Boston Children's Hospital

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This article is about Boston Children's Hospital. For other similarly named hospitals, see Children's Hospital (disambiguation).
Boston Children's Hospital
Tch-boston.jpg
Longwood Avenue main entrance
Geography
Location 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Organization
Care system Private
Hospital type Teaching
Affiliated university Harvard Medical School
Services
Emergency department Level I Regional Pediatric Trauma Center
Beds 395 licensed beds (as of December 2011)
Speciality Pediatrics and pediatric subspecialties
History
Founded 1869
Links
Website www.childrenshospital.org
Lists Hospitals in Massachusetts

Boston Children's Hospital is a 395-licensed-bed children's hospital in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area of Boston, Massachusetts. At 300 Longwood Avenue, Children's is adjacent both to its teaching affiliate, Harvard Medical School, and to Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. (Dana-Farber and Children's jointly operate Dana-Farber/Children's Hospital Cancer Care, a 60-year-old partnership established to deliver comprehensive care to children with and survivors of all types of childhood cancers.) Children's was ranked #1 in 8 out of 10 clinical specialties by the U.S. News & World Report, and as the nation's number one pediatric hospital for 2014-15.

Overview[edit]

In 2012, for the 23rd year in a row, U.S. News & World Report rated Boston Children's Hospital one of the nation's top hospitals specializing in pediatric care.[1] (Children's ranked in the top three of all pediatric specialty categories and number one in heart & heart surgery, neurology & neurosurgery, urology, nephrology and orthopedics.[2]) Children's was the first stand-alone pediatric hospital in New England to be awarded Magnet status by the American Nurses Credentialing Center.[3]

One of the largest pediatric medical centers in the United States,[4] Children's offers a complete range of health care services for children from birth through 21 years of age. Its Advanced Fetal Care Center can begin interventions at 15 weeks gestation,[citation needed][5] and in some situations (e.g., congenital heart disease and strabismus) Children's treats adults.[6] The institution is home to 40 clinical departments and 225 specialized clinical programs.[citation needed]

From October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2008 (Children's fiscal year 2008), the hospital recorded:[citation needed]

  • 492,698 outpatient visits
  • 58,329 emergency department visits
  • 24,460 inpatient and day surgical cases
  • 5.81 day average length of stay
  • a 1.97 average case mix

The hospital's clinical staff includes approximately 1,026 active medical and dental staff, 384 associated scientific staff, 922 residents, fellows and interns, 1,596 full-time nurses, and close to 9,000 other full and part-time employees. A trained team of more than 800 volunteers devote thousands of hours each year to support the hospital staff and patients. Sandra Fenwick is the current[when?] president and COO, having replaced urologist Dr. James Mandell on October 1, 2013.[7]

The International Center at Boston Children's Hospital serves patients from more than 100 countries including coordination of visits, medical records, travel, accommodation, and immigration.

Children's operated its own Critical Care Transport Team, staffed by a team of two critical care transport registered nurses and a Critical Care Paramedic. They use Boston MedFlight as a flight resource for transports needing a helicopter or jet.

Children's is part of the consortium of hospitals that operates Boston MedFlight.

Children's has a hospital garden at the center of its campus called the Prouty Memorial Garden and Terrace. Since its creation in 1956,[8] the garden has been a place of solace for children and their families. The site may be changed in the future as the hospital builds more buildings in the location currently occupied by the garden.[9][10]

History[edit]

Children's was founded on July 20, 1869 by Dr. Francis Henry Brown, a Civil War surgeon, who traveled to Europe in 1867 to study the pioneering specialized approach to treating children. Brown as impressed with the treatments he witnessed and he wanted to bring that level of care to Boston. Brown opened a 20-bed facility in a small townhouse at 9 Rutland Street in Boston's South End.

Approximately one year after opening, the hospital was moved to the corner of Rutland and Washington Streets. Children's Hospital stayed at this location until 1871 when the hospital moved to Huntington Avenue before its final moved to what would become the Longwood Medical and Academic Area.[11]

Children's became affiliated with the Harvard Medical School in 1903.

Below is a partial list* of historic milestones:

1891: Children's establishes the nation's first laboratory for the modification and production of bacteria-free milk.

