Chifeng

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Chifeng
赤峰市 · ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠬᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Prefecture-level city
A major street in Chifeng
A major street in Chifeng
Chifeng (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Chifeng (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Chifeng is located in Inner Mongolia
Chifeng
Chifeng
Location of the city centre in Inner Mongolia
Coordinates: 42°15′N 118°53′E / 42.250°N 118.883°E / 42.250; 118.883Coordinates: 42°15′N 118°53′E / 42.250°N 118.883°E / 42.250; 118.883
Country People's Republic of China
Region Inner Mongolia
Municipal seat Hongshan District
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 90,275 km2 (34,855 sq mi)
 • Urban 7,012 km2 (2,707 sq mi)
 • Metro 7,012 km2 (2,707 sq mi)
Elevation 586 m (1,923 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • Prefecture-level city 4,341,245
 • Density 48/km2 (120/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,094,970
 • Urban density 160/km2 (400/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,094,970
 • Metro density 160/km2 (400/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 024000
Area code(s) 0476
Licence plate prefixes D
Website chifeng.gov.cn
Chifeng
Chinese name
Chinese 赤峰
Mongolian name
Mongolian Cyrillic Улаанхад хот
Mongolian script ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠬᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ

Chifeng (Chinese: 赤峰市), also known as Ulanhad (Mongolian: ᠤᠯᠠᠭᠠᠨᠬᠠᠳᠠ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ (Улаанхад хот) Ulaɣanqada qota [ʊlaːnxad xɔt], "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. It borders Xilin Gol League to the north and west, Tongliao to the northeast, Chaoyang (Liaoning) to the southeast, and Chengde (Hebei) to the south. The city has a total administrative area of 90,275 square kilometres (34,855 sq mi) and has a population of 4,341,245 inhabitants. As of the 2010 census, 1,094,970 of these residents reside within in the urban districts of Hongshan, Yuanbaoshan and Songshan. However, a large part of Songshan is still rural and Yuanbaoshan is a de facto separate town 27 kilometers away from the core district of Chifeng. The city was the administrative centre of the defunct Ju Ud League (昭乌达盟; ᠵᠤᠤ ᠤᠳᠠ ᠴᠢᠭᠤᠯᠭᠠᠨ).

History[edit]

The C-shaped jade dragon of Hongshan Culture

According to archeology studies, human existence in the Chifeng area can be traced back almost ten thousand years, and the cultural history can be traced back nearly eight thousand years. The representative ruins and relics of Hongshan Culture, Grassland Bronze Culture, Qindan Nationality-Liao Culture and Mongolian-Yuan Culture have been discovered in Chifeng. The ruins of an ancient village, named Xinglonggou, are regarded as “the first village of China” by historians. The biggest jade dragon unearthed in the area is known as “the first dragon of China”. The discovery of ruins and relics of ancient cultures have come from more than 6,800 sites. Named after Chifeng's Hongshan District, Hongshan Culture was a Neolithic culture in northeastern China, whose sites have been found mainly in Chifeng, and dated from about 4700 to 2900 BC.[1]

Chifeng was the political, economic and cultural center of the Liao Dynasty, therefore, the amount of ruins and relics of the Liao Dynasty in Chifeng is ranked the most important in China. In Qing Dynasty, today's Chifeng region was under the administration of 'Ju Ud League', one of the six original Leagues in Inner Mongolia region. Mongolian Banners (county level regions) were organized into conventional assemblies at the league level. In republican era, Chifeng was under the administration of Rehe Province, along with parts of today's Liaoning and Hebei including Chaoyang and Chengde. After Mukden incident took place in 1931, Japanese pupped state Manchukuo was established in Hsinking(today's Jilin provincial capital Changchun), and Juud League was captured by Manchukuo in 1933.[2] Chifeng was established the third largest city of Rehe Province after Chengde and Chaoyang, After the Operation August Storm, the Soviet-Mongolian Cavalry-Mechanized Group had entered Chifeng. After Rehe Province was defunct in 1955, Chifeng was put under the newly established Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region under CCP rule, whose provincial seat was previously at Ulanhot and transferred to Zhangjiakou and then Huhhot in the 1950s. In the 1970s, going by the name Juud League, Chifeng was under the administration of Liaoning province. After 1979, Chifeng was under Inner Mongolian rule, and Juud League was dissolved on October 10, 1983.

Geography[edit]

Chifeng is situated along the upper reaches of the Xiliao River. Within its area are the southwesternmost extension of the Greater Khingan, the Inner Mongolia Plateau as well as the Xiliao River Plain, and finally the northernmost extent of the Yan Mountains. Bordering prefecture-level divisions are Tongliao to the northeast, Chaoyang (Liaoning) to the southeast, Chengde (Hebei) to the south, and the Xilingol League and to the west. From north to south Chifeng City stretches 457.5 km (284.3 mi), while from east to west it stretches 375 km (233 mi). Elevations decrease from a high of2,067 m (6,781 ft) in the west to less than 300 m (980 ft) in the east.

