadership has evolved over the years. In a television interview with WICD-TV in 1995, Don Giles, then Chief of the Peoria Tribe, said, "To say that we are anything but proud to have these portrayals would be completely wrong. We are proud. We're proud that the University of Illinois, the flagship university of the state, a seat of learning, is drawing on that background of our having been there. And what more honor could they pay us?" Supporting Chief Giles was another tribal elder, Ron Froman, who stated that the protesters "don't speak for all Native Americans, and certainly not us."[11]

Ron Froman was later elected Chief, by which time his views on the Chief Illiniwek symbol had changed. His opinions shifted following meetings with American Indian students attending the University. In April 2000, the tribal council, with Chief Froman's support, passed by the margin of 3 to 2 a resolution requesting "the leadership of the University of Illinois to recognize the demeaning nature of the characterization of Chief Illiniwek, and cease use of this mascots [sic]".[18] Froman said, "I don't know what the origination was, or what the reason was for the university to create Chief Illiniwek. I don't think it was to honor us, because, hell, they ran our (butts) out of Illinois."[28] This puts Chief Illiniwek in a position different from that of the mascots of other schools such as Florida State University, whose American Indian mascots are not opposed by the leadership of the corresponding tribes. In 2005, a new Chief, John P. Froman, when asked his position by the NCAA, indicated that "the Chief was not representative of our tribe and culture, mainly because the costume is Sioux."[29] In 2006, in response to a widely published column by journalist George Will in support of the symbol's use, he wrote a letter reiterating the Peoria Tribe's opposition to the symbol and decrying that the "University of Illinois has ignored the tribe's request for nearly five years."[30]

NCAA involvement[edit]

In August 2005, the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the primary governing board for intercollegiate athletics, instituted a ban on schools that use what they call "hostile and abusive American Indian nicknames" from hosting postseason games, beginning February 2006. The University of Illinois was among the 18 schools subject to the ban which, among other things, prohibited the University from hosting NCAA-sponsored tournaments. The ban was soon expanded to include Bowl Championship Series-sponsored bowl games, starting with the 2006 football season. The university appealed the ban in October on the grounds that it violates NCAA bylaws and violated institutional autonomy.

On November 11, 2005, the NCAA, stating that it had "found no new information relative to the mascot, known as ‘Chief Illiniwek’ or the logo mark used by some athletics teams that depicts an American Indian in feathered headdress,"[31] upheld the ban on the University of Illinois. However, it did allow the continued use of the nicknames "Illini" and "Fighting Illini" by the University because they are based on the name of the state and not of American Indian descent. The university appealed the decision again on January 30, 2006, mere days before the deadline.[32] While the NCAA Executive Committee granted an extension to April 28, the committee's next meeting, to other schools affected by the ban, the University of Illinois requested a longer stay until May 15, the end of the current semester. The Executive Committee ignored the request for a longer stay and denied the university's second appeal while indicating that no further appeals would be entertained.[33]

The Chicago Sun-Times reported on August 31, 2006 that Chief Illiniwek would "no longer be an official university symbol" after the 2006–2007 basketball season. The paper also reported that the ownership of the Chief would be transitioned to an organization called the "Council of Chiefs" and made up of a number of people who have previously portrayed Chief Illiniwek. The next day, however, the University disputed the Sun-Times report. University sources confirmed that several former Chiefs had met with University officials to discuss preserving the symbol's tradition but stated that the so-called "Council of Chiefs" did not exist as a formally organized group. A University spokesman stated that "no decisions have been made" regarding the symbol's fate.[34]

Chief Illiniwek and the Fighting Illini[edit]

Some have incorrectly linked Chief Illiniwek with the nickname Fighting Illini. Though many assume that both are based on Illinois' American Indian traditions, the name "Illini" was first associated with the school by the student newspaper, which changed its name to The Illini in the late 19th century. (The paper is now called The Daily Illini.) The addition of the adjective "fighting" originated about five years before the appearance of Chief Illiniwek as a tribute to Illinois soldiers killed in World War I. Similarly, the on-campus football venue, Memorial Stadium, was named in honor of these fallen soldiers. As stated above, the NCAA has exempted the names "Illini" and "Fighting Illini" from its ban on "hostile and abusive" American Indian imagery, and these names are still used by the University. The state of Illinois is named for the Illinois River, which was itself named by French explorers after the indigenous Illiniwek people, a consortium of Algonquian tribes that thrived in the area. The word Illiniwek means "those who speak in the ordinary way," although it has often been mistranslated as "tribe of superior men."[35]

Retiring Chief Illiniwek[edit]

On February 16, 2007, Lawrence Eppley, chair of the board of trustees issued a unilateral ruling retiring Chief Illiniwek.[36][dead link] Chief Illiniwek's last performance, by the final Chief, Dan Maloney of Galesburg, Illinois, took place on February 21, 2007 at the last men's home basketball game of the 2006–2007 regular season against Michigan, in Assembly Hall.[37] As at the time, Chief Illiniwek also performed at women's home basketball games, the first halftime performance without the portrayal of Chief Illiniwek was the following night, February 22, 2007, at the women's basketball game against Michigan State.