1920: Dr. William Ladd devises procedures for correcting various congenital defects such as intestinal malformations, launching the specialty of pediatric surgery.

1938: Dr. Robert E. Gross performs the world's first successful surgical procedure to correct a congenital cardiovascular defect, ushering in the era of modern pediatric cardiac surgery.

1947: Dr. Sidney Farber, pediatric pathologist, requested Dr. Yellapragada Subbarow (of Lederle lab and his friend and colleague at Harvard Medical School) to supply Aminopterin and later Amithopterin (Methotrexate) to conduct trials on acute leukemic children. He achieves the world's first partial remission of acute leukemia. He went on to co-found the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in 1950.

1954: Dr. John Enders and his colleagues win the Nobel Prize for successfully culturing the polio virus in 1949, making possible the development of the Salk and Sabin vaccines. Enders and his team went on to culture the measles virus.

1971: Dr. Judah Folkman publishes "Tumor angiogenesis: therapeutic implications" in the New England Journal of Medicine. It is the first paper to describe Folkman's theory that tumors recruit new blood vessels to grow.

1983: Children's physicians report the first surgical correction of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, a defect in which an infant is born without a left ventricle. The procedure is the first to correct what had been a fatal condition.

1986: Children's surgeons perform the hospital's first heart transplant. Later in the year, a 15-month-old patient becomes the youngest person in New England to receive a heart transplant.

1989: Researchers in neurology and genetics discover that beta amyloid, a protein that accumulates in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease, is toxic to neurons, indicating the possible cause of the degenerative disease.

In the last 20 years[edit]

1997: Endostatin, one of the most potent inhibitors of angiogenesis, is discovered by Drs. Michael O'Reilly and Judah Folkman. In mice, endostatin has shown promise in slowing some cancers to a dormant state. Phase I clinical trials began at three centers in 1999.

1998: Dr. Evan Snyder clones the first neural stem cells from the human central nervous system, offering the possibility of cell replacement and gene therapies for patients with neurodegenerative disease, neural injury or paralysis.

1999: Children's establishes its Advanced Fetal Care Center to provide diagnostic services, genetic and obstetrical counseling, and prenatal or immediate postpartum intervention for fetuses with complex birth defects.

1999: Larry Benowitz, PhD grows nerve cells in the damaged spinal cords of rats, a significant step in the treatment of spinal cord injuries. The next year, Benowitz discovers that inosine is important in controlling axon regeneration in nerve cells.

Since 2000[edit]

2000: Children's performs its 100th heart transplant.

2001: Children's performs the world's first successful fetal repair of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in a 19-week-old fetus.

2002: Dr. Scott Pomeroy and Dr. Todd Golub use microarray gene expression profiling to identify different types of brain tumors and predict clinical outcome. This allows radiation and chemotherapy to be tailored to kill cancer cells while leaving healthy tissue alone.

2003: Dr. Heung Bae Kim and Dr. Tom Jaksic develop, test and successfully perform the world's first serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) procedure, a potential lifesaver for patients with short bowel syndrome.

2004: Children's surgeons perform New England's first multivisceral organ transplant when 11-month-old Abdullah Alazemi receives a stomach, pancreas, liver, and small intestine from a single donor.[12]

2005: In the best-documented effort to date, Felix Engel, Ph.D., and Dr. Mark Keating successfully get adult heart-muscle cells to divide and multiply in mammals, the first step in regenerating heart tissue. They are now investigating whether their technique can improve heart function in animal models of cardiac injury.

2006: Dr. Dale Umetsu, Dr. Omid Akbari and colleagues report that a newly recognized type of immune cell, NKT, may play an important role in causing asthma, even in the absence of conventional T-helper cells. Moreover, NKT cells respond to a different class of antigens than are currently recognized to trigger asthma.

2006: Dr. Larry Benowitz and colleagues discover a naturally occurring growth factor called oncomodulin that stimulates regeneration in injured optic nerves, raising the possibility of treating blindness due to optic-nerve damage and the hope of achieving similar regeneration in the spinal cord and brain.

