||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the English-speaking world and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (November 2012)|
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Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organisations. Legislations across the world prohibit child labour. These laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, supervised training, certain categories of work such as those by Amish children, and others.
Child labour was employed to varying extents through most of history. Before 1940, numerous children aged 5–14 worked in Europe, the United States and various colonies of European powers. These children worked in agriculture, home-based assembly operations, factories, mining and in services such as newsies. Some worked night shifts lasting 12 hours. With the rise of household income, availability of schools and passage of child labour laws, the incidence rates of child labour fell.
In developing countries, with high poverty and poor schooling opportunities, child labour is still prevalent. In 2010, sub-saharan Africa had the highest incidence rates of child labour, with several African nations witnessing over 50 percent of children aged 5–14 working. Worldwide agriculture is the largest employer of child labour. Vast majority of child labour is found in rural settings and informal urban economy; children are predominantly employed by their parents, rather than factories. Poverty and lack of schools are considered as the primary cause of child labour.
The incidence of child labour in the world decreased from 25% to 10% between 1960 and 2003, according to the World Bank.
During the Industrial Revolution, children as young as four were employed in production factories with dangerous, and often fatal, working conditions. Based on this understanding of the use of children as labourers, it is now considered by wealthy countries to be a human rights violation, and is outlawed, while some poorer countries may allow or tolerate child labour. Child labour can also be defined as the full-time employment of children who are under a minimum legal age.
The Victorian era became notorious for employing young children in factories and mines and as chimney sweeps. Child labour played an important role in the Industrial Revolution from its outset, often brought about by economic hardship. Charles Dickens for example worked at the age of 12 in a blacking factory, with his family in debtor's prison. The children of the poor were expected to help towards the family budget, often working long hours in dangerous jobs for low pay, earning 10-20% of an adult male's wage. In England and Scotland in 1788, two-thirds of the workers in 143 water-powered cotton mills were described as children. In 19th-century Great Britain, one-third of poor families were without a breadwinner, as a result of death or abandonment, obliging many children to work from a young age.
Children also worked as errand boys, crossing sweepers, shoe blacks, or selling matches, flowers and other cheap goods. Some children undertook work as apprentices to respectable trades, such as building or as domestic servants (there were over 120,000 domestic servants in London in the mid-18th century). Working hours were long: builders worked 64 hours a week in summer and 52 in winter, while domestic servants worked 80 hour weeks.
In the early 1900s, thousands of boys were employed in glass making industries. Glass making was a dangerous and tough job especially without the current technologies. The process of making glass includes intense heat to melt glass (3133 °F). When the boys are at work, they are exposed to this heat. This could cause eye trouble, lung aliments, heat exhaustion, cut, and burns. Since workers were paid by the piece, they had to work productively for hours without a break. Since furnaces had to be constantly burning, there were night shifts from 5:00 pm to 3:00 am Many factory owners preferred boys under 16 years of age.
Children as young as three were put to work. A high number of children also worked as prostitutes. Many children (and adults) worked 16-hour days. As early as 1802 and 1819 Factory Acts were passed to regulate the working hours of workhouse children in factories and cotton mills to 12 hours per day. These acts were largely ineffective and after radical agitation, by for example the "Short Time Committees" in 1831, a Royal Commission recommended in 1833 that children aged 11–18 should work a maximum of 12 hours per day, children aged 9–11 a maximum of eight hours, and children under the age of nine were no longer permitted to work. This act however only applied to the textile industry, and further agitation led to another act in 1847 limiting both adults and children to 10-hour working days.
An estimated 1.7 million children under the age of fifteen were employed in American industry by 1900.
In 1910, over 2 million children in the same age group were employed in the United States. This included children who rolled cigarettes, engaged in factory work, worked as bobbin doffers in textile mills, worked in coal mines and were employed in canneries. Lewis Hine's photographs of child labourers in the 1910s powerfully evoked the plight of working children in the American south. Hines took these photographs between 1908 and 1917 as staff photographer for the National Child Labour Committee.
Factories and mines were not the only place where child labour was prevalent in early 20th century. Home-based manufacturing across the United States and Europe employed children in tedious work. Poverty and misery were commonplace. Governments and reformers argued that labour in factories must be regulated and the state had an obligation to provide welfare for poor. Ironically, legislation that followed had an opposite effect. Work moved out of factories into urban homes. Families and women in particular preferred it because it allowed them to generate income while taking care of household duties.
Home-based manufacturing operations were active year round. Families willingly deployed their children in these income generating home enterprises. In many cases, men worked from home. In France, over 58 percent of garment workers operated out of their homes; in Germany, the number of full-time home operations nearly doubled between 1882 to 1907; and in the United States, millions of families operated out of home seven days a week, year round to produce garments, shoes, artificial flowers, feathers, match boxes, toys, umbrellas and other products. Children aged 5–14 worked alongside the parents. Home-based operations and child labour in Australia, Britain, Austria and other parts of the world was common. Rural areas similarly saw families deploying their children in agriculture. In 1946, Frieda Miller - then Director of United States Department of Labour - told the International Labour Organisation that these home-based operations offered, "low wages, long hours, child labour, unhealthy and insanitary working conditions."
|Census Year|| % Boys aged 10–14
as child labour
|Note: These are averages; child labour in
Lancashire was 80%
|Source: Census of England and Wales|
Systematic use of child labour was common place in the colonies of European powers between 1650 to 1950. In Africa, colonial administrators encouraged traditional kin-ordered modes of production, that is hiring a household for work not just the adults. Millions of children worked in colonial agricultural plantations, mines and domestic service industries. Sophisticated schemes were promulgated where children in these colonies between the ages of 5-14 were hired as apprentice without pay in exchange for learning a craft. A system of Pauper Apprenticeship came into practice in 19th century where the colonial master neither needed the native parents' nor child's approval to assign a child to labour, away from parents, at a distant farm owned by a different colonial master. Other schemes included 'earn-and-learn' programs where children would work and thereby learn. Britain for example passed a law, the so-called Masters and Servants Act of 1899, followed by Tax and Pass Law, to encourage child labour in colonies particularly in Africa. These laws offered the native people the legal ownership to some of the native land in exchange for making labour of wife and children available to colonial government's needs such as in farms and as picannins.
