|Marriage and other
equivalent or similar unions and status
|Validity of marriages|
|Dissolution of marriages|
|Private international law|
|The Family and the Criminal Code
(or Criminal Law)
|Caring for children|
|Outside the home|
|Institutions and standards|
Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional maltreatment or neglect of a child or children. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Department for Children and Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child. Child abuse can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse: neglect, physical abuse, psychological or emotional abuse, and sexual abuse.
In Western countries, preventing child abuse is considered a high priority, and detailed laws and policies exist to address this issue. Different jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child abuse for the purposes of removing a child from his/her family and/or prosecuting a criminal charge. According to the Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect, child abuse is "any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, an act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm".
Douglas J. Besharov, the first Director of the U.S. Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, states "the existing laws are often vague and overly broad" and there is a "lack of consensus among professionals and Child Protective Services (CPS) personnel about what the terms abuse and neglect mean". Susan Orr, former head of the United States Children's Bureau U.S. Department of Health and Services Administration for Children and Families, 2001–2007, states that "much that is now defined as child abuse and neglect does not merit governmental interference".
- 1 Types
- 2 Effects
- 3 Cultural practices
- 4 Causes
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Treatment
- 7 Prevalence
- 8 History
- 9 Ethics
- 10 Organizations
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Child abuse can take several forms: the four main types are physical, sexual, psychological, and neglect. According to the 2010 Child Maltreatment Report (NCANDS), a yearly Federal report based on submission by state Child Protective Services (CPS) Agencies in the U.S., "as in prior years, neglect was the most common form of maltreatment." The cases were substantiated as follows: neglect 78.3%, physical abuse 17.6%, sexual abuse 9.2%, and psychological maltreatment 8.1%., According to Richard Wexler, the Director of the U.S. National Coalition of Child Protection Reform, of "those labeled "substantiated" or "indicated" by protective workers, relatively few are the kind that leap to mind when we hear the words "child abuse". By far the largest category was "neglect". Often, these are cases in which the primary problem is family poverty."
Physical abuse involves physical aggression directed at a child by an adult. Most nations with child-abuse laws consider the deliberate infliction of serious injuries, or actions that place the child at obvious risk of serious injury or death, to be illegal. Bruises, scratches, burns, broken bones, lacerations, as well as repeated "mishaps," and rough treatment that could cause physical injury, can be physical abuse. Multiple injuries or fractures at different stages of healing can raise suspicion of abuse. Physical abuse can come in many forms, although the distinction between child discipline and abuse is often poorly defined. However, the Human Rights Committee of the United Nations has stated that the prohibition of degrading treatment or punishment extends to corporal punishment of children. Since 1979, 34 countries around the world (at 2013) have outlawed domestic corporal punishment of children. In Europe, 22 countries have banned the practice. Cultural norms about what constitutes abuse vary widely: among professionals as well as the wider public, people do not agree on what behaviors constitute abuse. Some professionals claim that cultural norms that sanction physical punishment are one of the causes of child abuse, and have undertaken campaigns to redefine such norms. Psychologist Alice Miller, noted for her books on child abuse, took the view that humiliations, spankings and beatings, slaps in the face, etc. are all forms of abuse, because they injure the integrity and dignity of a child, even if their consequences are not visible right away.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent abuses a child for sexual stimulation. Sexual abuse refers to the participation of a child in a sexual act aimed toward the physical gratification or the financial profit of the person committing the act. Forms of CSA include asking or pressuring a child to engage in sexual activities (regardless of the outcome), indecent exposure of the genitals to a child, displaying pornography to a child, actual sexual contact with a child, physical contact with the child's genitals, viewing of the child's genitalia without physical contact, or using a child to produce child pornography. Selling the sexual services of children may be viewed and treated as child abuse with services offered to the child rather than simple incarceration.
Effects of child sexual abuse on the victim(s) include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctor's visits, etc.), self-esteem issues, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, somatic complaints, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, other mental illnesses including borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder, propensity to re-victimization in adulthood, bulimia nervosa, and physical injury to the child, among other problems.
In the United States, approximately 15% to 25% of women and 5% to 15% of men were sexually abused when they were children. Most sexual abuse offenders are acquainted with their victims; approximately 30% are relatives of the child, most often brothers, fathers, mothers, uncles or cousins; around 60% are other acquaintances such as friends of the family, babysitters, or neighbours; strangers are the offenders in approximately 10% of child sexual abuse cases. In over one-third of cases, the perpetrator is also a minor.
In 1999 the BBC reported on the RAHI Foundation's survey of sexual abuse in India, in which 76% of respondents said they had been abused as children, 40% of those stating the purpetrator was a family member.
Emotional abuse is defined as the production of psychological and social defects in the growth of a child as a result of behavior such as loud yelling, coarse and rude attitude, inattention, harsh criticism, and denigration of the child's personality. Other examples include name-calling, ridicule, degradation, destruction of personal belongings, torture or killing of a pet, excessive criticism, inappropriate or excessive demands, withholding communication, and routine labeling or humiliation.
Victims of emotional abuse may react by distancing themselves from the abuser, internalizing the abusive words, or fighting back by insulting the abuser. Emotional abuse can result in abnormal or disrupted attachment development, a tendency for victims to blame themselves (self-blame) for the abuse, learned helplessness, and overly passive behavior.
Child neglect is the failure of a parent or other person with responsibility for the child to provide needed food, clothing, shelter, medical care, or supervision to the degree that the child's health, safety, and well-being are threatened with harm. Neglect is also a lack of attention from the people surrounding a child, and the non-provision of the relevant and adequate necessities for the child's survival, which would be a lacking in attention, love, and nurture. Some of the observable signs in a neglected child include: the child is frequently absent from school, begs or steals food or money, lacks needed medical and dental care, is consistently dirty, or lacks sufficient clothing for the weather.
Neglected children may experience delays in physical and psychosocial development, possibly resulting in psychopathology and impaired neuropsychological functions including executive function, attention, processing speed, language, memory and social skills. Researchers investigating maltreated children have repeatedly found that neglected children in foster and adoptive populations manifest different emotional and behavioral reactions to regain lost or secure relationships and are frequently reported to have disorganized attachments and a need to control their environment. Such children are not likely to view caregivers as being a source of safety, and instead typically show an increase in aggressive and hyperactive behaviors which may disrupt healthy or secure attachment with their adopted parents. These children have apparently learned to adapt to an abusive and inconsistent caregiver by becoming cautiously self-reliant, and are often described as glib, manipulative and disingenuous in their interactions with others as they move through childhood. Children who are victims of neglect have a more difficult time forming and maintaining relationships, such as romantic or friendship, later in life due to the lack of attachment they had in their earlier stages of life.
Child abuse can result in immediate adverse physical effects but it is also strongly associated with associated with developmental issues and with many chronic physical and psychological effects, including subsequent ill-health, including higher rates of chronic conditions, high-risk health behaviors and shortened lifespan.
Maltreated children may grow up to be maltreating adults. A 1991 source reported that studies indicate that 90 percent of maltreating adults were maltreated as children. Almost 7 million American infants receive child care services, such as day care, and much of that care is poor.
The immediate physical effects of abuse or neglect can be relatively minor (bruises or cuts) or severe (broken bones, hemorrhage, or even death). In some cases the physical effects are temporary; however, the pain and suffering they cause a child should not be discounted. Rib fractures may be seen with physical abuse.
The long-term impact of child abuse and neglect on physical health and development can be:
- Shaken baby syndrome. Shaking a baby is a common form of child abuse that often results in permanent neurological damage (80% of cases) or death (30% of cases). Damage results from intracranial hypertension (increased pressure in the skull) after bleeding in the brain, damage to the spinal cord and neck, and rib or bone fractures.
- Impaired brain development. Child abuse and neglect have been shown, in some cases, to cause important regions of the brain to fail to form or grow properly, resulting in impaired development. These alterations in brain maturation have long-term consequences for cognitive, language, and academic abilities.
