||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United Kingdom and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (October 2014)|
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|Caring for children|
|Outside the home|
|Institutions and standards|
Child protection is a set of usually government-run services designed to protect children and young people who are underage and to encourage family stability.
- 1 Encountered problems
- 2 International treaties
- 3 History
- 4 Child protection by country
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
- 8 Further reading
Due to economical reasons, especially in poor countries, children are forced to work in order to survive. Child labour often happens in difficult conditions, which are dangerous and impair the education of the future citizens and increase vulnerability to adults. It is hard to know exactly the age and number of children who work. At least 150 million children under 5 years of age worked in 2004, but the figure is underestimated because domestic labour is not counted.
Endangerment and infanticide
In some countries, children can be imprisoned for common crimes. In some countries, like Iran or China, children can even be sentenced to capital punishment (the United States abandoned the practice in 2005). In contexts where military use of children is made, they also risk being prisoners of war. Other children are forced to prostitution, exploited by adults for illegal traffic in children or endangered by poverty and hunger. Infanticide today continues at a much higher rate in areas of extremely high poverty and overpopulation, such as parts of China and India. Female infants, then and even now, are particularly vulnerable, a factor in sex-selective infanticide.
Most children who come to the attention of the child welfare system do so because of any of the following situations, which are often collectively termed child abuse:
- Child sexual abuse
- Neglect, including failure to take adequate measures to safeguard a child from harm, and gross negligence in providing for a child's basic needs
- Physical abuse
- Psychological abuse
- Child victims of sexual abuse/exploitation
- Child victims of neglect or abuse
- Child victims of trafficking
- Children with disabilities
- Children in a situation of migration
- Unaccompanied children in a situation of migration
- Children without parental care/in alternative care
- Children in police custody or detention
- Street children
- Children of parents in prison or custody
- Children in judicial proceedings
- Children in or at risk of poverty
- Missing children (e.g. runaways, abducted children, unaccompanied children going missing)
- Children affected by custody disputes, including parental child abduction
- Children left behind (by parents who move to another EU country for work)
- Children belonging to minority ethnic groups, e.g. Roma
- Child victims of female genital mutilation or forced marriage
- Children who are not in compulsory education or training or working children below the legal age for work
- Child victims of bullying or cyberbullying
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour issues, created in 1919. It takes care also of child labour issues, in particular with conventions 138 and 182.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations Programme headquartered in New York City, that provides long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The effectiveness of these programs is contested and seems limited to some.[vague]
Provincial or state governments' child protection legislation empowers the government department or agency to provide services in the area and to intervene in families where child abuse or other problems are suspected. The agency that manages these services has various names in different provinces and states, e.g., Department of Children's Services, Children's Aid, Department of Child and Family Services. There is some consistency in the nature of laws, though the application of the laws varies across the country.
Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding… should be afforded the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life.
Child protection by country
Most countries have introduced laws to protect and prevent children and young persons from certain threats or harms.
The 1908 introduced Children Act 1908 and the Children and Young Person Act 1920 where a bundle of laws to protect young persons and children in the early 20th century. Followed by the Children and Young Persons Act 1933 which summarized the both laws into one single law.
Important Changes in 1933:
- Minimum age of execution was raised from 16 to 18 years.
- The age of criminal responsibility was raised from 7 to 8 years.
- Introduction of a minimum working age of 14 years.
- The minimum age to smoke and to buy tobacco products was set at 16 years.
- The minimum age for prostitution and to enter a brothel is set at 16 years.
- The minimum age to give alcohol to a child on a privat premises is set at 5 years.
|Alcohol||Licensing Act 2003
Children and Young Persons Act 1933
|Tobacco||The Children and Young Persons (Sale of Tobacco etc.) Order 2007
Children and Young Persons Act 1933
(Tobacco and Primary Medical Services (Scotland) Act 2010)
Tobacco Retailers Act (Northern Ireland) 2014
|Gambling||Gambling Act 2005
National Lottery Regulations 1994
|Child employment||Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (England)
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
|Fireworks||Pyrotechnic Articles (Safety) Regulations 2010
Fireworks Regulations 2004
|Video games and movies||Video Recordings Acts of 1984 and 2010||
|Aerosol spray paint||Anti-social Behaviour Act 2003||It is illegal to sell aerosol spray paint to anyone under the age of 16.|
|Cruelty to persons under sixteen||Children and Young Persons Act 1933||It is illegal to anyone 16 or over who has responsibility for any child or young person under that age to: wilfully assaults, ill-treats, neglects, abandons, or exposes him, or causes or procures him to be assaulted, ill-treated, neglected, abandoned, or exposed, in a manner likely to cause him unnecessary suffering or injury to health (including injury to or loss of sight, or hearing, or limb, or organ of the body, and any mental derangement).|
|Causing or allowing persons under sixteen to be used for begging||Children and Young Persons Act 1933||It is illegal to let anyone beg in public places under the age of 16.|
|Sexual abuse||Sexual Offences Act 2003
Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009
|The age of sexual consent is 16 in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. It is illegal for someone in a position of trust to have sex with anyone under the age of 18.|
Prominent child protection organizations
- Odisha State Child Protection Society
- Free the Children
- Save the Children
- War Child
- World Vision
- Adoption and Safe Families Act
- Child Protection and Obscenity Enforcement Act
- Child Protective Services
- Complex post traumatic stress disorder
- For the children (politics)
- Independent Safeguarding Authority
- Landeros v. Flood
- Reactive attachment disorder
- Resist.ca (History of Child Protection in America by Kirsten Anderberg, Graduate History Student, 2009)
- A Report Card on Child Protection. (PDF-File, 991 KB) — United Nations Children’s Fund: Progress for Children, Number 8. September 2009.
- Child Protection References' (Resources and UK references for Child Protection)
- McCutcheon, James, 2010."Historical Analysis and Contemporary Assessment of Foster Care in Texas: Perceptions of Social Workers in a Private, Non-Profit Foster Care Agency". Applied Research Projects. Texas State University Paper 332. TXstate.edu
- Handbook: Child protection UNICEF, IPU, 2004
- Eileen Munro.2008. Effective Child Protection. Publisher-SAGE ISBN 1412946956, 9781412946957.
- Jeff Fowler. 2003. A Practitioner's Tool for Child Protection and the Assessment of Parents. Publisher Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 1843100509, 9781843100508
- Eileen Munro. 2007. Child Protection: Sage Course Companions Series. Publisher- SAGE. ISBN 1412911796, 9781412911795
- Harries et al. 2008. Reforming Child Protection. Publisher- Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415429056, 9780415429054
- Janet Polnay. 2001. Child Protection in Primary Care. Publisher-Radcliffe Publishing. ISBN 1857752244, 9781857752243
- Chris Beckett. 2007. Child Protection: An Introduction. Publisher-SAGE. ISBN 1412920922, 9781412920926
- Gerald Cradock. Risk, Morality, and Child Protection: Risk Calculation as Guides to Practice. Science, Technology, & Human Values, Vol. 29, No. 3, Special Issue: Reconstructing Order through Rhetorics of Risk (Summer, 2004), pp. 314–331
- Leigh A. Faulconer. In the Best Interests of Children? Family Relations, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Jul., 1994), pp. 261–263
- Eileen Munro. Common errors of reasoning in child protection work