Beyond laws, new taxes were imposed on colonies. One of these taxes was the Head Tax in British and French colonial empires. The tax was imposed on everyone older than 8 years, in some colonies. To pay these taxes and cover living expenses, children in colonial households had to work.
In southeast Asian colonies, such as Hong Kong, child labour such as the Mui Tsai (妹仔), was rationalised as a cultural tradition and ignored by British authorities. The Dutch East India Company officials rationalised their child labour abuses with, "it is a way to save these children from a worse fate." Christian mission schools in regions stretching from Zambia to Nigeria too required work from children, and in exchange provided religious education, not secular education. Elsewhere, the Canadian Dominion Statutes in form of so-called Breaches of Contract Act, stipulated jail terms for uncooperative child workers.
Proposals to regulate child labour began as early as 1786.
Child labour is still common in many parts of the world. Estimates for child labour vary. It ranges between 250 to 304 million, if children aged 5–17 involved in any economic activity are counted. If light occasional work is excluded, ILO estimates there were 153 million child labourers aged 5–14 worldwide in 2008. This is about 20 million less than ILO estimate for child labourers in 2004. Some 60 percent of the child labour was involved in agricultural activities such as farming, dairy, fisheries and forestry. Another 25 percent of child labourers were in service activities such as retail, hawking goods, restaurants, load and transfer of goods, storage, picking and recycling trash, polishing shoes, domestic help, and other services. The remaining 15 percent laboured in assembly and manufacturing in informal economy, home-based enterprises, factories, mines, packaging salt, operating machinery, and such operations. Two out of three child workers work alongside their parents, in unpaid family work situations. Some children work as guides for tourists, sometimes combined with bringing in business for shops and restaurants. Child labour predominantly occurs in the rural areas (70%) and informal urban sector (26%).
Contrary to popular beliefs, most child labourers are employed by their parents rather than in manufacturing or formal economy. Children who work for pay or in-kind compensation are usually found in rural settings, than urban centers. Less than 3 percent of child labour aged 5–14 across the world work outside of their household, or away from their parents.
Child labour accounts for 22% of the workforce in Asia, 32% in Africa, 17% in Latin America, 1% in US, Canada, Europe and other wealthy nations. The proportion of child labourers varies greatly among countries and even regions inside those countries. Africa has the highest percentage of children aged 5–17 employed as child labour, and a total of over 65 million. Asia, with its larger population, has the largest number of children employed as child labour at about 114 million. Latin America and Caribbean region has lower overall population density, but at 14 million child labourers has high incidence rates too.
Accurate present day child labour information is difficult to obtain because of disagreements between data sources as to what constitutes child labour? In some countries, government policy contributes to this difficulty. For example, the overall extent of child labour in China is unclear due to the government categorizing child labour data as “highly secret”. China has enacted regulations to prevent child labour; still, the practice of child labour is reported to be a persistent problem within China, generally in agriculture and low-skill service sectors as well as small workshops and manufacturing enterprises.
Maplecroft Child Labour Index 2012 survey reports 76 countries pose extreme child labour complicity risks for companies operating worldwide. The ten highest risk countries in 2012, ranked in decreasing order, were: Myanmar, North Korea, Somalia, Sudan, DR Congo, Zimbabwe, Afghanistan, Burundi, Pakistan and Ethiopia. Of the major growth economies, Maplecroft ranked Philippines 25th riskiest, India 27th, China 36th, Viet Nam 37th, Indonesia 46th, and Brazil 54th - all of them rated to involve extreme risks of child labour uncertainties, to corporations seeking to invest in developing world and import products from emerging markets.
Causes of child labour
International Labour Organisation (ILO) suggests poverty is the greatest single cause behind child labour. For impoverished households, income from a child's work is usually crucial for his or her own survival or for that of the household. Income from working children, even if small, may be between 25 to 40% of these household income. Other scholars such as Harsch on African child labour, and Edmonds and Pavcnik on global child labour have reached the same conclusion.
Lack of meaningful alternatives, such as affordable schools and quality education, according to ILO, is another major factor driving children to harmful labour. Children work because they have nothing better to do. Many communities, particularly rural areas where between 60-70% of child labour is prevalent, do not possess adequate school facilities. Even when schools are sometimes available, they are too far away, difficult to reach, unaffordable or the quality of education is so poor that parents wonder if going to school is really worth it.
In European history when child labour was common, as well as in contemporary child labour of modern world, certain cultural beliefs have rationalised child labour and thereby encouraged it. Some view that work is good for the character-building and skill development of children. In many cultures, particular where informal economy and small household businesses thrive, the cultural tradition is that children follow in their parents' footsteps; child labour then is a means to learn and practice that trade from a very early age. Similarly, in many cultures the education of girls is less valued or girls are simply not expected to need formal schooling, and these girls pushed into child labour such as providing domestic services.