2012: Dr. John Kheir and Dr. Tahir Saleem N.Jutt (Cardiac) develop particles that can be injected into a bloodstream in order to oxygenate it.[13]

2013: Boston Children's Hospital became part of a dispute between medical doctors, the Massachusetts Department of Children and Families, and the parents of a teenager, Justina Pelletier. The doctors and psychologists at Boston Children's hospital diagnosed her with (somatic symptom disorder),[14][15] a different diagnosis than the one she had previously received from Tufts University School of Medicine Hospital doctors (mitochondrial disease). BCH requested that the commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Children and Families protect and remove the patient from her parent's custody, due to concern for a situation of "medical child abuse". At the request of the Department of Children and Families and BCH hospital officials, the girl was made a ward of the state of Massachusetts.[16] Justina Pelletier was held in Boston Children's Hospital's locked psychiatric ward, Bader 5, from February 14, 2013, until January 2014, when she was transferred to Wayside Youth and Family Support Network, a residential treatment center in Framingham.[17][18][19][20] On June 17, 2014, the same Massachusetts judge who issued the initial ruling dismissed the case against her parents and returned Justina to her family. [21]

2013: STEPS to Health, a health coaching program for pediatric obesity management, is founded by Mahsa Parviz and Dr. Jennifer Cheng at Boston Children's Hospital Primary Care Center (CHPCC) with funding from the Harvard Medical School Center for Primary Care.

Research[edit]

With more than 680,000 square feet (63,000 m2) of state-of-the-art laboratory space, Children's is home to the world's largest research enterprise based at a pediatric medical center. Its discoveries have benefited children and adults since 1869. More than 1,100 scientists, including 9 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 13 members of the Institute of Medicine and 15 members of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, comprise Children's research community. Children's current initiatives are supported by a record US $225 million in funding, which includes more federal funding than is awarded to any other pediatric facility.[22]

In the John F. Enders Pediatric Research laboratories, named for the Children's researcher and Nobel Prize recipient who cultured the polio and measles viruses, hundreds of laboratory researchers and physician investigators search for answers to some of the most perplexing diseases.

In 2003, Children's dramatically increased its research capacity with the opening of the 295,000-square-foot (27,400 m2) Karp Family Research Laboratories. The Karp family gift is one of many important gifts that support Children's vital research enterprise.

In an effort to support the research community, Children's Stem Cell Program investigator George Q. Daley, M.D., Ph.D., has made dozens of iPS lines developed at Boston Children's Hospital available for use by other scientists through the Harvard Stem Cell Institute. To date, cell lines have been distributed to over 65 laboratories worldwide.

In 2010, a drug that boosts numbers of blood stem cells, originally discovered in zebrafish in the Boston Children's Hospital laboratory of Leonard I. Zon, M.D., went to clinical trial in patients with leukemia and lymphoma.

Through the years, scientists at Children's have set the pace in pediatric research, identifying treatments and therapies for many debilitating diseases, including those of adulthood.

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Children's Hospital scientist Dr. John Enders and his team were first to successfully culture the polio virus and were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1954.[23]

Dr. Joseph Murray, chief plastic surgeon at Children's Hospital Boston from 1972 to 1985 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1990 for his research on immunosuppression, specifically his "discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease".[24]

Lasker Awards[25][edit]

Dr. William Lennox received the Lasker Award in 1951 for his work researching epilepsy.[26] Dr. Lennox organized the American Epilepsy League and the Committee for Public Understanding of Epilepsy.

Dr. Robert Gross received the Lasker Award in 1954 for performing the first operation for patent ductus arteriosus, a congenital heart defect, in 1938.[27] He received an additional Lasker in 1959 for being the first surgeon to graft artery tissue from one person to another in 1958.[28]

Dr. John Enders was awarded the Lasker in 1954, the same year he was awarded the Nobel Prize, for "achievement in the cultivation of the viruses poliomyelitis, mumps, and measles."[29]

Dr. Sidney Farber received the Lasker in 1966 for his 1947 discovery that a combination of aminopterin and methotrexate, both folic acid antagonists, could produce remission in patients with acute leukemia, and for "his constant leadership in the search for chemical agents against cancer."[30]