- Poor physical health. In addition to possible immediate adverse physical effects, household dysfunction and childhood maltreatment are strongly associated with many chronic physical and psychological effects, including subsequent ill-health in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, with higher rates of chronic conditions, high-risk health behaviors and shortened lifespan. Adults who experienced abuse or neglect during childhood are more likely to suffer from physical ailments such as allergies, arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, high blood pressure, and ulcers. There may be a higher risk of developing cancer later in life, as well as possible immune dysfunction.
- Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with shortened telomeres and with reduced telomerase activity. The increased rate of telomere length reduction correlates to a reduction in lifespan of 7 to 15 years.
- Children who experience child abuse and neglect are 59% more likely to be arrested as juveniles, 28% more likely to be arrested as adults, and 30% more likely to commit violent crime.
Children who have a history of neglect or physical abuse are at risk of developing psychiatric problems, or a disorganized attachment style. Disorganized attachment is associated with a number of developmental problems, including dissociative symptoms, as well as anxiety, depressive, and acting out symptoms. A study by Dante Cicchetti found that 80% of abused and maltreated infants exhibited symptoms of disorganized attachment. When some of these children become parents, especially if they suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociative symptoms, and other sequelae of child abuse, they may encounter difficulty when faced with their infant and young children's needs and normative distress, which may in turn lead to adverse consequences for their child's social-emotional development. Despite these potential difficulties, psychosocial intervention can be effective, at least in some cases, in changing the ways maltreated parents think about their young children.
Victims of childhood abuse, it is claimed, also suffer from different types of physical health problems later in life. Some reportedly suffer from some type of chronic head, abdominal, pelvic, or muscular pain with no identifiable reason. Even though the majority of childhood abuse victims know or believe that their abuse is, or can be, the cause of different health problems in their adult life, for the great majority their abuse was not directly associated with those problems, indicating that sufferers were most likely diagnosed with other possible causes for their health problems, instead of their childhood abuse. One long-term study found that up to 80% of abused people had at least one psychiatric disorder at age 21, with problems including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and suicide attempts. One Canadian hospital found that between 36% and 76% of women mental health outpatients had been abused, as had 58% of women and 23% of men schizophrenic inpatients.
In the case of 23 of the 27 illnesses listed in the questionnaire of a French INSEE survey, some statistically significant correlations were found between repeated illness and family traumas encountered by the child before the age of 18 years. According to Georges Menahem, the French sociologist who found out these correlations by studying health inequalities, these relationships show that inequalities in illness and suffering are not only social. Health inequality also has its origins in the family, where it is associated with the degrees of lasting affective problems (lack of affection, parental discord, the prolonged absence of a parent, or a serious illness affecting either the mother or father) that individuals report having experienced in childhood.
Many children who have been abused in any form develop some sort of psychological issue. These issues may include: anxiety, depression, eating disorders, OCD, co-dependency, or even a lack of human connections. There is also a slight tendency for children who have been abused to become child abusers themselves. In the U.S. in 2013, of the 294,000 reported child abuse cases only 81,124 received any sort of counseling or therapy. Treatment is greatly important for abused children.
On the other hand, there are some children who are raised in child abuse, but who manage to do unexpectedly well later in life regarding the preconditions. Such children have been termed dandelion children, as inspired from the way that dandelions seem to prosper irrespective of soil, sun, drought, or rain. Such children (or currently grown-ups) are of high interest in finding factors that mitigate the effects of child abuse.
Child labor refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, or is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful. This practice is considered a form of exploitation and abuse of children by many international organizations. Child labor refers to those occupations which infringe the development of children (due to the nature of the job and/or the lack of appropriate regulation) and does not include age appropriate and properly supervised jobs in which minors may participate. According to ILO, globally, around 215 million children work, many full-time. Many of these children do not go to school, do not receive proper nutrition or care, and have little or no time to play. More than half of them are exposed to the worst forms of child labor, such as child prostitution, drug trafficking, armed conflicts and other hazardous environments.
Child trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of children for the purpose of exploitation. Children are trafficked for purposes such as of commercial sexual exploitation, bonded labour, camel jockeying, child domestic labour, drug couriering, child soldiering, illegal adoptions, begging. It is difficult to obtain reliable estimates concerning the number of children trafficked each year, primarily due to the covert and criminal nature of the practice. The International Labour Organization estimates that 1.2 million children are trafficked each year.
Female genital mutilation
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons." It is practiced mainly in 28 countries in western, eastern, and north-eastern Africa, particularly Egypt and Ethiopia, and in parts of Asia and the Middle East. FGM is most often carried out on young girls aged between infancy and 15 years. The consequences of FGM include physical, emotional and sexual problems, and include serious risks during childbirth. In Western countries this practice is illegal and considered a form of child abuse.
A child marriage is a marriage whereby minors are given in matrimony - often before puberty. Child marriages are common in many parts of the world, especially in parts of Asia and Africa. These marriages are typically arranged and often forced; as young children are generally not capable of giving valid consent to enter into marriage, child marriages are often considered by default to be forced marriages. Marriages under the age of majority have a great potential to constitute a form of child abuse. In many countries there are no adequate laws to criminalize these practices, and even where there are laws, they are often unenforced.
India has more child brides than any nation in the world with 40% of the world total happening here. The countries with the highest rates of child marriage are: Niger (75%), Central African Republic and Chad (68%), and Bangladesh (66%).
Violence against children accused of witchcraft
Customary beliefs in witchcraft are common in many parts of the world, even among the educated. This is especially the case in parts of Africa. Witchcraft accusations against children in Africa have received increasing international attention in the first decade of the 21st century. Children who are specifically at risk of such accusations include orphans, street-children, albinos, disabled children, children who are unusually gifted, children who were born prematurely or in unusual positions, and twins. Being accused of witchcraft in Africa is very dangerous, as a witch is culturally understood to be the symbol of evil, and the cause of all ills. Consequently, those accused of being a witch are ostracized and subjected to punishment, torture and even murdered. Recent reports by UNICEF, UNHCR, Save The Children and Human Rights Watch have highlighted the violence and abuse towards children accused of witchcraft in Africa.
Child abuse is a complex phenomenon with multiple causes. Understanding the causes of abuse is crucial to addressing the problem of child abuse. Parents who physically abuse their spouses are more likely than others to physically abuse their children. However, it is impossible to know whether marital strife is a cause of child abuse, or if both the marital strife and the abuse are caused by tendencies in the abuser. This commonly used term refers to the process of parents' setting expectations for their child that are clearly beyond the child's capability. When parents' expectations are particularly deviant (e.g., preschool children who are expected to be totally responsible for self-care or provision of nurturance to parents) the resulting frustration caused by the child's non-compliance is believed to function as a contributory if not necessary cause of child abuse.
Children resulting from unintended pregnancies are more likely to be abused or neglected. Neglect is by far the most common form of child abuse, accounting for more than 78% of all cases. In addition, unintended pregnancies are more likely than intended pregnancies to be associated with abusive relationships, and there is an increased risk of physical violence during pregnancy. They also result in poorer maternal mental health, and lower mother-child relationship quality.
There is some limited evidence that children with moderate or severe disabilities are more likely to be victims of abuse than non-disabled children. A study on child abuse sought to determine: the forms of child abuse perpetrated on children with disabilities; the extent of child abuse; and the causes of child abuse of children with disabilities. A questionnaire on child abuse was adapted and used to collect data in this study. Participants comprised a sample of 31 pupils with disabilities (15 children with vision impairment and 16 children with hearing impairment) selected from special schools in Botswana. The study found that the majority of participants were involved in doing domestic chores. They were also sexually, physically and emotionally abused by their teachers. This study showed that children with disabilities were vulnerable to child abuse in their schools.
Substance abuse can be a major contributing factor to child abuse. One U.S. study found that parents with documented substance abuse, most commonly alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, were much more likely to mistreat their children, and were also much more likely to reject court-ordered services and treatments. Another study found that over two-thirds of cases of child maltreatment involved parents with substance abuse problems. This study specifically found relationships between alcohol and physical abuse, and between cocaine and sexual abuse. Although the abuse survivor does not always realise the abuse is wrong, the internal confusion can lead to chaos. Inner anger turns to outer frustration. Once aged 17/18, drink and drugs are used to numb the hurt feelings, nightmares and daytime flashbacks. Acquisitive crimes to pay for the chemicals are inevitable if the survivor is unable to find employment.