Biggeri and Mehrotra have studied the macroeconomic factors that encourage child labour. They focus their study on five Asian nations including India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand and Philippines. They suggest that child labour is a serious problem in all five, but it is not a new problem. Macroeconomic causes encouraged widespread child labour across the world, over most of human history. They suggest that the causes for child labour include both the demand and the supply side. While poverty and unavailability of good schools explain the child labour supply side, they suggest that the growth of low paying informal economy rather than higher paying formal economy is amongst the causes of the demand side. Other scholars too suggest that inflexible labour market, sise of informal economy, inability of industries to scale up and lack of modern manufacturing technologies are major macroeconomic factors affecting demand and acceptability of child labour.
Child labour laws and initiatives
Almost every country in the world has laws relating to and aimed at preventing child labour. International Labour Organisation has helped set international law, which most countries have signed on and ratified.
According to ILO minimum age convention (C138) of 1973, child labour refers to any work performed by children under the age of 12, non-light work done by children aged 12–14, and hazardous work done by children aged 15–17. Light work was defined, under this Convention, as any work that does not harm a child's health and development, and that does not interfere with his or her attendance at school. This convention has been ratified by 135 countries.
...Parties recognise the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.
Under Article 1 of the 1990 Convention, a child is defined as "... every human being below the age of eighteen years unless, under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier." Article 28 of this Convention requires States to, "make primary education compulsory and available free to all."
In 1999, ILO helped lead the Worst Forms Convention 182 (C182), which has so far been signed upon and domestically ratified by 151 countries including the United States. This international law prohibits worst forms of child labour, defined as all forms of slavery and slavery-like practices, such as child trafficking, debt bondage, and forced labour, including forced recruitment of children into armed conflict. The law also prohibits use of a child for prostitution or the production of pornography, child labour in illicit activities such as drug production and trafficking; and in hazardous work.
In addition to setting the international law, the United Nations initiated International Program on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) in 1992. This initiative aims to progressively eliminate child labour through strengthening national capacities to address some of the causes of child labour. Amongst the key initiative is the so-called time bounded program countries, where child labour is most prevalent and schooling opportunities lacking. The initiative seeks to achieve amongst other things, universal primary school availability. The IPEC has expanded to at least the following target countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, El Salvador, Nepal, Tanzania, Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Philippines, Senegal, South Africa and Turkey.
In 2004, the United States passed an amendment to the Fair Labour Standards Act of 1938. The amendment allows certain children aged 14–18 to work in or outside a business where machinery is used to process wood. The law aims to respect the religious and cultural needs of the Amish community of the United States. The Amish believe that one effective way to educate children is on the job. The new law allows Amish children the ability to work with their families, once they are past eighth grade in school.
Similarly, in 1996, member countries of the European Union, per Directive 94/33/EC, agreed to a number of exceptions for young people in its child labour laws. Under these rules, children of various ages may work in cultural, artistic, sporting or advertising activities if authorised by competent authority. Children above the age of 13 may perform light work for a limited number of hours per week in other economic activities as defined at the discretion of each country. Additionally, the European law exception allows children aged 14 years or over to work as part of a work/training scheme. The EU Directive clarified that these exceptions do not allow child labour where the children may experience harmful exposure to dangerous substances. Nonetheless, many children under the age of 13 do work, even in the most developed countries of the EU. For instance, a recent study showed over a third of Dutch twelve-year-old kids had a job.
More laws or more freedom?
|“||These (child labour) state laws were not enforced. Often the children themselves and their parents, who wanted the money or could see no way to survive without it - resisted. Federal legislations were passed, but were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Only in 1938 did child labour laws become a reality.||”|
—Smithsonian, on child labour in early 20th century United States, 
Scholars disagree on the best legal course forward to address child labour. Some suggest the need for laws that place a blanket ban on any work by children less than 18 years old. Others suggest the current international laws are enough, and the need for more engaging approach to achieve the ultimate goals.
Some scholars suggest any labour by children aged 18 year or less is wrong since this encourages illiteracy, inhumane work and lower investment in human capital. Child labour, claim these activists, also leads to poor labour standards for adults, depresses the wages of adults in developing countries as well as the developed countries, and dooms the third world economies to low-skill jobs only capable of producing poor quality cheap exports. More children that work in poor countries, the fewer and worse-paid are the jobs for adults in these countries. In other words, there are moral and economic reasons that justify a blanket ban on labour from children aged 18 years or less, everywhere in the world.
Other scholars suggest that these arguments are flawed, ignores history and more laws will do more harm than good. According to them, child labour is merely the symptom of a greater disease named poverty. If laws ban all lawful work that enables the poor to survive, informal economy, illicit operations and underground businesses will thrive. These will increase abuse of the children. In poor countries with very high incidence rates of child labour - such as Ethiopia, Chad, Niger and Nepal - schools are not available, and the few schools that exist offer poor quality education or are unaffordable. The alternatives for children who currently work, claim these studies, are worse: grinding subsistence farming, militia or prostitution. Child labour is not a choice, it is a necessity, the only option for survival. It is currently the least undesirable of a set of very bad choices.