Climate[edit]

Chifeng has a four-season, monsoon-influenced, continental steppe climate (Köppen BSk), with long, cold, windy, but dry winters, and hot, humid summers. Monthly mean temperatures range from −10.7 °C (12.7 °F) in January to 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 7.49 °C (45.5 °F). Nearly half of the year's rainfall occurs in July and August, and even then dry and sunny weather dominates in the city. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 55% in July to 71% in January and February, sunshine is abundant year-round, and the city receives 2,866 hours of bright sunshine annually, about 65% of the possible total.

Climate data for Chifeng (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −3.4
(25.9)
0.2
(32.4)
7.1
(44.8)
16.7
(62.1)
23.4
(74.1)
27.5
(81.5)
29.4
(84.9)
27.9
(82.2)
23.0
(73.4)
15.6
(60.1)
5.8
(42.4)
−1.1
(30)
14.3
(57.8)
Average low °C (°F) −16.3
(2.7)
−13.4
(7.9)
−6.3
(20.7)
2.7
(36.9)
9.9
(49.8)
15.3
(59.5)
18.5
(65.3)
16.5
(61.7)
9.8
(49.6)
2.1
(35.8)
−6.5
(20.3)
−13.2
(8.2)
1.6
(34.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 1.6
(0.063)
2.4
(0.094)
6.6
(0.26)
14.4
(0.567)
40.2
(1.583)
64.0
(2.52)
109.3
(4.303)
75.1
(2.957)
31.7
(1.248)
19.5
(0.768)
4.4
(0.173)
1.9
(0.075)
371.1
(14.611)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.8 1.8 2.7 4.1 7.8 12.1 14.2 10.4 7.0 4.5 2.6 1.1 70.1
 % humidity 43 40 39 37 41 54 66 67 58 50 47 44 48.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 205.1 210.1 254.4 259.2 281.0 263.6 254.0 255.3 251.4 241.1 201.0 189.6 2,865.8
Percent possible sunshine 71 71 69 65 63 58 55 59 67 70 68 67 65
Source: China Meteorological Administration

Administrative divisions[edit]

Chifeng has three districts, two counties and seven banners:

Map
Chifeng mcp.png
# Name Mongolian Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Hongshan District ᠬᠦᠩ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Küŋ šan toɣoriɣ)
红山区 Hóngshān Qū 434,785 170 1,765
2 Yuanbaoshan District ᠶᠤᠸᠠᠨ ᠪᠣᠣ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Yuvan boo šan toɣoriɣ)
元宝山区 Yuánbǎoshān Qū 325,170 887 327
3 Songshan District ᠰᠦᠩ ᠱᠠᠨ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Süŋ šan toɣoriɣ)
松山区 Sōngshān Qū 573,571 5,955 91
4 Ningcheng County ᠨᠢᠩᠴᠧᠩ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Niŋčėŋ siyan)
宁城县 Níngchéng Xiàn 546,845 4,305 139
5 Linxi County ᠯᠢᠨᠰᠢ ᠰᠢᠶᠠᠨ
(Linsi siyan)
林西县 Línxī Xiàn 200,619 3,933 61
6 Ar Khorchin Banner ᠠᠷᠤ ᠬᠣᠷᠴᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Aru Qorčin qosiɣu)
阿鲁科尔沁旗 Ālǔkē'ěrqìn Qí 272,205 14,555 21
7 Baarin Left Banner ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Baɣarin Jegün qosiɣu)
巴林左旗 Bālín Zuǒ Qí 327,765 6,713 52
8 Baarin Right Banner ᠪᠠᠭᠠᠷᠢᠨ ᠪᠠᠷᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Baɣarin Baraɣun qosiɣu)
巴林右旗 Bālín Yòu Qí 175,543 9,837 18
9 Hexigten Banner ᠬᠡᠰᠢᠭᠲᠡᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Kesigten qosiɣu)
克什克腾旗 Kèshíkèténg Qí 211,155 20,673 12
10 Ongniud Banner ᠣᠩᠨᠢᠭᠤᠳ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Oŋniɣud qosiɣu)
翁牛特旗 Wēngniútè Qí 433,298 11,882 40
11 Kharchin Banner ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠴᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Qaračin qosiɣu)
喀喇沁旗 Kālāqìn Qí 293,246 3,071 120
12 Aohan Banner ᠠᠤᠬᠠᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Auqan qosiɣu)
敖汉旗 Áohàn Qi 547,043 8,294 71

Demographics[edit]

In 2004, Chifeng had 4,435,737 inhabitants (49.14 per km²).