Unemployment and financial difficulties are associated with increased rates of child abuse. In 2009 CBS News reported that child abuse in the United States had increased during the economic recession. It gave the example of a father who had never been the primary care-taker of the children. Now that the father was in that role, the children began to come in with injuries.
Child-abuse cases go through screeners like Belisle to an "assessment" worker, the job Belisle used to handle. Eventually they reach the various social workers and services (counseling, referral to day care centers and Alcoholics Anonymous in local neighborhoods). Having been abused as a child seems to lead to a repetition with one's own children. Beyond that, the causes of child abuse seem to be deep-rooted anger and frustration and an intolerable sense of physical or emotional inadequacy. Anger most of all. "They don't know how to control it," says Belisle's co-worker Anna Ferzoco.
A 1988 study of child murders in the US found that children are 100 times more often killed by a "non-biological parent (e.g., step-parent, co-habitee or boyfriend/girlfriend of a biological parent)" than by a biological parent. An evolutionary psychology explanation for this is that using resources in order to take care of another person's biological child is likely not a good strategy for increasing reproductive success. More generally, stepchildren have a much higher risk of being abused which is sometimes referred to as the Cinderella effect. The Cinderella Effect attempts to explain the observation that parents are more likely to kill their stepchildren than their biological children using evolutionary logic—as described by Daly and Wilson: "research concerning animal social behaviour provide a rationale for expecting parents to be discriminative in their care and affection, and more specifically, to discriminate in favour of their own young".
Psychologists conducted a study in the United States in 2010 which examined over 200 regular church attendees from eleven different denominations of Christianity, most of whom were educated, upper-middle class White Americans, found that extrinsic religious orientation was associated with a greater risk of physical child abuse. Those with a more extrinsic religious orientation who also adhered to greater social conformity were particularly more likely to share characteristics with physically abusive subjects. Subjects who adhered to Biblical literalism exhibited a higher potential of physical child abuse. Those who had a more intrinsic religious orientation were not found to be at a greater risk of child abuse, although they sometimes exhibited greater social conformity or a greater propensity for holding literal interpretations of the Bible. Approximately 85% of the study's subjects were parents.
Although these issues can likely contribute to child maltreatment, differences in cultural perspectives play a significant role in the treatment of children. In certain nations, the battle for equality within the sexes plays a large part in a child’s upbringing. During the Soviet period, there were conflicts regarding the traditional housewife versus the emphasis on equality within the sexes. Some women felt a considerable amount of pressure to carry out their motherly duties, obtaining an “authoritarian” parenting style, acting dominating and emotionally distant towards her children while overly involved in her own career. Many were encouraged to use more firm and direct disciplinary methods, as well as be overbearing and overprotective of their children.
With the end of the Communist Era, many positive changes have followed. While there is a new openness and acceptance regarding parenting styles and close relationships with children, child abuse still remains a serious concern. Although it is now more publicly recognized, it has certainly not ceased to exist. While controlling parenting may be less of a concern, financial difficulty, unemployment, and substance abuse still remain to be dominating factors in child abuse throughout Eastern Europe.
A study conducted by members from several Baltic and Eastern European countries, together with specialists from the United States, examined the causes of child abuse in the countries of Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia and Moldova. In these countries, respectively, 33%, 42%, 18% and 43% of children reported at least one type of child abuse. According to their findings, there was a series of correlations between the potential risk factors of parental employment status, alcohol abuse, and family size within the abuse ratings. In three of the four countries, parental substance abuse was considerably correlated with the presence of child abuse, and although it was a lower percentage, still showed a relationship in the fourth country (Moldova). Each country also showed a connection between the father not working outside of the home and either emotional or physical child abuse.
These cultural differences can be studied from many perspectives. Most importantly, overall parental behavior is genuinely different in various countries. Each culture has their own "range of acceptability," and what one may view as offensive, others may seem as tolerable. Behaviors that are normal to some may be viewed as abusive to others, all depending on the societal norms of that particular country.
Asian parenting perspectives, specifically, hold different ideals from American culture. Many have described their traditions as including physical and emotional closeness that ensures a lifelong bond between parent and child, as well as establishing parental authority and child obedience through harsh discipline. Balancing disciplinary responsibilities within parenting is common in many Asian cultures, including China, Japan, Singapore, Vietnam and Korea. To some cultures, forceful parenting may be seen as abuse, but in other societies such as these, the use of force is looked at as a reflection of parental devotion.
The differences in these cultural beliefs demonstrate the importance of examining all cross-cultural perspectives when studying the concept of child abuse.
As of 2006, between 25,000 and 50,000 children in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, had been accused of witchcraft and abandoned. In Malawi it is also common practice to accuse children of witchcraft and many children have been abandoned, abused and even killed as a result. In the Nigeria, Akwa Ibom State and Cross River State about 15,000 children were branded as witches.
A support-group structure is needed to reinforce parenting skills and closely monitor the child's well-being. Visiting home nurse or social-worker visits are also required to observe and evaluate the progress of the child and his/her caretaking situation.
The support-group structure and visiting home nurse or social-worker visits are not mutually exclusive. Many studies have demonstrated that the two measures must be coupled together for the best possible outcome.
Children's school programs regarding "good touch ... bad touch" can provide children with a forum in which to role-play and learn to avoid potentially harmful scenarios. Pediatricians can help identify children at risk of maltreatment and intervene with the aid of a social worker or provide access to treatment that addresses potential risk factors such as maternal depression. Videoconferencing has also been used to diagnose child abuse in remote emergency departments and clinics. Unintended conception increases the risk of subsequent child abuse, and large family size increases the risk of child neglect. Thus a comprehensive study for the National Academy of Sciences concluded that affordable contraceptive services should form the basis for child abuse prevention. "The starting point for effective child abuse programming is pregnancy planning," according to an analysis for US Surgeon General C. Everett Koop.
April has been designated Child Abuse Prevention Month in the United States since 1983. U.S. President Barack Obama continued that tradition by declaring April 2009 Child Abuse Prevention Month. One way the Federal government of the United States provides funding for child-abuse prevention is through Community-Based Grants for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CBCAP). Each year during Child Abuse Prevention Month, "often media and commentators take the number of reports to be synonymous with the number of cases of actual child maltreatment; this is obviously not the case". From the 3.3 million hotline calls (2010), there were less than 475,000 substantiated cases (2010 NCANDS: 436,321 substantiated+24,976 indicated=461,297 total), resulting in about 15% of hotline calls substantiated/indicated, of which 78.3% were for neglect. Some argue that even many "substantiated reports involve only minor or insignificant matters, which most reasonable people would not truly consider abuse or neglect."
The 3.3 million annual (hotline) referrals effects on average 1 out of 10 U.S. families with children (There are 32,200,000 U.S. families with children under 18 according to the 2010 U.S. Census). "Unsubstantiated rates of the current magnitude go beyond anything reasonably needed; a high rate of unsubstantiated reports should concern everyone", according to Besharov. He further states "each report results in what can be an intrusive and traumatic investigation that is inherently a breach of parental and family privacy. The emotionally charged desire to 'do something' about child abuse, fanned by repeated and often sensational media coverage has led to an understandable, but counterproductive over reaction on the part of the professionals and citizens who report child abuse" according to Besharov.
Resources for child-protection services are sometimes limited. According to Hosin (2007), "a considerable number of traumatized abused children do not gain access to protective child-protection strategies." Briere (1992) argues that only when "lower-level violence" of children[clarification needed] ceases to be culturally tolerated will there be changes in the victimization and police protection of children.
A number of treatments are available to victims of child abuse. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, first developed to treat sexually abused children, is now used for victims of any kind of trauma. It targets trauma-related symptoms in children including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), clinical depression and anxiety. It also includes a component for non-offending parents. Several studies have found that sexually abused children undergoing TF-CBT improved more than children undergoing certain other therapies. Data on the effects of TF-CBT for children who experienced only non-sexual abuse was not available as of 2006. The purpose of dealing with the thoughts and feelings associated with the trauma is to deal with nightmares, flashbacks and other intrusive experiences that might be spontaneously brought on by any number of discriminative stimuli in the environment or in the individual’s brain. This would aid the individual in becoming less fearful of specific stimuli that would arouse debilitating fear, anger, sadness or other negative emotion.In other words, the individual would have some control or mastery over those emotions.