These scholars suggest, from their studies of economic and social data, that early 20th century child labour in Europe and the United States ended in large part as a result of economic development of formal regulated economy, technology development and general prosperity. Child labour laws and ILO conventions came later. Edmonds suggests, even in contemporary times, incidence of child labour in Vietnam has rapidly reduced following economic reforms and GDP growth. These scholars suggest economic engagement, emphasis on opening quality schools rather than more laws, and expanding economically relevant skill development opportunities in the third world. International legal actions, such as trade sanctions increase child labour.
"The Incredible Bread Machine" a book published by "World Research, Inc." in 1974:
"Child labor was a particular target of early reformers. William Cooke Tatlor wrote at the time about these reformers who, witnissing children ar work in the factories, thought to themselves: 'How much more delightful would have been the gambol of the free limbs on the hillside; the sight of the green mead with its spangles of buttercups and daisies; the song of the bird and the humming bee...' But for many of these children the factory system meant quite literally the only chance for survival. Today we overlook the fact that death from starvation and exposure was a common fate before the Industrial Revolution, for the pre capitalist economy was barely able to support the population. Yes, children were working. Formerly they would have starved. It was only as goods were produced in greater abundance at lower cost that men could support their families without sending their children to work. It was not the reformer or the politician that ended the grim necessity for child labor; it was capitalism."
Child labour incidents
In 1998, UNICEF reported that Ivory Coast farmers used enslaved children – many from surrounding countries. In late 2000 a BBC documentary reported the use of enslaved children in the production of cocoa—the main ingredient in chocolate— in West Africa. Other media followed by reporting widespread child slavery and child trafficking in the production of cocoa. In 2001, the US State Department estimated there were 15,000 child slaves cocoa, cotton and coffee farms in the Ivory Coast, and the Chocolate Manufacturers Association acknowledged that child slavery is used in the cocoa harvest.[not in citation given][better source needed]
Malian migrants have long worked on cocoa farms in the Ivory Coast, but in 2000 cocoa prices had dropped to a 10-year low and some farmers stopped paying their employees. The Malian counsel had to rescue some boys who had not been paid for five years and who were beaten if they tried to run away. Malian officials believed that 15,000 children, some as young as 11 years old, were working in the Ivory Coast in 2001. These children were often from poor families or the slums and were sold to work in other countries. Parents were told the children would find work and send money home, but once the children left home, they often worked in conditions resembling slavery. In other cases, children begging for food were lured from bus stations and sold as slaves. In 2002, the Ivory Coast had 12,000 children with no relatives nearby, which suggested they were trafficked, likely from neighboring Mali, Burkina Faso and Togo.
The cocoa industry was accused of profiting from child slavery and trafficking. The European Cocoa Association dismissed these accusations as "false and excessive" and the industry said the reports were not representative of all areas. Later the industry acknowledged the working conditions for children were unsatisfactory and children's rights were sometimes violated and acknowledged the claims could not be ignored. In a BBC interview, the ambassador for Ivory Coast to the United Kingdom called these reports of widespread use of slave child labour by 700,000 cocoa farmers as absurd and inaccurate.
In 2001, a voluntary agreement called the Harkin-Engel Protocol, was accepted by the international cocoa and chocolate industry to eliminate the worst forms of child labour, as defined by ILO's Convention 182, in West Africa. This agreement created a foundation named International Cocoa Initiative in 2002. The foundation claims it has, as of 2011, active programs in 290 cocoa growing communities in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, reaching a total population of 689,000 people to help eliminate the worst forms of child labour in cocoa industry. Other organisations claim progress has been made, but the protocol's 2005 deadlines have not yet been met.
Mining in Africa
In 2008, Bloomberg claimed child labour in copper and cobalt mines that supplied Chinese companies in Congo. The children are creuseurs, that is they dig the ore by hand, carry sacks of ores on their backs, and these are then purchased by these companies. Over 60 of Katanga's 75 processing plants are owned by Chinese companies and 90 percent of the region's minerals go to China. An African NGO report claimed 80,000 child labourers under the age of 15, or about 40% of all miners, were supplying ore to Chinese companies in this African region.
BBC, in 2012, accused Glencore of using child labour in its mining and smelting operations of Africa. Glencore denied it used child labour, and said it has strict policy of not using child labour. The company claimed it has a strict policy whereby all copper was mined correctly, placed in bags with numbered seals and then sent to the smelter. Glencore mentioned being aware of child miners who were part of a group of artisanal miners who had without authorisation raided the concession awarded to the company since 2010; Glencore has been pleading with the government to remove the artisanal miners from the concession.
Small-scale artisanal mining of gold is another source of dangerous child labour in poor rural areas in certain parts of the world. This form of mining uses labour-intensive and low-tech methods. It is informal sector of the economy. Human Rights Watch group estimates that about 12 percent of global gold production comes from artisanal mines. In west Africa, in countries such as Mali - the third largest exporter of gold in Africa - between 20,000 and 40,000 children work in artisanal mining. Locally known as orpaillage, children as young as 6 years old work with their families. These children and families suffer chronic exposure to toxic chemicals including mercury, and do hazardous work such as digging shafts and working underground, pulling up, carrying and crushing the ore. The poor work practices harm the long term health of children, as well as release hundreds of tons of mercury every year into local rivers, ground water and lakes. Gold is important to the economy of Mali and Ghana. For Mali, it is the second largest earner of its export revenue. For many poor families with children, it is the primary and sometimes the only source of income.