On March 13, 2007, the University of Illinois board of trustees voted to retire Illiniwek's name, image and regalia.[38]

After retirement[edit]

In April 2008, the "Council of Chiefs", a group of previous Chief Illiniwek performers, named a student to portray the chief, although this portrayal is not sanctioned or endorsed by the University.[39]

An event called "Students for Chief Illiniwek Presents: The Next Dance," happened on November 15, 2008 following the football game against Ohio State University, in the Assembly Hall. "We want to do this event on a very exciting day for Illini fans and we want it to be a complement to that day's game," said Roberto Martell Jr., former president of Students for Chief Illiniwek and a junior in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.[40] An open letter was sent forth by the Native American House encouraging the entire University community to speak out against the event.[41]

On October 4, 2009, the University of Illinois gave the Chief Illiniwek regalia to the Oglala Lakota. The media were denied entry to this event, which was called a "private function" by Associate Director of Athletics Dana Brenner. The university did not offer a public statement about the return.[42]

On February 26, 2010 the webpage of Students for Chief Illiniwek posted nearly fifty email correspondences, obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, of several members of the University administration attempting to prevent the "Next Dance" portrayals. Parties involved include Renee Romano, Anna Gonzalez, Robert Warrior, and then-Chancellor Richard Herman.[43] The emails include conversations between Romano and Richard Herman appreciating "the fact that we've been trying to get in the way of allowing the students for the chief to perform a dance in the assembly hall.[44] and "trying to think of a reason to deny them access to Assembly Hall on Oct. 2."[44] The revelation of free speech violations by the administrators was criticized by free-speech advocates, including the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, which currently gives the University of Illinois a yellow light rating.[45]

In May 2010 the Students for Chief Organization chose a new student to serve as the 38th chief portrayer: Ivan A. Dozier, who claims Cherokee ancestry.[46] Dozier performed as Chief at the "Next Dance" event over homecoming weekend at the University in 2010. He also appeared in regalia at numerous sporting events throughout the year.[47]

In October, 2012, the Chief made an unsanctioned halftime appearance at Memorial stadium, in the Homecoming football game against Indiana.[48]

Students and fans still chant "Chief" during the performance of Three In One during halftime. Since neither the NCAA nor the University have any control over what the fans chant, opposition groups have called to additionally ban the Three In One performance.[49]

