Alfred Waddington sponsor of the road construction
|White workers working for Alfred Waddington||Tsilhqot'in (Chilcotin) people|
|Casualties and losses|
|14 killed||5 arrested and hanged|
|5 arrested allegedly were tricked into meeting Colonial officials under the pretense of a truce|
The Chilcotin War, Chilcotin Uprising or Bute Inlet Massacre was a confrontation in 1864 between members of the Tsilhqot'in (Chilcotin) people in British Columbia and white road construction workers. Fourteen men employed by Alfred Waddington in the building of a road from Bute Inlet were killed, as well as a number of men with a pack-train near Anahim Lake and a settler at Puntzi Lake.
In 1862, Alfred Waddington began lobbying the press and his political allies for support to a wagon road from Bute Inlet to Fort Alexandria where it would connect to the Cariboo Road and continue on to the goldfields at Barkerville. He received approval for the construction early in 1863. According to Waddington, it would reduce land travel from 359 miles to 185 miles and the total days consumed in packing freight from 37 days to 22 compared to the Yale-Fraser Canyon route known as the Cariboo Road favoured by Governor Douglas. The Bute Inlet Wagon Road was to follow the Homathko River valley from the mouth of Bute Inlet and then swing northeast across the Chilcotin Plateau to join the Bentinck Arm Trail at Puntzi Lake and the mouth of the Quesnel River. It was also one of the routes considered and advocated by Waddington for the transcontinental railway eventually constructed to what became Vancouver instead.:192
Construction had been underway for two years when, on April 29, 1864 a ferryman, Timothy Smith, stationed 30 miles up the river was killed after refusing a demand from Klattasine, Tellot and other natives for food. Smith was shot and his body thrown into the river. The food stores and supplies were looted. A half ton of provisions were taken. The following day the natives attacked the workers camp at daylight. Three men, Peterson Dane, Edwin Moseley and a man named Buckley, though injured, escaped and fled down the river. The remaining crew were killed and their bodies thrown into the river.
Four miles further up the trail, the band came upon the foreman, William Brewster, and three of his men blazing trail. All were killed. Brewster's body was mutilated and left. The others' bodies were thrown into the river. The band also killed William Manning, a settler at Puntzi Lake.:192
A pack train led by Alexander McDonald, though warned, continued into the area and three of the drivers were killed in the ensuing ambush.:192 In all, nineteen men were killed.
In New Westminster, Governor Seymour, just a month into his term, received news of the attacks on May 14. The next day Chartres Brew and 28 men were sent to Bute Inlet aboard the HMS Forward but they were unable to make their way up the trail from the Homathko valley to the scene of the incident and returned to New Westminster. A second party of 50 men under Gold Commissioner William Cox went to the area using an overland route, met an ambush and retreated. Brew, aboard the HMS Sutlej, along with the Governor and 38 men went out again to reach the Chilcoltin from Bentinck Arm. They arrived July 7 and met Cox. Donald McLean led a scouting party to reconnoitre. A guide, hearing a rifle click, urged him to get down. He didn't and was shot through the heart.
In 1864, Chief Alexis and a slave of Klatassine met with Cox and were given assurances of friendship by Cox. The next day Klattassine, Tallot and six others arrived. They were arrested. Although denied by Cox, they claimed to have been offered immunity. The prisoners were returned to Alexandria. Five of the Tsilhqot'in men (Telloot, Klatsassin, Tah-pitt, Piele, and Chessus) were arrested and charged with murder. They were tried in September 1864 at Quesnel by Judge Begbie. In defence of their actions, Klatsassin said they were waging war, not committing murder. The five were found guilty and sentenced to hang.:207
The incident cost the colony about $80,000. A petition to the Imperial parliament to share this cost was declined. Donald McLean's widow was given a pension of ₤100 per year for five years. Waddington sought compensation of $50,000 from the colony saying that his party had been given no protection. The colony declined saying none was requested and that no state could guarantee its citizens safe from murder.:194
Waddington was of the view that fears of the introduction of smallpox was the cause of the unrest. Frederick Whymper, an artist attached to Waddington's crew, attributed the unrest to the provision of firearms to the Chilcotin at a time when they were suffering from lack of food. Judge Begbie concluded that the most important cause of the unrest was concern over title to land rather than "plunder or revenge".:206 Others say that the native packers in Brewster's crew were starving while the white members of the crew were well supplied. There were also grievances about desecration of graves and interference with valuable spring waters.:195
Review of trial
In 1993 Judge Anthony Sarich, wrote a report commissioned by the government of British Columbia, of an inquiry into the relationship between the Aboriginal community in British Columbia and the justice system. As a result of the recommendations in the report, the Attorney General apologized for the hanging of the Chilcotin Chiefs and provided funding for an archaeological investigation to locate their graves. In 2014, the British Columbia government exonerated the Chilcotin leaders. Premier Christy Clark stated, "We confirm without reservation that these six Tsilhqot'in chiefs are fully exonerated for any crime or wrongdoing."
- Alfred Penderell Waddington
- White, Howard, ed. (1994). "Scotty McIntyre". Raincoast Chronicles Eleven Up. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing. ISBN 1-55017-105-4.
- Ormsby, Margaret A. (1958). British Columbia: A History. Vancouver: Macmillan.
- Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (2001-03-16). "Fourteenth periodic reports of States parties due in 1997. Canada". Reports Subumitted by States Parties Under Article 9 of the Convention. United Nations. Retrieved 2007-09-25.[dead link]
- "Tsilhqot'in chiefs hanged in 1864 exonerated by B.C. Premier Christy Clark". CBC News (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). 24 October 2014.
- Waddington's Road and the "Chilcotin War"
- Turning Point: Chilcotin War
- We Do Not Know His Name - Klatsassin & The Chilcotin War - Great Unsolved Mysteries in Canadian History (Site includes comprehensive collection of source documents.)
- "Klatsassin" in Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
-  an alternate framing of the events at Puntzi lake.
- High Slack: Waddington's Gold Road and the Bute Inlet Massacre of 1864 Judith Williams ISBN 0-921586-45-0