In early August 2008, Iowa Labour Commissioner David Neil announced that his department had found that Agriprocessors, a kosher meatpacking company in Postville which had recently been raided by Immigration and Customs Enforcement, had employed 57 minors, some as young as 14, in violation of state law prohibiting anyone under 18 from working in a meatpacking plant. Neil announced that he was turning the case over to the state Attorney General for prosecution, claiming that his department's inquiry had discovered "egregious violations of virtually every aspect of Iowa's child labour laws." Agriprocessors claimed that it was at a loss to understand the allegations. Agriprocessors' CEO went to trial on these charges in state court on 4 May 2010. After a five-week trial he was found not guilty of all 57 charges of child labour violations by the Black Hawk County District Court jury in Waterloo, Iowa, on 7 June 2010.
A 2007 report claimed some GAP products had been produced by child labourers. GAP acknowledged the problem and announced it is pulling the products from its shelf. The report found Gap had rigorous social audit systems since 2004 to eliminate child labour in its supply chain. However, the report concluded that the system was being abused by unscrupulous subcontractors.
GAP's policy, the report claimed, is that if it discovers child labour was used by its supplier in its branded clothes, the contractor must remove the child from the workplace, provide it with access to schooling and a wage, and guarantee the opportunity of work on reaching a legal working age.
In 2007, The New York Times reported that GAP, after the child labour discovery, created a $200,000 grant to improve working conditions in the supplier community.
In December 2009, campaigners in the UK called on two leading high street retailers to stop selling clothes made with cotton which may have been picked by children. Anti-Slavery International and the Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) accused H&M and Zara of using cotton suppliers in Bangladesh. It is also suspected that many of their raw materials originates from Uzbekistan, where children aged 10 are forced to work in the fields. The activists were calling to ban the use of Uzbek cotton and implement a "track and trace" systems to guarantee an ethical responsible source of the material.
H&M said it "does not accept" child labour and "seeks to avoid" using Uzbek cotton, but admitted it did "not have any reliable methods" to ensure Uzbek cotton did not end up in any of its products. Inditex, the owner of Zara, said its code of conduct banned child labour.
A 2003 Human Rights Watch report claimed children as young as five years old were employed and worked for up to 12 hours a day and six to seven days a week in silk industry. These children, claimed HRW, were bonded child labour in India, easy to find in Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
In 2010, a German news investigative report claimed that in silk weaving industry, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) had found up to 10,000 children working in the 1,000 silk factories in 1998. In other places, thousands of bonded child labour were present in 1994. After UNICEF and NGOs got involved, after 2005, child labour figure is drastically lower, with the total estimated to be fewer than a thousand child labourers. The released children were back in school, claims the report.
In 2008, the BBC reported on Primark using child labour in the manufacture of clothing. In particular, a £4 hand-embroidered shirt was the starting point of a documentary produced by BBC's Panorama programme. The programme asks consumers to ask themselves, "Why am I only paying £4 for a hand embroidered top? This item looks handmade. Who made it for such little cost?", in addition to exposing the violent side of the child labour industry in countries where child exploitation is prevalent.
As a result of the BBC report, Royal Television Society awarded it a prise, and Primark took immediate action and fired three Indian suppliers in 2008.
Primark continued to investigate the allegations for three years, concluding that BBC report was a fake. In 2011, following an investigation by the BBC Trust’s Editorial Standards Committee, the BBC announced, "Having carefully scrutinised all of the relevant evidence, the committee concluded that, on the balance of probabilities, it was more likely than not that the Bangalore footage was not authentic." BBC subsequently apologised for faking footage, and returned the television award for investigative reporting.
Eliminating child labour
Concerns have often been raised over the buying public's moral complicity in purchasing products assembled or otherwise manufactured in developing countries with child labour. However, others have raised concerns that boycotting products manufactured through child labour may force these children to turn to more dangerous or strenuous professions, such as prostitution or agriculture. For example, a UNICEF study found that after the Child Labour Deterrence Act was introduced in the US, an estimated 50,000 children were dismissed from their garment industry jobs in Bangladesh, leaving many to resort to jobs such as "stone-crushing, street hustling, and prostitution", jobs that are "more hazardous and exploitative than garment production". The study suggests that boycotts are "blunt instruments with long-term consequences, that can actually harm rather than help the children involved."
According to Milton Friedman, before the Industrial Revolution virtually all children worked in agriculture. During the Industrial Revolution many of these children moved from farm work to factory work. Over time, as real wages rose, parents became able to afford to send their children to school instead of work and as a result child labour declined, both before and after legislation. Austrian school economist Murray Rothbard said that British and American children of the pre- and post-Industrial Revolution lived and suffered in infinitely worse conditions where jobs were not available for them and went "voluntarily and gladly" to work in factories.
British historian and socialist E. P. Thompson in The Making of the English Working Class draws a qualitative distinction between child domestic work and participation in the wider (waged) labour market. Further, the usefulness of the experience of the industrial revolution in making predictions about current trends has been disputed. Social historian Hugh Cunningham, author of Children and Childhood in Western Society Since 1500, notes that:
- "Fifty years ago it might have been assumed that, just as child labour had declined in the developed world in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, so it would also, in a trickle-down fashion, in the rest of the world. Its failure to do that, and its re-emergence in the developed world, raise questions about its role in any economy, whether national or global."
According to Thomas DeGregori, an economics professor at the University of Houston, in an article published by the Cato Institute, a libertarian think-tank operating in Washington D.C., "it is clear that technological and economic change are vital ingredients in getting children out of the workplace and into schools. Then they can grow to become productive adults and live longer, healthier lives. However, in poor countries like Bangladesh, working children are essential for survival in many families, as they were in our own heritage until the late 19th century. So, while the struggle to end child labour is necessary, getting there often requires taking different routes—and, sadly, there are many political obstacles.