Abuse-focused cognitive behavioral therapy was designed for children who have experienced physical abuse. It targets externalizing behaviors and strengthens prosocial behaviors. Offending parents are included in the treatment, to improve parenting skills/practices. It is supported by one randomized study.
Rational Cognitive Emotive Behavior Therapy consists of ten distinct but interdependent steps. These steps fall into one of three theoretical orientations (i.e., rational or solution focused, cognitive emotive, and behavioral) and are intended to provide abused children and their adoptive parents with positive behavior change, corrective interpersonal skills, and greater control over themselves and their relationships. They are: 1) determining and normalizing thinking and behaving, 2) evaluating language, 3) shifting attention away from problem talk 4) describing times when the attachment problem isn't happening, 5) focusing on how family members "successfully" solve problematic attachment behavior; 6) acknowledging "unpleasant emotions" (i.e., angry, sad, scared) underlying negative interactional patterns, 7) identifying antecedents (controlling conditions) and associated negative cognitive emotive connections in behavior (reciprocal role of thought and emotion in behavioral causation), 8) encouraging previously abused children to experience or "own" negative thoughts and associated aversive emotional feelings, 9) modeling and rewarding positive behavior change (with themselves and in relationships), and 10) encouraging and rewarding thinking and behaving differently. This type of therapy shifts victims thoughts away from the bad and changes their behavior.
Parent–child interaction therapy was designed to improve the child-parent relationship following the experience of domestic violence. It targets trauma-related symptoms in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, including PTSD, aggression, defiance, and anxiety. It is supported by two studies of one sample.
Other forms of treatment include group therapy, play therapy, and art therapy. Each of these types of treatment can be used to better assist the client, depending on the form of abuse they have experienced. Play therapy and art therapy are ways to get children more comfortable with therapy by working on something that they enjoy (coloring, drawing, painting, etc.). The design of a child's artwork can be a symbolic representation of what they are feeling, relationships with friends or family, and more. Being able to discuss and analyze a child's artwork can allow a professional to get a better insight of the child.
A long term study of adults retrospectively reporting adverse childhood experiences including verbal, physical and sexual abuse, as well as other forms of childhood trauma found 25.9% adults reported verbal abuse as children, 14.8% of adults reported physical abuse, 12.2% of adults reported sexual abuse. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System corroborate these high rates. There is a high correlation between the number of different adverse childhood experiences (A.C.E.s) and risk for poor health outcomes in adults including cancer, heart attack, mental illness, reduced longevity drug and alcohol abuse. An anonymous self reporting survey of Washington State students finds 6–7% of 8th, 10th and 12th grade students actually attempt suicide. Rates of depression are twice as high. Other risk behaviors are even higher. Some have suggested that retrospective reporting by adults of their childhood traumas is potentially biased by false memories and also by denial. There is a relationship between child physical and sexual abuse and suicide. For legal and cultural reasons as well as fears by children of being taken away from their parents most childhood abuse goes unreported and unsubstantiated.
David Finkelhor tracked Child Maltreatment Report (NCANDS) data from 1990 to 2010. He states that sexual abuse had declined 62% from 1992 to 2009. The long-term trend for physical abuse was also down by 56% since 1992. The decline in sexual abuse adds to an already substantial positive long-term trend. He states: "It is unfortunate that information about the trends in child maltreatment are not better publicized and more widely known. The long-term decline in sexual and physical abuse may have important implications for public policy."
In 2010, there were 74,100,000 US children ages 0–17. NCANDS estimated that there were 695,000 unique children with substantiated maltreatment (78.3% were for neglect); which means that in 2010, less than 1% of the U.S. child population had a substantiated or indicated finding of any form of maltreatment. According to the 2010 NCANDS, 17.6% of substantiated/indicated outcomes were for physical abuse (less than 0.2% of US children) and 9.2% of substantiated/indicated outcomes were for sexual abuse (less than 0.1% of US children). Finkelhor's data from his 2010 study confirm these numbers. According to the (American) National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, in 1997 neglect represented 54% of confirmed cases of child abuse, physical abuse 22%, sexual abuse 8%, emotional maltreatment 4%, and other forms of maltreatment 12%.
In the USA, neglect is defined as the failure to meet the basic needs of children including housing, clothing, food and access to medical care. Researchers found over 91,000 cases of neglect in one year (from October 2005 to 30 September 2006) using information from a database of cases verified by protective services agencies.
For FFY 2011, United States reported 676,569 victims of child abuse and neglect. Race and ethnicity of victims in 2011: 43.9% of all victims were White, 21.5% were African American, and 22.1% were Hispanic.
According to Manas Akmatov, "A median of 83, 64 and 43% of children in the African region experienced psychological, and moderate and severe physical abuse, respectively. A considerably lower percentage of children in transitional countries experienced these forms of abuse (56, 46 and 9%, respectively)."
In 2010, there were 74,100,000 US children ages 0–17 according to the US Census Bureau. The 3.3 million annual (hotline) referrals effects on average 1 out of 10 U.S. families with children (There are 32,200,000 U.S. families with children under 18 according to the 2010 U.S. Census). From the 3.3 million hotline calls (2010), there were less than 475,000 substantiated cases (2010 NCANDS: 436,321 substantiated+24,976 indicated=461,297 total) resulting in about 15% of hotline calls substantiated/indicated, of which 78.3% were for neglect.
According to NCANDS 2010, there were 695,000 unique children with substantiated maltreatment (78.3% were for neglect); which means that in 2010, less than 1% of the U.S. child population had a substantiated or indicated finding of any form of maltreatment. According to the 2010 NCANDS, 17.6% of substantiated/indicated outcomes were for physical abuse (less than 0.2% of US children) and 9.2% of substantiated/indicated outcomes were for sexual abuse (less than 0.1% of US children). Finkelhor’s data from his 2010 study confirms these numbers. Some argue that even many "substantiated reports involve only minor or insignificant matters, which most reasonable people would not truly consider abuse or neglect".
A child abuse fatality occurs when a child's death is the result of abuse or neglect, or when abuse and/or neglect are contributing factors to a child's death. In the United States, 1,730 children died in 2008 due to factors related to abuse; this is a rate of 2 per 100,000 U.S. children. Family situations which place children at risk include moving, unemployment, and having non-family members living in the household. A number of policies and programs have been put in place in the U.S. to try to better understand and to prevent child abuse fatalities, including: safe-haven laws, child fatality review teams, training for investigators, shaken baby syndrome prevention programs, and child abuse death laws which mandate harsher sentencing for taking the life of a child.
Until quite recently, children had very few rights in regard to protection from abuse by their parents, and still continue to do so in many parts of the world. Historically, fathers had virtually unlimited rights in regard to their children and how they chose to discipline them. In many cultures, such as in Ancient Rome, a father could legally kill his children; many cultures have also allowed fathers to sell their children into slavery. Child sacrifice - the ritualistic killing of children in order to please a god or supernatural beings - was practiced in Pre-Columbian societies of the Americas.
One of the most challenging ethical dilemmas arising from child abuse relates to the parental rights of abusive parents or caretakers with regard to their children, particularly in medical settings. In the United States, the 2008 New Hampshire case of Andrew Bedner drew attention to this legal and moral conundrum. Bedner, accused of severely injuring his infant daughter, sued for the right to determine whether or not she remain on life support; keeping her alive, which would have prevented a murder charge, created a motive for Bedner to act that conflicted with the apparent interests of his child. Bioethicists Jacob M. Appel and Thaddeus Mason Pope recently argued, in separate articles, that such cases justify the replacement of the accused parent with an alternative decision-maker.
