Gevuina

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Chilean hazelnut)
Jump to: navigation, search
Gevuina
Gevuina avellana 2.jpg
Chilean hazel with flowers and fruits
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
Order: Proteales
Family: Proteaceae
Genus: Gevuina
Species: G. avellana
Binomial name
Gevuina avellana
(Molina) Gaertn.
Gevuina avellana - MHNT

Gevuina avellana (Chilean hazel, avellano chileno in Spanish) is an evergreen tree, up to 20 meters (65 feet) tall. It is the only species currently classified in the genus Gevuina. It is native to southern Chile and adjacent valleys in Argentina. It is found from sea level to 700 meters (2300 feet) above sea level. Its distribution extends from 35° to 44° south latitude. The composite leaves are bright green and toothed, and the tree is in flower between July and November. The flowers are very small and beige to whitish, are bisexual and group two by two in long racemes. The fruit is a dark red nut when young and turns black. It can grow up straight or branched from the soil.

The name Gevuina comes from guevin, the Mapuche Indian name for the Chilean hazel.[1]


Taxonomy[edit]

Gevuina is a genus of 1 or 3 species of the family Proteaceae. In some classifications, Gevuinia is recognised with a single species endemic to each of Australia (Gevuina bleasdalei), New Guinea (Gevuina papuana), and one species in Chile and Argentina (Gevuina avellana). Some taxonomic reports place the Australian and New Guinea species in the genus Bleasdalea[2] or the Fijian endemic genus Turrillia,[3] however the Flora of Australia retains these 2 species in Gevuinia.[4] The most recent classification, however, places the Australian and New Guinea species as Bleasdalea bleasdalei and B. papuana[5]

Uses and cultivation[edit]

The seeds are eaten raw, cooked in boiling water or toasted. The nuts contain about 12 percent protein, 49 percent oil, and 24 percent carbohydrates.[6] The seed has a very high concentration of monounsaturated oils and is also obtained for several purposes in Chile. It is rich in antioxidants.[citation needed] The nut is a good source of vitamin E (α-tocotrienol) and β-carotene. Its oil is an ingredient in some sunscreens. Gevuina oil is a used as cosmetic ingredient for its moisturizing qualities and because it is a source of omega 7 fatty acids (palmitoleic acid).[7][8]

The tree is a good honey plant for bees. Seed shells contain tannin that is used for tanning leather. It is cultivated as ornamental. It has an acceptable frost resistance (at least −12 °C (10 °F)) when mature. The wood is cream-colored with dark brown streaking and is used in cabinetry and musical instruments. It was introduced to Great Britain in 1826. It grows well in there and in New Zealand and California. There are a few specimens cultivated in Spain[9] and the Pacific Northwest of the United States.[10] It grows well in temperate oceanic climates with cool temperatures where frosts occur commonly in winter, and that is why it has thrived in southern New Zealand. It lasts 5 years to be harvested and 7 or 8 years for full production. In Seattle, Washington, squirrels and birds eat seeds from the trees. Most of nuts that are for sale are gathered in southern hemisphere's autumn (March and April), but new varieties of greater yield are being developed in Chile and New Zealand.

Gallery[edit]

References and external links[edit]

  1. ^ "Gevuina avellana". Enciclopedia de la Flora Chilena. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  2. ^ A.C.Smith & J.E.Haas, 1975. American Journal of Botany, 62: 142.
  3. ^ A.C.Smith, 1985. Flora Vitiensis Nova 3: 754.
  4. ^ http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/online-resources/flora/stddisplay.xsql?pnid=45203
  5. ^ Weston, Peter H.. & Nigel P. Barker (2008). A new suprageneric classification of the Proteaceae, with an annotated checklist of genera. Telopea, 11 (3): 339.
  6. ^ Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
  7. ^ A Bertoli, C. et al. (1998). "Characterization of Chilean hazelnut (Gevuina avellana Mol) seed oil". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 75 (8): 1037–1040. 
  8. ^ FR 2681530 A1 (SO.F.I.A. Cosmetiques (S.A.R.L.)) 26.03.1993
  9. ^ "Plantas de la flora de Chile cultivadas en España" [Chilean plants cultivated in Spain]. José Manuel Sánchez de Lorenzo-Cáceres. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  10. ^ "Gevuina avellana in Washington Park Arboretum". Seattle Government. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  • Rodríguez, Roberto; Mathei, Oscar y Quezada, Max. 1983. Flora arbórea de Chile. Universidad de Concepción. 408p.
  • Donoso, C. 2005. Árboles nativos de Chile. Guía de reconocimiento. Edición 4. Marisa Cuneo Ediciones, Valdivia, Chile. 136p.
  • Hoffman, A. 1982. Flora silvestre de Chile zona araucana. Edición 4. Ediciones Fundación Claudio Gay, Santiago, Chile. 258p.
  • Muñoz, M. 1980. Flora del Parque Nacional Puyehue. Editorial Universitaria, Santiago, Chile. 557p.
  • "Gevuina avellana". Enciclopedia de la Flora Chilena. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  • "Gevuina avellana in Scotland". PlantenTuin Esveld. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  • "Gevuina avellana: Potential for commercial nuts". Acta Horticulturae. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  • "A cool climate nut of the Proteaceae plant tropical family". New Zealand Crop & Food Research. Retrieved 2009-06-27.