The International Labour Organisation’s International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), founded in 1992, aims to eliminate child labour. It operates in 88 countries and is the largest program of its kind in the world. IPEC works with international and government agencies, NGOs, the media, and children and their families to end child labour and provide children with education and assistance.
Action against Child Labour in India
India has a legialtion against child labour since 1986 which instead of preventing child labour, allows work by children in non-hazardous industry. Social activist Hemant Goswami had moved the courts against this particular provision and for the failure of the Government to prevent violation of child rights and widespread child labour, his efforts against exploitation of children has forced the government to constitute Commission for Child Right in the State of Harayana, Punjab and Chandigarh. On 9 April 2013, the Punjab and Haryana High Court gave landmark order on the writ-petition (PIL CWP 2693 of 2010) moved by Hemant Goswami. The court, accepted all the contentions and suggestions put forward by Hemant Goswami (who argued the case in-person) and directed that;
- There shall be total ban on the employment of children up to the age of 14 years, be it hazardous or non-hazardous industries.
- There shall be no forced labour even for children between the age of 14 years to 18 years; and whenever a child above the age of 14 years is forced to work, it has to be treated as an offence under Section 374 IPC and it is to be dealt with sternly.
- When any matter is brought to the notice of the State Commission (or for that matter suo motu cognizance taken by the State Commission) involving violation of child rights even where a child above the age of 14 year is employed, the State Commission under the CPCR Act will have the jurisdiction to deal with the same and pass necessary directions.
- The violators have to be dealt with effectively and in a speedy manner. Therefore, wherever violations are found, cases under the provisions of Part-IV of the Child Labour Prohibition Act have to be registered without delay in each and every case.
- Wherever the officers fail or neglect to take effective action immediately, apart from taking necessary disciplinary action, action can also be taken, in appropriate cases, under Section 166 IPC against such officers.
- There is also a need for rehabilitation of such children in the society. (Schemes suggested by Hemant Goswami were adopted by the Court (As Court's directions), with the following main points; (a) Moving out the child from the exploitative environment (b) Ensuring Education (c) Ensuring Food/Meals/Clothes/ Necessities (d) Penalty/Compensation should be for the benefit of the Child (e) Regular Monitoring)
- The Chairperson of “State Commissions for Protection of Child Rights” should be a person who has been Judge of the High Court and the process of selection of the other six members of the “State Commissions for Protection of Child Rights” should entail issuance of public advertisement for inviting applications, interviewing eligible candidates and recommending a penal of names of suitable persons.
- States of Punjab and Haryana as well as U.T., Chandigarh shall also ensure that the State Commissions become fully functional by appointing Chairpersons and Members.
- Children’s Courts with specialised infrastructure be created.
The above order by the High Court is considred a landmark in "Child Right Protection" in India, as the court declared many existing provisions of the 1986 Indian Child Labour legislation as illegal and against the Constitution of India.
Number of children involved in ILO categories of work, by age and gender
|All Children ('000s)||Economically Active Children ('000s)||Economically Active Children (%)||Child Labour ('000s)||Child Labour (%)||Children In Hazardous Work ('000s)||Children In Hazardous Work (%)|
- Child abuse
- Child labour in Africa
- Child labour in Bangladesh
- Child labour in India
- Child migration
- Child prostitution
- Child slavery
- Child soldiers
- Children in cocoa production
- Children's rights movement
- Concerned for Working Children
- Guaranteed minimum income
- History of childhood
- International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, IPEC
- International Research on Working Children
- Labour law
- Unfree labour
- Human trafficking
- Debt bondage
- Trafficking of children
- Rochdale sex trafficking gang
- Legal working age
- London matchgirls strike of 1888
- Newsboys strike of 1899
- Street children
International conventions and other instruments:
- Pilot project on Delivery of water to households far from sources of safe water
- ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)
- ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)
- ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)
- "The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England". Laura Del Col, West Virginia University.
- The Factory and Workshop Act 1901
- "What is child labour?". International Labour Organisation. 2012.
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- "Labour laws - An Amish exception". The Economist. 5 February 2004.
- "Council Directive 94/33/EC of 22 June 1994 on child labour". EUR-Lex. 2008.
- Cunningham and Viazzo. "Child Labour in Historical Perspective: 1800-1985". UNICEF. ISBN 88-85401-27-9.
- Elisabeth Prügl (1999). The Global Construction of Gender - Home based work in Political Economy of 20th Century. Columbia University Press. pp. 25–31, 50–59. ISBN 978-0231115612.
- Hugh Hindman (2009). The World of Child Labour. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-1707-1.
- "Percentage of children aged 5-14 engaged in child labour". UNICEF. 2012.
- "Child Labour". The Economist. 20 December 2005.
- Eric V. Edmonds and Nina Pavcnik (Winter 2005). "Child Labour in the Global Economy". Journal of Economic Perspectives 19 (1): 199 –220.
- "Child labour - causes". ILO, United Nations. 2008.
- Norberg, Johan (2007), Världens välfärd (Stockholm: Government Offices of Sweden), p. 58
- E. P. Thompson The Making of the English Working Class, (Penguin, 1968), pp. 366–7
- Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England
- Barbara Daniels, Poverty and Families in the Victorian Era
- "Child Labour and the Division of Labour in the Early English Cotton Mills". Douglas A. Galbi. Centre for History and Economics, King's College, Cambridge CB2 1ST.