Child abuse also poses ethical concerns related to confidentiality, as victims may be physically or psychologically unable to report abuse to authorities. Accordingly, many jurisdictions and professional bodies have made exceptions to standard requirements for confidentiality and legal privileges in instances of child abuse. Medical professionals, including doctors, therapists, and other mental health workers typically owe a duty of confidentiality to their patients and clients, either by law and/or the standards of professional ethics, and cannot disclose personal information without the consent of the individual concerned. This duty conflicts with an ethical obligation to protect children from preventable harm. Accordingly, confidentiality is often waived when these professionals have a good faith suspicion that child abuse or neglect has occurred or is likely to occur and make a report to local child protection authorities. This exception allows professionals to breach confidentiality and make a report even when the child or his/her parent or guardian has specifically instructed to the contrary. Child abuse is also a common exception to Physician–patient privilege: a medical professional may be called upon to testify in court as to otherwise privileged evidence about suspected child abuse despite the wishes of the child and his/her family.
There are organizations at national, state, and county levels in the United States that provide community leadership in preventing child abuse and neglect. The National Alliance of Children's Trust Funds and Prevent Child Abuse America are two national organizations with member organizations at the state level.
Many investigations into child abuse are handled on the local level by Child Advocacy Centers. Started over 25 years ago at what is now known as the National Children's Advocacy Center in Huntsville, Alabama by District Attorney Robert "Bud" Cramer these multi-disciplinary teams have met to coordinate their efforts so that cases of child abuse can be investigated quickly and efficiently, ultimately reducing trauma to the child and garnering better convictions. These Child Advocacy Centers (known as CACs) have standards set by the National Children's Alliance.
Other organizations focus on specific prevention strategies. The National Center on Shaken Baby Syndrome focuses its efforts on the specific issue of preventing child abuse that is manifested as shaken baby syndrome. Mandated reporter training is a program used to prevent ongoing child abuse.
NICHD, also known as the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development is a broad organization, but helps victims of child abuse through one of its branches. Through the Child Development and Behavior (CDB) Branch, NICHD raises awareness efforts by supporting research projects to better understand the short- and long-term impacts of child abuse and neglect. They provide programs and observe National Child Abuse Prevention Month every April since 1984. The Children’s Bureau leads activities for the Month, including the release of updated statistics about child abuse and neglect, candlelight vigils, and fundraisers to support prevention activities and treatment for victims. The Bureau also sponsors a "Blue Ribbon Campaign," in which people wear blue ribbons in memory of children who have died from abuse, or in honor of individuals and organizations that have taken important steps to prevent child abuse and neglect.
- AMBER Alert
- Attachment theory
- Attachment therapy
- Cinderella effect
- Complex post-traumatic stress disorder
- Corporal punishment
- Domestic violence
- Dysfunctional family
- Emotional dysregulation
- Institutional abuse
- Karly's Law
- Lloyd deMause
- Mandatory reporter
- Mommie Dearest
- Narcissistic abuse
- Parental abuse by children
- Parental bullying of children
- Power and control in abusive relationships
- Reactive attachment disorder
- Sociology of the family
- Songs about child abuse
- WAVE Trust
- "Child abuse – definition of child abuse by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- Leeb, R.T.; Paulozzi, L.J.; Melanson, C.; Simon, T.R.; Arias, I. (1 January 2008). "Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Uniform Definitions for Public Health and Recommended Data Elements". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- Herrenkohl RC (2005). "The definition of child maltreatment: from case study to construct". Child Abuse and Neglect 29 (5): 413–24. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.04.002. PMID 15970317.
- Besharov, Douglas J. "Fixing Child Protection". Philanthropy Roundtable. pp. 1–4. Retrieved 1 January 1998.
- Krason, Stephen M. "The Critics of Current Child Abuse Laws and the Child Protective System: A Survey of the Leading". The Catholic Social Science Review. pp. 307–350. Retrieved 2007.
- Orr, Susan. "Policy Study 262 Child Protection at the Crossroads: Child Abuse, Child Protection and Recommendations for Reform". Retrieved 1 October 1999.
- "Child Abuse and Neglect: Types, Signs, Symptoms, Help and Prevention". helpguide.org. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
- A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice, Office on Child Abuse and doctor]
- "Child Maltreatment 2010: Summary of Key Findings". Children's Bureau, Child Welfare Information Gateway, Protecting Children Strengthening Families. Retrieved May 2012.
- "Understanding Child Abuse Numbers". National Coalition for Child Protection Reform. Retrieved August 2012.
- Theoklitou D, Kabitsis N, Kabitsi A (2012). "Physical and emotional abuse of primary school children by teachers". Child Abuse Negl 36 (1): 64–70. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.05.007. PMID 22197151.
- UN Human Rights Committee (1992) "General Comment No. 20," HRI/GEN/1/Rev.4.: p. 108
- Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children (GITEACPOC).
- Noh Anh, Helen (1994). "Cultural Diversity and the Definition of Child Abuse", in Barth, R.P. et al., Child Welfare Research Review, Columbia University Press, 1994, p. 28. ISBN 0231080743
- Haeuser, A. A. (1990). "Banning parental use of physical punishment: Success in Sweden". International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect. Hamburg[page needed].
- Barth, Richard (1994). Child Welfare Research Review, Volume 1. Columbia University Press. pp. 49–50. ISBN 0231080751. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- Durrant, Joan E. (1996). "The Swedish Ban on Corporal Punishment: Its History and Effects". In Detlev Frehsee, Wiebke Horn, and Kai-D. Bussmann. From Family Violence Against Children: A Challenge for Society. New York: Walter de Gruyter & Co. pp. 19–25. ISBN 9783110149968.
- "Child Sexual Abuse". Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2 April 2008.
- "Guidelines for psychological evaluations in child protection matters. Committee on Professional Practice and Standards, APA Board of Professional Affairs". The American Psychologist 54 (8): 586–93. August 1999. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.8.586. PMID 10453704.
Abuse, sexual (child): generally defined as contacts between a child and an adult or other person significantly older or in a position of power or control over the child, where the child is being used for sexual stimulation of the adult or other person.
- Martin J, Anderson J, Romans S, Mullen P, O'Shea M (1993). "Asking about child sexual abuse: methodological implications of a two stage survey". Child Abuse & Neglect 17 (3): 383–92. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(93)90061-9. PMID 8330225.
- Child sexual abuse definition from the NSPCC
- Brown, Patricia Leigh (23 May 2011). "In Oakland, Redefining Sex Trade Workers as Abuse Victims". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
Once viewed as criminals and dispatched to juvenile centers, where treatment was rare, sexually exploited youths are increasingly seen as victims of child abuse, with a new focus on early intervention and counseling.
- Roosa MW, Reinholtz C, Angelini PJ (1999). "The relation of child sexual abuse and depression in young women: comparisons across four ethnic groups". Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 27 (1): 65–76. PMID 10197407.
- Widom CS (1999). "Post-traumatic stress disorder in abused and neglected children grown up". American Journal of Psychiatry 156 (8): 1223–1229. PMID 10450264.
- Levitan, R. D., N. A. Rector, Sheldon, T., & Goering, P. (2003). "Childhood adversities associated with major depression and/or anxiety disorders in a community sample of Ontario: Issues of co-morbidity and specificity," Depression & Anxiety; 17, 34–42.
- Shalev I, Moffitt TE, Sugden K, Williams B, Houts RM, Danese A, Mill J, Arseneault L, Caspi A (2013). "Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study". Mol. Psychiatry 18 (5): 576–81. doi:10.1038/mp.2012.32. PMC 3616159. PMID 22525489.
- Dinwiddie S, Heath AC, Dunne MP, Bucholz KK, Madden PA, Slutske WS, Bierut LJ, Statham DB, Martin NG (2000). "Early sexual abuse and lifetime psychopathology: a co-twin-control study". Psychological Medicine 30 (1): 41–52. doi:10.1017/S0033291799001373. PMID 10722174.
- Whealin, Julia (22 May 2007). "Child Sexual Abuse". National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, US Department of Veterans Affairs.
- Finkelhor D (1994). "Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse". The Future of Children (Princeton University) 4 (2): 31–53. doi:10.2307/1602522. JSTOR 1602522. PMID 7804768.