Dr. Porter W. Anderson, Jr. received the Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award with Dr. David H. Smith in 1996 for groundbreaking work in the development and commercialization of the Hemophilus influenza type B vaccine.[31]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Avery Comarow (June 2, 2010). "Best Children's Hospitals 2010-11: The Honor Roll". U.S.News & World Report. Retrieved 2011-02-26. 
  2. ^ "Best Hospitals 2010: Ranking for Children's Hospital Boston". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
  3. ^ Magnet-Designated Facility Information. Retrieved April 7, 2008.[dead link]
  4. ^ Becker's Hospital Review http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/lists/25-largest-childrens-hospitals.html |url= missing title (help). Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  5. ^ Children's Hospital Boston - About us http://childrenshospital.org/about/Site1394/mainpageS1394P0.html |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  6. ^ Adults with Strabismus Service, Children's Boston http://www.childrenshospital.org/clinicalservices/Site1763/mainpageS1763P0.html |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  7. ^ Boston Children’s Hospital names next CEO
  8. ^ Children's Hospital News, The History Trail: A Walking Tour of Children's Hospital Boston, August 2007. http://www.childrenshospital.org/chnews/08-03-07/images
  9. ^ McGrory, B. (2012). Children’s Hospital progress may mark end for Prouty Garden, Boston Globe August 3, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2013 from http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2012/08/02/children-hospital-plans-for-garden-are-step-ahead-and-two-steps-back/fxMEwlaU0N31sWPRhgsToL/story.html
  10. ^ "Beloved Garden at Center of Children's Hospital Building Dispute", CommonHealth news story WBUR-FM (Boston). Retrieved July 26, 2013 at http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2013/07/prouty-garden-hospital-building
  11. ^ Huffman, Zack (2014-07-25). "Children's Hospital's Humble Beginnings". The Boston Courant (Courant Publications, Inc.). pp. 9, 14. 
  12. ^ Mishra, Raja (6 December 2004). "Four new organs, one birthday". Boston Globe. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  13. ^ "Injecting Life-Saving Oxygen Into a Vein". ScienceDaily. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  14. ^ http://www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/health-wellness/2014/03/25/permanent-custody-justina-pelletier-awarded-state-massachusetts/puyPhesGkKE6rGLid2VM2L/story.html
  15. ^ http://www.slate.com/blogs/xx_factor/2014/03/27/justina_pelletier_ruling_boston_children_s_hospital_and_judge_perform_parent.html
  16. ^ http://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2014/01/07/podium-disease/tDtgb2w5K4BL5VRYtg1PIO/story.html
  17. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/Health/sick-connecticut-teen-justina-pelletier-foster-care/story?id=22668251
  18. ^ http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2013/12/16/month-medical-ordeal-conclusion-still-uncertain/Y7qvYTGsq8QklkxUZvuUgP/story.html
  19. ^ http://articles.courant.com/2014-01-10/health/hc-pelletiers-daughter-hospital-custody-20140109_1_judge-joseph-johnston-justina-pelletier-psychiatric-ward
  20. ^ http://articles.courant.com/2014-03-03/health/hc-justina-pelletier-hearing-0304-20140303_1_justina-pelletier-lou-pelletier-boston-children
  21. ^ http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2014/06/17/judge-orders-custody-justina-pelletier-returned-parents/mDWtuGURNawSuObO0pDX4J/story.html
  22. ^ http://www.childrenshospital.org/about-us
  23. ^ http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1954/enders.html
  24. ^ http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1990/murray.html
  25. ^ http://www.laskerfoundation.org/awards/index.htm
  26. ^ http://www.laskerfoundation.org/awards/1951clinical.htm
  27. ^ http://www.laskerfoundation.org/awards/1954_c_description.htm
  28. ^ http://www.laskerfoundation.org/awards/1959clinical.htm
  29. ^ http://www.laskerfoundation.org/awards/1954_b_description.htm#enders
  30. ^ http://www.laskerfoundation.org/awards/1966clinical.htm
  31. ^ http://www.laskerfoundation.org/awards/1996clinical.htm

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 42°20′14″N 71°06′22″W / 42.33727°N 71.10600°W / 42.33727; -71.10600