- Jane Humphries, Childhood And Child Labour in the British Industrial Revolution (2010) p 33
- Hine, Russell Freedman ; with photographs by Lewis (1994). Kids at work : Lewis Hine and the crusade against child labour. New York: Clarion Books. pp. 54–57. ISBN 0395587034.
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- Essay from UMBC on children working in the 1910s as cigarette rollers
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- Russell Freedman (1998). Kids at Work: Lewis Hine and the Crusade Against Child Labour. Sandpiper. ISBN 978-0395797266.
- Frieda Miller (1979). Miller, Frieda S. Papers, 1909-1973. Radcliff College.
- Linda Lobao and Katherine Meyer (2001). "The Great Agricultural Transition: Crisis, Change, and Social Consequences of Twentieth Century US Farming". Annual Review of Sociology 27: 103–124. JSTOR 2678616.
- Harriet Friedmann (1978). "World Market, State, and Family Farm: Social Bases of Household Production in the Era of Wage Labour". Comparative Studies in Society and History 20: 545–586. doi:10.1017/S001041750001255X.
- Hugh Cunningham (Ed: Cunningham and Viazzo). "Child Labour in Historical Perspective: 1800-1985". UNICEF. pp. 41–53. ISBN 88-85401-27-9.
- Loretta Bass (2004). Child Labour in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lynne Rienner Publications. pp. 30–43. ISBN 978-1588262868.
- Beverly Grier (Ed: Hugh Hindman) (2009). The World of Child Labour. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 173–177. ISBN 978-0-7656-1707-1.
- Douglas Hay (2007). Masters, Servants, and Magistrates in Britain and the Empire, 1562-1955 (Studies in Legal History). pp. 38–46. ISBN 978-0807828779. Text "University of North Carolina Press" ignored (help)
- Jack Lord (2011). "Child labour in the Gold Coast: the economics of work, education and the family in late-colonial Africa, c.1940-57". The Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth 4 (1): 88–115.
- Karen Wells (Fall 2008). "Invisible Hands: Child Labour and the State in Colonial Zimbabwe by Beverly Grier (a review)". The Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth 1 (3): 481–483. doi:10.1353/hcy.0.0025.
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- Douglas Hay (2007). Masters, Servants, and Magistrates in Britain and the Empire, 1562-1955 (Studies in Legal History). pp. 203–207. ISBN 978-0807828779. Text "University of North Carolina Press" ignored (help)
- Steve Charnovitz, "Child Labour: What to do?," Journal of Commerce, 15 August 1996.
- Percentage of children aged 5-14 engaged in child labour
- Antelava, Natalia (24 August 2007). "Child labour in Kyrgyz coal mines". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-08-25.
- Yacouba Diallo, Frank Hagemann, Alex Etienne, Yonca Gurbuzer and Farhad Mehran (2010). "Global child labour developments: Measuring trends from 2004 to 2008". ILO. ISBN 978-92-2-123522-4.
- "The State of the World's Children 1997". UNICEF. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
- Facts and figures on child labour
- Tackling child labour: From commitment to action. International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour - ILO. 2012. ISBN 978-92-2-126374-6.
- "Children's Rights: China". Law Library of Congress, United States. 2012.
- Karine Lepillez (2009). "The dark side of labour in China".
- "China: End Child Labour in State Schools". Human Rights Watch. 4 December 2007.[dead link]
- "Conflict and economic downturn cause global increase in reported child labour violations – 40% of countries now rated ‘extreme risk’ by Maplecroft". Maplecroft. 1 May 2012.
- Ernest Harsch (October 2001). Africa Recovery 15 (3): 14–15 http://www.un.org/en/africarenewal/vol15no3/153chil4.htm
|url=missing title (help).
- Basu, Kaushik and Van, Phan Hoang, 1998. 'The Economics of Child Labour', American Economic Review, 88(3),412–427
- Jo Boyden (1994). "The Relationship between Education and Child Work". UNICEF.
- Faraaz Siddiqi and Harry Anthony Patrinos (1999). "CHILD LABOUR: ISSUES, CAUSES AND INTERVENTIONS". The World Bank.
- Obinna E. Osita-Oleribe (January 2007). "Exploring the causes of child labour". International NGO Journal 2 (1): 6–9.
- Michaelle Tauson (2009). "Child Labour in Latin America: Poverty as Cause and Effect".
- Michele D'Avolio (Spring 2004). "Child Labour and Cultural Relativism: From 19th Century America to 21st Century Nepal". Pace International Law Review 16 (1).
- Mario Biggeri and Santosh Mehrotra (2007). Asian Informal Workers: Global Risks, Local Protection. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-38275-5.
- Christiaan Grootaert and Harry Anthony Patrinos (1999). The Policy Analysis of Child Labour: A Comparative Study. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0312221225.
- Douglas Galbi (1997). "Child Labour and the Division of Labour in the Early English Cotton Mills". Journal of Population Economics 10 (4). Text "pages 357-375" ignored (help)
- Brown, D. K., Deardorff, A. V. and Stern, R. M. Child Labour: Theory, Evidence, and Policy (Chapter 3, International Labour Standards: History, Theory, and Policy Options). doi:10.1002/9780470754818.ch3. ISBN 9781405105552.
- United Nations Treaty Collection. Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
- Child Rights Information Network (2008). Convention on the Rights of the Child. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
- Amnesty International USA (2007). Convention on the Rights of the Child: Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 26 November 2008.