- Crimes against Children Research Center
- Family Research Laboratory
- Gorey KM, Leslie DR (April 1997). "The prevalence of child sexual abuse: integrative review adjustment for potential response and measurement biases". Child Abuse & Neglect 21 (4): 391–8. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(96)00180-9. PMID 9134267.
- Finkelhor, David; Richard Ormrod; Mark Chaffin (2009). "Juveniles Who Commit Sex Offenses Against Minors". Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Office of Justice Programs, Department of Justice. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- "India's hidden incest," BBC News, 22 January 1999.
- "Child Abuse". The National Center for Victims of Crime.
- "Chronic Neglect". Retrieved 10 October 2012.
- "Neurocognitive impacts for children of poverty and neglect". Apa.org. July 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- Golden, J.A., Prather, W. (2009). A behavioral perspective of childhood trauma and attachment issues: toward alternative treatment approaches for children with a history of abuse. International Journal of Behavioral and Consultation Therapy, V.5, 56-74.
- Cohn, Jonathan. (2011). "The Two Year Window." (Cover story). New Republic, 242(18), 10–13. 
- Middlebrooks, J.S.; Audage, A.C. (2008). The Effects of Childhood Stress on Health Across the Lifespan. Centers for Disease Control.
- Dolezal, T.; McCollum, D.; Callahan, M. (2009). Hidden Costs in Health Care: The Economic Impact of Violence and Abuse. Academy on Violence and Abuse.
- Thornberry TP, Henry KL (2013). "Intergenerational continuity in maltreatment.". J Abnorm Child Psychol. 41(4) (4): 555–569. doi:10.1007/s10802-012-9697-5. PMID 23192742.
- Ertem IO, Leventhal JM, Dobbs S (2000). "Intergenerational continuity of child physical abuse: how good is the evidence?". Lancet. 356(9232) (9232): 814–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02656-8. PMID 11022929.
- Thornberry TP, Knight KE, Lovegrove PJ (2012). "Does maltreatment beget maltreatment? A systematic review of the intergenerational literature.". Trauma Violence Abuse. 13(3) (3): 135–52. doi:10.1177/1524838012447697. PMC 4035025. PMID 22673145.
- Starr RH, Wolfe DA (1991). The Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect (pp. 1–33). New York: The Guilford Press. ISBN=9780898627596
- Kemp AM, Dunstan F, Harrison S, Morris S, Mann M, Rolfe K, Datta S, Thomas DP, Sibert JR, Maguire S (2008). "Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review". BMJ 337 (oct02 1): a1518. doi:10.1136/bmj.a1518. PMC 2563260. PMID 18832412.
- Morad Y, Wygnansky-Jaffe T, Levin AV (2010). "Retinal haemorrhage in abusive head trauma.". Clin Exp Ophthalmol 38 (5): 514–520. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9071.2010.02291.x. PMID 20584025.
- "Shaken Baby Syndrome information page". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. 2014-02-14.
- De Bellis MD, Thomas LA (2003). "Biologic findings of post-traumatic stress disorder and child maltreatment.". Curr Psychiatry Rep 5 (2): 108–17. doi:10.1007/s11920-003-0027-z. PMID 12685990.
- Raabe FJ, Spengler D (August 7, 2013). "Epigenetic risk factors in PTSD and depression". Frontiers in Psychiatry 4 (80). doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00080. PMC 3736070. PMID 23966957. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Tiffany Watts-English T, Fortson BL, Gibler N, Hooper SR, De Bellis MD Journal of Social Issues 2006 Volume 62, Issue 4, pages 717–736 doi=10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00484.x 
- Flaherty EG, Thompson R, Litrownik AJ, et al. Effect of early childhood adversity on child health. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Dec;160(12):1232-8 PMID=17146020
- Flaherty EG, Thompson R, Dubowitz H, et al Adverse childhood experiences and child health in early adolescence. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Jul;167(7):622-9. doi=10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.22 PMID=23645114
- Springer KW, Sheridan J, Kuo D, Carnes M (2007). "Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: results from a large population-based sample of men and women". Child Abuse Negl. 31(5) (5): 517–30. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.01.003. PMC 3031095. PMID 17532465.
- Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect. Child Welfare Information Gateway, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 2013. Factsheet
- Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, Koss MP, Marks JS (1998). "Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study". American Journal of Preventative Medicine 14 (4): 245–58. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00017-8. PMID 9635069.
- Fuller-Thomson E, Brennenstuhl S (July 2009). "Making a link between childhood physical abuse and cancer: results from a regional representative survey". Cancer 115 (14): 3341–50. doi:10.1002/cncr.24372. PMID 19472404.
- Kolassa, Iris - Tatjana. "Biological memory of childhood maltreatment – current knowledge and recommendations for future research" (PDF). Ulmer Volltextserver - Institutional Repository der Universität Ulm. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- Shalev I, Moffitt TE, Sugden K, Williams B, Houts RM, Danese A, Mill J, Arseneault L, Caspi A (2013). "Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study". Mol. Psychiatry 18 (5): 576–81. doi:10.1038/mp.2012.32. PMC 3616159. PMID 22525489.
- Child Abuse Statistics
- Gauthier L, Stollak G, Messé L, Aronoff J (July 1996). "Recall of childhood neglect and physical abuse as differential predictors of current psychological functioning". Child Abuse & Neglect 20 (7): 549–59. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(96)00043-9. PMID 8832112.
- Malinosky-Rummell R, Hansen DJ (July 1993). "Long-term consequences of childhood physical abuse". Psychological Bulletin 114 (1): 68–79. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.114.1.68. PMID 8346329.
- Lyons-Ruth, K.; Jacobvitz, D. (1999). "Attachment disorganization: unresolved loss, relational violence and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies". In Cassidy, J.; Shaver, P. Handbook of Attachment. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 520–554.
- Solomon, J.; George, C., ed. (1999). Attachment Disorganization. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-480-4.[page needed]
- Main, M.; Hesse, E. (1990). "Parents' Unresolved Traumatic Experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status". In Greenberg, M.T.; Ciccehetti, D; Cummings, E.M. Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research, and Intervention. University of Chicago Press. pp. 161–184.
- Carlson EA (August 1998). "A prospective longitudinal study of attachment disorganization/disorientation". Child Development 69 (4): 1107–28. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06163.x. JSTOR 1132365. PMID 9768489.
- Lyons-Ruth K (February 1996). "Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: the role of disorganized early attachment patterns". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64 (1): 64–73. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.64.1.64. PMID 8907085.
- Lyons-Ruth K, Alpern L, Repacholi B (April 1993). "Disorganized infant attachment classification and maternal psychosocial problems as predictors of hostile-aggressive behavior in the preschool classroom". Child Development (Blackwell Publishing) 64 (2): 572–85. doi:10.2307/1131270. JSTOR 1131270. PMID 8477635.
- Carlson, V. et al. (1995). "Finding order in disorganization: Lessons from research on maltreated infants' attachments to their caregivers". In Cicchetti, D.; Carlson, V. Child Maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect. Cambridge University Press. pp. 135–157.
- Cicchetti, D. et al. (1990). "An organizational perspective on attachment beyond infancy". In Greenberg, M.; Cicchetti, D; MCummings, M. Attachment in the Preschool Years. University of Chicago Press. pp. 3–50. ISBN 0-226-30629-1.
- Schechter DS, Coates SW, Kaminer T, Coots T, Zeanah CH, Davies M, Schonfeld IS, Marshall RD, Liebowitz MR, Trabka KA, McCaw JE, Myers MM (2008). "Distorted maternal mental representations and atypical behavior in a clinical sample of violence-exposed mothers and their toddlers". Journal of Trauma and Dissociation 9 (2): 123–149. doi:10.1080/15299730802045666. PMC 2577290. PMID 18985165.
- Schechter DS, Zygmunt A, Coates SW, Davies M, Trabka K, McCaw J, Kolodji A, Robinson J (2007). "Caregiver traumatization adversely impacts young children's mental representations of self and others". Attachment & Human Development 9 (3): 187–205. doi:10.1080/14616730701453762. PMC 2078523. PMID 18007959.