In April, 2014 and indigenous student sent a letter to the university administration (which she also posted on her Facebook page) describing her thoughts of suicide resulting from the daily insults she felt due to the continued presence of "The Chief" on campus, including other students wearing the old image and name on sweatshirts and the continued "unofficial" performances the current "Chief", Ivan A. Dozier at some events. She stated that these thoughts came as a result of her feeling that she had no recourse because the university had not enforced its own policies regarding racism and the creation of a hostile environment for indigenous students such as herself; but had instead stated her only recourse would be personal action.[50]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "University to Retire Its Indian Mascot". The New York Times. February 17, 2007. Retrieved May 12, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Chief Illiniwek: The End of an Era". Illinois Alumni Magazine. May–June 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  3. ^ "Mascots in Court, Not on the Court". The New York Times. March 4, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-31. 
  4. ^ SUSAN SAULNY date=October 28, 2007. "University Reverses Policy to Allow Mascot’s Return". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-11-18. 
  5. ^ "Dead Link". WGN Radio. 
  6. ^ Daily Illini. [1] May 5. 2000.[dead link]
  7. ^ Roger Ebert (June 14, 2010). "Roger Ebert loves Chief Illiniwek". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2013-11-18. 
  8. ^ Wayne Drehs (March 8, 2001). "Chancellor Aiken warns group of possible sanctions". ESPN. Retrieved 2013-11-18. 
  9. ^ Dartmouth Review. [2] February 26, 2001.[dead link]
  10. ^ Three-in-one "Chief Illiniwek Educational Foundation". Retrieved February 22, 2007. [dead link]
  11. ^ a b c Louis B. Garippo, Moderator. The Chief Illiniwek Dialogue. History Of The Controversy. March 30, 2000.
  12. ^ "Illinois Confederation" is preferred over "Illiniwek" as the confederation's name. The Indian Tribes of North America, by John R. Swanton. Bulletin (Smithsonian Institution; Bureau of American Ethnology), 145.
  13. ^ "Sioux request prompts look at history of Chief Illiniwek garb". News-Gazette. 2007-01-27. Retrieved 2013-05-06. 
  14. ^ The Honor the Chief Society. Index of Chief Illiniwek Representatives. Accessed February 24, 2007.
  15. ^ Louis B. Garippo, Moderator. The Chief Illiniwek Dialogue. History Of Chief Illiniwek. March 30, 2000.
  16. ^ Lester Leutwiler, (First Chief Iliniwek). November 16, 1982. Chief Illiniwek Tradition. Republished by Chief Illiniwek Educational Foundation, October 2004.
  17. ^ Daily Illini. [3]. September 25, 1997
  18. ^ a b "Request to University of Illinois to Cease Use of Chief llliniwek as Mascot". Aistm.org. Retrieved 2013-11-14. 
  19. ^ Native American House and American Indian Studies, UIUC. Current Mascot News. January 17, 2007.
  20. ^ Rebecca A. Doyle. Teters uses art to fight racism in sports and media. The University (of Michigan) Record. January 25, 1999.
  21. ^ UIUC Faculty Association. Chief Illiniwek and Fighting Illini. Accessed February 20, 2007.
  22. ^ "US Census Quick Facts". Quickfacts.census.gov. Retrieved 2013-11-14. 
  23. ^ King et al. Of Polls and Race Prejudice: Sports Illustrated’s Errant "Indian Wars". Journal of Sport and Social Issues. 2002; 26: 381–402. (Subscription required)
  24. ^ Mary Johnson . Daily Illini. Students vote in favor of Chief Illiniwek. March 19, 2004.
  25. ^ Library faculty's position on the Chief http://www.lis.uiuc.edu/news/archive/chief.html
  26. ^ List of organization that are critical included faculty organizations http://www.uillinois.edu/trustees/dialogue/report_files/V.html
  27. ^ Andy Kwalwaser . Daily Illini. Chief referendum draws large amount of support. February 29, 2008.
  28. ^ The National Coalition on Racism in Sports and Media (NCRSM). Peoria Tribe Of Oklahoma Request That UIUC Cease Use Of Chief Illiniwek As Mascot. April 13, 1999.
  29. ^ Daily Illini. Courtney Linehan. Illiniwek appeal denied. November 14, 2005.
  30. ^ John P. Froman. Letter to George Will of The Washington Post. January 6, 2006.
  31. ^ NCAA. Statement by NCAA Senior Vice-President for Governance and Membership Bernard Franklin on University of Illinois, Champaign Review. November 11, 2005.
  32. ^ The News-Gazette. Jodi Heckel. UI submits second appeal to NCAA. January 31, 2006.
  33. ^ Daily Illini. Courtney Linehan. NCAA says Chief must go. April 28, 2006.
  34. ^ Daily Illini. University says Chief's fate still undecided. September 1, 2006.
  35. ^ State of Illinois. Illinois Symbols. Accessed on April 20, 2006
  36. ^ Trustee questions Chief decision - News[dead link]
  37. ^ Official University of Illinois Press Release regarding Retirement
  38. ^ "ESPN - Illinois trustees vote to retire Chief Illiniwek - College Sports". Sports.espn.go.com. 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2013-11-14. 
  39. ^ "New Chief Illiniwek". The News-Gazette. April 29, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-03. [dead link]
  40. ^ "Chief Illiniwek: The Next Dance". Daily Illini. October 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  41. ^ "Native American House Statement on November 15 event" (PDF). Native American House and American Indian Studies Department. November 7, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-10. [dead link]
  42. ^ ""Chief" Illiniwek Regalia Returned to Ogalala Lakota". October 4, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  43. ^ [4][dead link]
  44. ^ a b "de beste bron van informatie over studentsforchief. Deze website is te koop!". studentsforchief.com. Retrieved 2013-05-06. 
  45. ^ "University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - The Foundation for Individual Rights in Education". FIRE. Retrieved 2013-11-21. 
  46. ^ "Chief supporters select new portrayer". News-Gazette.com. 2010-04-27. Retrieved 2013-05-06. 
  47. ^ Taylor Goldenstein (October 22, 2010). "The Next Dance event perseveres". The Daily Illini. Retrieved 2013-05-06. 
  48. ^ Quitalig, Daryl (2012-10-29). "Chief makes Homecoming appearance". Daily Illini. Retrieved 2013-11-14. 
  49. ^ Daily Illini. Hannah Meisel. Three-In-One may be done. December 8, 2011.
  50. ^ Vincent Schilling (April 4, 2014). "Indigenous Student Discusses Public Suicide Over Chief Illiniwek Pain". Indian Country Today. 
  • http://www.illinimedia.com/di/archives/1997/September/25/p11_stephcol.txt.html
  • King, C. Richard, and Charles Fruehling Springwood, eds. (2001). Team Spirits: The Native American Mascots Controversy. Foreword by Vine Deloria Jr. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Spindel, Carol (2002). Dancing at Halftime: Sports and the Controversy Over American Indian Mascots. Updated edition, with a new afterword. New York: New York University Press.

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