- "C182 - Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999". International Labour Organisation, United Nations. 1999.
- "International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC)". International Labour Organisation, United Nations. 2011.
- "Exemptions from Child Labour Rules in Non-Agriculture (see FLSA Section 13(c)(7))". Department of Labour, United States. 2012.
- "Protections of young people at work". Europa. 2004.
- (Dutch)Eenderde van de 12-jarigen heeft bijbaan (RTL News, 14 February 2012)
- "In the playtime of others - child labour in the early 20th century". Smithsonian Education. December 1988.
- "Sickness or symptom? - Child Labour". The Economist. 5 February 2004.
- Jean‐Marie Baland and James A. Robinson (August 2000). "Is Child Labour Inefficient?". Journal of Political Economy 108 (4): 663–679. JSTOR 10.1086/316097.
- A. J. McKELWAY (1913). "CHILD WAGES IN THE COTTON MILLS: OUR MODERN FEUDALISM (Originally published: Child labour bulletin, volume 2, number 1 (May 1913))".
- Christiaan Grootaert and Harry Anthony Patrinos (1999). The Policy Analysis of Child Labour: A Comparative Study. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 8–54. ISBN 978-0312221225.
- Eric Edmonds (May 2007). "The Economics of Consumer Actions against Products with Child Labour Content".
- Eric Edmonds (Winter 2005). "Does Child Labour Decline with Improving Economic Status?". Journal of Human Resources 40 (1): 77–99.
- Richard ANKER (September 2000). "The economics of child labour: A framework for measurement". International Labour Review 139 (3): 257–280. doi:10.1111/j.1564-913X.2000.tb00204.x.
- Saqib Jafareya and Sajal Lahiri (June 2002). "Will trade sanctions reduce child labour?: The role of credit markets". Journal of Development Economics 68 (1): 137–156. doi:10.1016/S0304-3878(02)00009-3.
- Sudarsan Raghavan and Sumana Chatterjee (24 June 2001). "Slaves feed world's taste for chocolate: Captives common in cocoa farms of Africa". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on 17 September 2006. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- Prue Bentley (12 April 2012). "Cocoa shortage to push up chocolate price". ABC Ballarat. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- "Combating Child Labour in Cocoa Growing". International Labour Organisation. 2005. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- David Wolfe and Shazzie (2005). Naked Chocolate: The Astonishing Truth about the World's Greatest Food. North Atlantic Books. p. 98. ISBN 1556437315. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Humphrey Hawksley (12 April 2001). "Mali's children in chocolate slavery". BBC News. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- Humphrey Hawksley (4 May 2001). "Ivory Coast accuses chocolate companies". BBC News. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
- Sumana Chatterjee (1 August 2001). "Chocolate Firms Launch Fight Against 'Slave Free' Labels". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Liz Blunt (28 September 2000). "The bitter taste of slavery". BBC. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Samlanchith Chanthavong (2002). "Chocolate and Slavery: Child Labour in Cote d'Ivoire". TED Case Studies Number 664. American University. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Blue Chevigny (14 June 2007). "Child trafficking in Côte d’Ivoire: Efforts under way to reverse a tragic trend". Retrieved 4 April 2012.
- Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer (30 September 2010). "Fourth Annual Report: Oversight of Public and Private Initiatives to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour in the Cocoa Sector of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana". Tulane University. p. 26. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
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- Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer (30 September 2010). "Fourth Annual Report: Oversight of Public and Private Initiatives to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour in the Cocoa Sector of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana". Tulane University. pp. 26–7. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- "Protocol for the growing and processing of cocoa beans and their derivative products in a manner that complies with ILO Convention 182 concerning the prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labour". International Cocoa Initiative. 2001. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Annual Report 2011". International Cocoa Initiative. 2012.
- Tricia Escobedo (19 September 2011). "The Human Cost of Chocolate". CNN. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Karen Ann Monsy (24 February 2012). "The bitter truth". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Payson Center for International Development and Technology Transfer (31 March 2011). "Oversight of Public and Private Initiatives to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour in the Cocoa Sector of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana". Tulane University. pp. 7–12. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
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- "Child labour in gold mining". ILO, United Nations. 2012.
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- BBC hands back RTS award for Panorama programme on Primark
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- Baland, Jean-Marie and James A. Robinson (2000) 'Is child labour inefficient?' Journal of Political Economy 108, 663–679
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- Humbert, Franziska. The Challenge of Child Labour in International Law (2009)
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- Grier, Beverly. Invisible Hands: Child Labour and the State in Colonial Zimbabwe (2005)
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Child labour|
- A UNICEF web resource with tables of % children who work for a living, by country and gender
- Rare child labour photos from the U.S. Library of Congress
- History Place Photographs from 1908–1912
- International Research on Child Labour
- International Program on the Elimination of Child Labour International Labour Organisation (UN)
- World Day Against Child Labour 12 June
- Concerned for Working Children An India-based non-profit organisation working towards elimination of child labour
- The OneWorld guide to child labour
- The State of the World's Children – a UNICEF study
- "United States Child Labour, 1908–1920: As Seen Through the Lens of Sociologist and Photographer Lewis W. Hine" (video)
- Child Labour in Chile, 1880–1950 download complete text, in spanish
- 12 to 12 community portal ILO sponsored website on the elimination of child labour
- The ILO Special Action Programme to combat Forced Labour (SAP-FL)