- Schechter DS, Myers MM, Brunelli SA, Coates SW, Zeanah CH, Davies M, Grienenberger JF, Marshall RD, McCaw JE, Trabka KA, Liebowitz MR (2006). "Traumatized mothers can change their minds about their toddlers: Understanding how a novel use of video feedback supports positive change of maternal attributions". Infant Mental Health Journal 27 (5): 429–448. doi:10.1002/imhj.20101. PMC 2078524. PMID 18007960.
- Takele Hamnasu, MBA. Impact of Childhood Abuse on Adult Health. Amberton University.[page needed]
- Silverman, Reinherz, & Giaconia, 1996, see http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_term_consequences.cfm#psych
- "Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Mental Health Issue". Here to Help. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Study of Living Conditions 1986–1987" INSEE survey with a sample of 13–154 individuals, cf. Menahem G., "Problèmes de l'enfance, statut social et santé des adultes", IRDES, biblio No 1010, pp. 59–63, Paris.
- National Children's Alliance. "National Statistics on Child Abuse." http://www.nationalchildrensalliance.org/NCANationalStatistics
- Ellis, Bruce J.; Boyce, W. Thomas (2008). "Biological Sensitivity to Context". Current Directions in Psychological Science 17 (3): 183–187. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00571.x.
- "What is child labour?". International Labour Organisation. 2012.
- "United Nations Resources for Speakers on Global Issues - Child Labour". United Nations. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "International and national legislation - Child Labour". International Labour Organisation. 2011.
- "Training Manual to Fight Child Trafficking in Children for Labour, Sexual and Other Forms of Exploitation". Unicef. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Victims No Longer: Research on Child Survivors of Trafficking for Sexual and Labor Exploitation in the United States". Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- I.L.O. (2002). product/viewProduct.do?productId=742 "Every Child Counts: New Global Estimates on Child Labour". Retrieved February 18, 2012.
- "Female genital mutilation", World Health Organization, February 2013.
- "Prisoners of Ritual, An Odyssey into Female Genital Mutilation in Africa". Hanny Lightfoot-Klein. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "An update on WHO's work on female genital mutilation (FGM)", World Health Organization, 2011, p. 2: "Most women who have experienced FGM live in one of the 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East – nearly half of them in just two countries: Egypt and Ethiopia. Countries in which FGM has been documented include: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania and Yemen. The prevalence of FGM ranges from 0.6% to 98% of the female population."
- Rahman, Anika and Toubia, Nahid. Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide. Zed Books, 2000 (hereafter Rahman and Toubia 2000), p. 7: "Currently, FC/FGM is practiced in 28 African countries in the sub-Saharan and Northeastern regions."
- Also see "Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation", World Health Organization, 2008, p. 4: "Types I, II and III female genital mutilation have been documented in 28 countries in Africa and in a few countries in Asia and the Middle East."
- "India Criticized for Not Co-Sponsoring U.N. Child-Bride Resolution". Time. October 14, 2013.
- "Child brides around the world sold off like cattle". USA Today. March 8, 2013.
- Mbiti, John 1975. Introduction to African Religion (2nd rev. ed.). Oxford: Heinemann: 117–118, 165.
- Moreau, A. Scott 1990. The World of the Spirits: A Bible Study in the African Context. Nairobi: Evangel, p. 116.
- Bussien, Nathaly et al. 2011. Breaking the spell: Responding to witchcraft accusations against children, in New Issues in refugee Research (197). Geneva, Switzerland: UNHCR
- Cimpric, Aleksandra 2010. Children accused of witchcraft, An anthropological study of contemporary practices in Africa. Dakar, Senegal: UNICEF WCARO
- Molina, Javier Aguilar 2006. The Invention of Child Witches in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Social cleansing, religious commerce and the difficulties of being a parent in an urban culture. London: Save the Children
- Human Rights Watch 2006. Children in the DRC. Human Rights Watch report, 18 (2)
- Fontana VJ (October 1984). "The maltreatment syndrome of children". Pediatric Annals 13 (10): 736–44. PMID 6504584.
- Finkelman, Byrgen (1995). "Introduction". Child abuse: a multidisciplinary survey. New York: Garland. p. xvii. ISBN 0-8153-1813-8.
- Ross, S. (1996). "Risk of physical abuse to children of spouse abusing parents". Child Abuse & Neglect 20 (7): 589. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(96)00046-4.
- Twentyman CT, Plotkin RC (1982). "Unrealistic expectations of parents who maltreat their children: an educational deficit that pertains to child development". J Clin Psychol 38 (3): 497–503. doi:10.1002/1097-4679(198207)38:3<497::aid-jclp2270380306>3.0.co;2-x. PMID 7107912.
- Lesa Bethea (1999). "Primary Prevention of Child Abuse". American Family Physician.
- Eisenberg, Leon; Brown, Sarah Hart (1995). The Best Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well-Being of Children and Families. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN 0-309-05230-0.
- U.S. Department of Human Health and services (e.g. 2011). "11 Facts About Child Abuse". Retrieved 18 November 2012.
- J.E. Hathaway, L.A. Mucci and J.G. Silverman et al., Health status and health care use of Massachusetts women reporting partner abuse, Am J Prev Med 19 (2000), pp. 302–307.
- "Family Planning – Healthy People 2020". Retrieved 18 August 2011.
Which cites: * Logan, C.; Holcombe, E.; Manlove J.; et al. (May 2007 [cited 3 March 2009]). "The consequences of unintended childbearing: A white paper". Washington, D.C.: Child Trends. Check date values in:
|date=(help) * Cheng D.; Schwarz, E.; Douglas, E.; et al. (March 2009). "Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception 79 (3): 194–8. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2008.09.009. PMID 19185672. * Kost K, Landry DJ, Darroch JE (1998). "Predicting maternal behaviors during pregnancy: does intention status matter?". Fam Plann Perspect 30 (2): 79–88. doi:10.2307/2991664. PMID 9561873. * D'Angelo DV, Gilbert BC, Rochat RW, Santelli JS, Herold JM (2004). "Differences between mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among women who have live births". Perspect Sex Reprod Health 36 (5): 192–7. doi:10.1363/psrh.36.192.04. PMID 15519961.
- Jones, L, Bellis, MA, Wood, S, et al. (Sep 8, 2012). "Prevalence and risk of violence against children with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies". The Lancet 380 (9845): 899. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60692-8.
- Shumba, A.; Abosi, O.C. (2011). "The Nature, Extent and Causes of Abuse of Children with Disabilities in Schools in Botswana". International Journal of Disability, Development & Education 58 (4): 373–388. doi:10.1080/1034912X.2011.626664.
- Murphy JM, Jellinek M, Quinn D, Smith G, Poitrast FG, Goshko M (1991). "Substance abuse and serious child mistreatment: prevalence, risk, and outcome in a court sample". Child Abuse & Neglect 15 (3): 197–211. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(91)90065-L. PMID 2043972.
- Famularo R, Kinscherff R, Fenton T (1992). "Parental substance abuse and the nature of child maltreatment". Child Abuse & Neglect 16 (4): 475–83. doi:10.1016/0145-2134(92)90064-X. PMID 1393711.
- Garsden, P. G. (2009, 06). Does child abuse cause crime?. Inside Time. Retrieved from http://www.insidetime.org/articleview.asp?a=510
- Rise in African children accused of witchcraft, BBC News, July 17, 2010
- "Child Abuse". Florida Performs.
- Hughes, Sandra (20 May 2009). "Child Abuse Spikes During Recession", CBS News.
- Blampied P (1978). "In Massachusetts: A Hot Line To Tragedy". Time 112 (19): 6.
- Roach, J. (2011). "Evolution and the Prevention of Violent Crime". Psychology 02 (4): 393–357. doi:10.4236/psych.2011.24062.
- Mr.Samsa (2010). The Cinderella Effect: Just a Fairytale?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.rationalskepticism.org/psychology/the-cinderella-effect-just-a-fairytale-t17731.html. [Last Accessed 18 November 12].