Ethnic group population share
Han 3,441,581 77.58%
Mongols 830,357 18.72%
Manchu 128,656 2.9%
Hui 31,122 0.7%
Koreans 1,614 0.04%
Zhuang 402 0.01%
Daur 386 0.01%
Other 1,619 0.04%

Economy[edit]

During the period of “the 10th Five-Year Plan”, Chifeng conducted the strategy of “found the municipality by ecology, strengthen the municipality by industry, prosper the municipality by science and education”, by strengthening the development of resources, and seizing the historic opportunity of Western Development.

Following the strategy, Chifeng started tightening up ecological and infrastructure construction, actively promoting the process of agricultural and animal husbandry industrialization, industrialization and urbanization, greatly encouraging the development of service industry and county-level economy, trying to expand the general economy volume, increasing industry level, enhancing the core competition.

As a result, the social economy got fast development. Currently, the industrial economic system dominated with minerals, energy, medicines and foods and the agricultural and animal husbandry industrialization development structure dominated with meat, milk, vegetables and grass in Chifeng has been initially taking into shape. Chifeng has become the base of agriculture and animal husbandry and industry of the eastern part of Inner Mongolia. Compared with those of the end of “the 9th Five-Year Plan”, GDP of the municipality, average regional GDP and the fiscal income doubled, the investment of fixed asset quadrupled.

In 2005, GDP of the municipality reached 34.56 billion Yuan, fiscal income reached 3.15 billion Yuan, the investment of fixed asset reached 23.1 billion Yuan, the general retail amount of social consumption reached 13.7 billion Yuan, the urban per capita disposable income came to 7,572 Yuan and average pure income of farmers and herdsmen was 2,817 Yuan. Chifeng had been cited as “Pacesetter of National Sand Control and Ecological Construction”, “National Sanitary City”, “National Model City of supporting army and cherishing the people”, ‘National Perfect Tourism City”, “National perfect City in Social Security”, “Perfect Area of Spiritual Civilization” and “China’s 50 Credit security areas in investment environment”.

During “11th Five-Year Plan”, Chifeng is further conducting the development strategy of “found the municipality by ecology, strengthen the municipality by industry, prosper the municipality by science and education”, by speeding up the process of new type industrialization, Agriculture and animal husbandry industrialization and urbanization, putting stress on industrial economy, project construction and investment introduction, in order to conscientiously increase fiscal income, average income of urban residents and farmers, try to create harmonious Chifeng.

It is planned that, by 2010, GDP will come to 85 billion Yuan, by around 20% up averagely; fiscal income will come to 10 billion Yuan, around 26% up averagely. Through the fast development during “11th Five-year Plan”, Chifeng will be built as a producing base of green agricultural and animal husbandry products, energy supply base accessing to northeastern and northern China, important raw material and deep-processing base of nonferrous metal, tourism site of grassland, central city and goods interflow center between Inner Mongolia and Hebei.

Mineral resources[edit]

In mineral resources, there are over 70 mineral deposits. The area is rich in coal, oil and gas; nonferrous metal and ferrous mental, namely iron, tin, zinc, lead, gold, silver, molybdenum etc. have large reserves. Non-metal minerals include limestone, marble, fluorspar, silica, pearlite, bentonite etc.

In agricultural and animal husbandry products, besides the dominant crops of corn, rice, millet, there are cash crops like beans, buckwheat, oil-used sunflower seeds, sugar beets, tobacco, and Chinese herbals. Yearly yield of grains can reach 6 billion Jin. The facility agriculture featured by greenhouse and cold-keeping shed has come to 220,000mu. The area of natural grassland in the municipality is over 8,900mu. The raising livestock is over 14 million all over the municipality.

Power generation[edit]

In wind and water resources, there are many large and ideal national-grade wind power plants, and more than 60 large and middle size reservoirs. The ground water amounts to 5 billion m3.

Industries[edit]

Major industries include finance, insurance, telecommunications, distribution, logistics, hotels and restaurants, leisure and entertainment. High-tech industrial zone spans 24 km2 (9.3 sq mi).

Transport[edit]

Air: Chifeng Airport

Chifeng is a transport hub connecting the east and west area of Inner Mongolia.

Education[edit]

Famous people[edit]

  • Bao Xishun, recognized as world's tallest man from 2005 until 2007, is from Chifeng, as is his wife.
  • Siqingaowa, actress.

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ [1] Timeline posted by National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
  2. ^ 德力格尔玛. 伪满洲国统治内蒙古东部地区的行政机构及其演变. 
Sources

Literature[edit]

  • Jinri Nei Menggu: Chifeng 今日内蒙古: 赤峰 (Inner Mongolia Today: Chifeng), 内蒙古人民出版社 Nei Menggu renmin chubanshe, 呼和浩特 Hohhot 1997, ISBN 7-204-03544-5, 9+121 pages

External links[edit]