- Rodriguez CM, Henderson RC (2010). "Who spares the rod? Religious orientation, social conformity, and child abuse potential". Child Abuse & Neglect 34 (2): 84–94. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.002. PMID 20153527. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
- Sebre S, Sprugevica I, Novotni A, Bonevski D, Pakalniskiene V, Popescu D, Turchina T, Friedrich W, Lewis O (2004). "Cross-cultural comparisons of child-reported emotional and physical abuse: Rates, risk factors and psychosocial symptoms". Child Abuse & Neglect, the International Journal 28 (1): 113–127. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.06.004. PMID 15019442.
- Sebre S, Sprugevica I, Novotni A, Bonevski D, Pakalniskiene V, Popescu D, Turchina T, Friedrich W, Lewis O (2004). "Cross-cultural comparisons of child-reported emotional and physical abuse: Rates, risk factors and psychosocial symptoms". Child Abuse & Neglect, the International Journal 28 (1): 113–127. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.06.004. PMID 15019442.
- Lau, A. S., Takeuchi, D. T., & Alegría, M. (2006). Parent-to-child aggression among Asian American parents: Culture, context, and vulnerability. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(5), 1261–1275. Retrieved
- Thousands of child 'witches' turned on to the streets to starve, The Guardian, February 12, 2006
- Byrne, Carrie 2011. Hunting the vulnerable: Witchcraft and the law in Malawi; Consultancy Africa Intelligence (16 June).
- CNN: Abuse of child 'witches' on rise, aid group says, May 18, 2009.
- "Child Abuse Symptoms, Causes, Treatment - How can child abuse be prevented? on MedicineNet". Medicinenet.com. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Pediatrician Training and In-Office Support Significantly Reduce Instances of Child Maltreatment". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2013-05-22. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
- "Child Abuse Experts Provide Videoconference-Enabled Consultations to Providers in Remote Emergency Departments and Clinics, Leading to More Accurate Diagnosis". Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2014-03-26. Retrieved 2014-03-26.
- Baumrind (1993). Optimal Caregiving and Child Abuse: Continuities and Discontinuities. National Academy of Sciences Study Panel on Child Abuse and Neglect. (Report). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
- Cron T (1986). "The Surgeon General's Workshop on Violence and Public Health: Review of the recommendations.". Public Health Rep. 101: 8–14.
- Child Welfare Information Gateway, History of National Child Abuse Prevention Month. 3 April 2009.
- Presidential Proclamation Marking National Child Abuse Prevention Month. The White House – Press Room, 1 April 2009.
- U.S. Administration for Children and Families. Department of Health and Human Services. Children's Bureau.
- "Child Abuse and Neglect: Failed Policy and Assault on Innocent". The Catholic Social Science Review. pp. 217, 215–231. Retrieved 2005.
- "Child Maltreatment 2010". United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families; Children’s Bureau. pp. 12, 24. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- Krason, Stephen M. "The Critics Of Current Child Abuse Laws And The. Child Protective System: A Survey Of The Leading Literature". The Catholic Social Science Review. pp. 340, 307–350. Retrieved 2007.
- U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census, Table H. "Projections of the Number of Households and Families in the United States: 1995 to 2010, P25-1129".
- Besharov, Douglas J, (Summer–Fall 1994). "Responding to Child Sexual Abuse: The Need for a Balanced Approach". The Future of Children 4 (2): 139–140.
- Hosin, A.A., ed. (2007). Responses to traumatized children. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 211. ISBN 1-4039-9680-6.
- Briere, John (1992). Child abuse trauma. Sage. p. 7. ISBN 0-8039-3713-X.
- Cohen, J.A.; Mannarino, A.P.; Murray, L.K.; Igelman, R. (2006). "Psychosocial Interventions for Maltreated and Violence-Exposed Children". Journal of Social Issues 62 (4): 737–766. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2006.00485.x.
- Schechter DS, Zygmunt A, Trabka KA, Davies M, Colon E, Kolodji A, McCaw JE (2007). "Child mental representations of attachment when mothers are traumatized: The relationship of family-drawings to story-stem completion". Journal of Early Childhood and Infant Psychology 3: 119–141. PMC 2268110. PMID 18347736.
- Finkelhor, David; Lisa Jones; Anne Shuttuch. "Updated Trends in Child Maltreatment, 2010". University of New Hampshire, Crimes Against Children Research Center. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- "Child Population: Number of Children (in Millions)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012.
- "Child Maltreatment2010: Summary of Key Findings". Children's Bureau, Child Welfare Information Gateway, Protecting Children Strengthening Families. Retrieved May 2012.
- "Child Abuse and Neglect Statistics". National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse. 1998. Archived from the original on 15 May 1998.
- Child Poverty in Respective: An Overview of Child Wellbeing in Rich Countries. UNICEF: Innocenti Research Center, Report Card 7.
- "Sometimes They Can't Afford to Leave their Abusers", Santa Ynez Valley Journal, California, 22 October 2009.
- Stats for 2000; Stats for 2001; Stats for 2002; Stats for 2003; Stats for 2004; Stats for 2005.[dead link]
- Child Maltreatment 2011, US Department of Health and Human Services, p. 20.
- "Child abuse in 28 developing and transitional countries--results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys." PubMed.gov.
- Child Maltreatment 2008, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, p. 55.
- For a review of this literature, see, Douglas, E.M., 2005, Child maltreatment fatalities: What do we know, what have we learned, and where do we go from here?,pp 4.1–4.18, in Child Victimization, edited by K. Kendall-Tackett & S. Giacomoni, published by Civic Research Institute, Kingston, N.J.
- Szasz, Thomas Stephen (1998). "Cruel Compassion: Psychiatric Control of Society's Unwanted". ISBN 9780815605102.
- Appel JM (October 2009). "Mixed motives, mixed outcomes when accused parents won't agree to withdraw care". Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (10): 635–7. doi:10.1136/jme.2009.030510. PMID 19793945.
- "Springfield man denies charges in infant assault", Rutland Herald, New Hampshire, 5 August 2008.
- "Springfield Father Charged with Baby's Murder", WCAX.com, Vermont, 21 January 2009.
- "Withdrawal Okay When Surrogate's Refusal to Consent Based on Wrong Reasons", Medical Futility (blog).
- National Center for Youth Law. "Minor Consent, Confidentiality, and Child Abuse Reporting". Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- NICHD. (2010). Strengthening Families and Communities: National Child Abuse Prevention Month. Retrieved October 27, 2012 from, http://www.nichd.nih.gov/news/resources/spotlight/041310-strengthening-families-communities.cfm
- Crist, T. A. J.; Washburn, A.; Park, H.; Hood, I.; Hickey, M. A. (1997). "Cranial Bone Displacement as a Taphonomic Process in Potential Child Abuse Cases". In Haglund, W. D. & Sorg, M. A. Forensic Taphonomy: the Postmortem Fate of Human Remains. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 319–336.
- Crosson-Tower, C. (2008). Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-205-50326-8. OCLC 150902303.
- Finkelhor, D. (19 February 2008). Childhood Victimization: Violence, Crime, and Abuse in the Lives of Young People. Oxford University Press. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-19-534285-7. OCLC 162501989.
- Hoyano, L.; Keenan C. (2007). Child Abuse: Law and Policy Across Boundaries. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829946-X. OCLC 79004390.
- Korbin, Jill E. (1983). Child abuse and neglect: cross-cultural perspectives. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05070-3. OCLC 144570871.
- Miller, Alice (1990). "Thou Shalt Not Be Aware": Society's Betrayal of the Child, in series, Meridian Book[s]. Trans. by Heildegarde and Hunter Hannum. New York: Penguin. x, 329 p. Trans. from the German, titled Du sollst nicht merken. ISBN 0-452-00929-4 pbk
- Turton, Jackie (2008). Child Abuse, Gender, and Society. New York: Routledge. p. 161. ISBN 0-415-36505-8. OCLC 144570871.
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Child abuse.|
- Cold-nosed Comfort – Maryland Lawyer article about using a facility service dog to aid child abuse victims
- Pete – Award-winning short film about child abuse
- Child abuse at DMOZ
- "What is child abuse and neglect?", Oregon Department of Human Services.
- Prevent Child Abuse America
- Study on Child Abuse: India 2007 Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India