An energy drink is a type of beverage containing stimulant drugs, chiefly caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental and physical stimulation. They may or may not be carbonated and many also contain sugar or other sweeteners, herbal extracts and amino acids. They are a subset of the larger group of energy products, which includes bars and gels, and distinct from sports drinks, which are advertised to enhance sports performance. There are many brands and varieties of energy drinks.
Coffee, tea and other naturally caffeinated beverages are usually not considered energy drinks. Soft drinks such as cola may contain caffeine, but are also not energy drinks. Some alcoholic beverages, such as Four Loko, used to contain caffeine and other stimulants, but such drinks were banned in the United States in 2010. According to the Mayo Clinic, it is safe to have up to 400 mg of caffeine a day. This is equivalent to 4 cups of coffee or 2 energy shots.
- 1 Uses
- 2 Variants
- 3 Adverse effects
- 4 Physical and chemical properties
- 5 Frequency of use
- 6 History
- 7 Society and culture
- 8 Research
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Energy drinks are marketed to provide the benefits among health effects of caffeine along with benefits from the other ingredients they contain. Health experts agree that energy drinks which contain caffeine do provide the effects of caffeine. The consumption of alcohol drinks combined with energy drinks is a common occurrence on many college campuses. The alcohol industry has recently been criticized for marketing cohesiveness of alcohol and energy drinks. The combination of the two in college students is correlated to students experiencing alcohol related consequences, and several heath risks.
There is no good evidence that other ingredients in energy drinks provide further benefits, even though the drinks are frequently advertised in a way that suggests they have unique benefits. The dietary supplements in energy drinks may be purported to provide detoxification, sustain mental process, protect heart health, and reduce muscle fatigue. None of these claims are backed by good evidence. Various marketing organizations have described energy drinks by saying their beverage "gives you wings", is "scientifically formulated", or that it is a "killer energy brew", none of which has any specific meaning.
When mixed with alcohol, either as a prepackaged caffeinated alcoholic drink, a mixed drink, or just a beverage consumed around the same time as alcohol, energy drinks are often consumed in social settings.
Energy shots are a specialized kind of energy drink. Whereas most energy drinks are sold in cans or bottles, energy shots are usually sold in smaller 50ml bottles. Energy shots can contain the same total amount of caffeine, vitamins or other functional ingredients as their larger versions, and may be considered concentrated forms of energy drinks. The marketing of energy shots generally focuses on their convenience and availability as a low-calorie "instant" energy drink that can be taken in one swallow (or "shot"), as opposed to energy drinks that encourage users to drink an entire can, which may contain 250 calories or more.
Caffeinated alcoholic drink
Energy drinks such as Red Bull are often used as mixers with alcoholic beverages, producing mixed drinks such as Vodka Red Bull which are similar to but stronger than rum and coke with respect to the amount of caffeine that they contain. Sometimes this is configured as a bomb shot, such as the Jägerbomb or the F-Bomb — Fireball Cinnamon Whisky and Red Bull. They are also sold in a wide variety of formulations such as Four Loko and Joose which combine caffeine and alcohol.
Several beverages have been marketed in the 2000s as "anti-energy", "chill out", or "relaxation" drinks, including Lava Cola, Slow Cow, the Devante Wood, Drank, Marley's Mellow Mood, the Mackenley Shooter, Mary Jane's Relaxing Soda, Chill, Calm, Malava Kava, V.i.B., Relax by Rockstar and Jones Gaba. They are growing in popularity, with sales doubling from 2008 to 2010, and expected to more than double again by 2014. They contain ingredients such as theanine and melatonin.
In 2011 in the U.S., energy drinks were linked to 20,000 emergency room visits. In 42% of those cases, the patient had mixed energy drinks with another stimulant, and in the other 58% of cases the energy drink was the only thing that had been consumed.
Energy drinks have the effects caffeine and sugar provide, but there is little or no evidence that the wide variety of other ingredients have any effect. However, a variety of physiological and psychological effects have been attributed to energy drinks and their ingredients. Two studies reported significant improvements in mental and cognitive performances as well as increased subjective alertness.
Excessive consumption of energy drinks may induce mild to moderate euphoria primarily caused by stimulant properties of caffeine and may also induce agitation, anxiety, irritability and insomnia.
Restorative properties were shown by a combination of caffeine and the sugar glucose in an energy drink, and some degree of synergy between the cognition-modulating effects of glucose and caffeine was also suggested.
Consumption of a single energy drink will not lead to excessive caffeine intake, but consumption of two or more drinks in a single day can. Other stimulants such as ginseng are often added to energy drinks and may enhance the effects of caffeine, and ingredients such as guarana themselves contain caffeine. Adverse effects associated with caffeine consumption in amounts greater than 400 mg include nervousness, irritability, sleeplessness, increased urination, abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmia), and dyspepsia. Consumption also has been known to cause pupil dilation when taken with certain antidepressants or SSRIs.
Most mainstream energy drinks do not provide electrolytes, and have a higher likelihood of an energy "crash-and-burn" effect. Caffeine in energy drinks can cause the excretion of water from the body to dilute high concentrations of sugar entering the blood stream, leading to dehydration. If the body is dehydrated by 1%, performance is decreased by up to 10%.
In the US, energy drinks have been linked with reports of nausea, abnormal heart rhythms and emergency room visits. The drinks may cause seizures due to the "crash" following the energy high that occurs after consumption. Caffeine dosage is not required to be on the product label for food in the United States, unlike drugs, but some advocates are urging the FDA to change this practice.
Interactions with alcohol
Energy drinks can mask the influence of alcohol and a person may misinterpret their actual level of intoxication. In fact, people who drink mixers are more likely than non-mixers to drink more alcohol, and are also more likely to suffer alcohol-related consequences such as injury or being an intoxicated driver, even after adjusting for the number of drinks. Although people decide to drink energy drinks with alcohol with the intent of counteracting alcohol intoxication, another large majority do so to hide the taste of alcohol. Researchers at the Human Performance Laboratory have suggested people refrain from mixing such powerful stimulants with alcohol, they believe it might cause cardiopulmonary or cardiovascular failures.
Health experts say caffeine prevents sleepiness and delays the feeling of drunkenness normally experienced when drinking alcohol, causing some people to continue drinking after they normally would have stopped. Caffeine is a very mild diuretic in comparison with alcohol, but some experts believe that mixing energy drinks with alcohol can cause greater dehydration than alcohol alone.
Through separate mechanisms, energy drinks act as stimulants, and alcohol as depressants. Mixing a depressant with a stimulant can cause cardiac problems such as heart arrhythmia. In addition, energy drinks can lessen some of the subjective effects of alcohol while making the drinker feel more stimulated and less fatigued. However, they may be unable to counteract some of the psychomotor impairments of alcohol intoxication.
Physical and chemical properties
Energy drinks generally contain methylxanthines (including caffeine), B vitamins, carbonated water, and high-fructose corn syrup (for non-diet versions). Other commonly used ingredients are guarana, yerba mate, açaí, and taurine, plus various forms of ginseng, maltodextrin, inositol, carnitine, creatine, glucuronolactone, sucralose and ginkgo biloba.
Some energy drink manufacturers do not report how much caffeine their products contain. One survey found that various energy drinks had from 6-242 milligrams (mg) of caffeine per serving. In comparison, an 8 US fluid ounces (240 ml) cup of coffee contains 100 mg of caffeine and 12 US fluid ounces (350 ml) of Coca-Cola Classic contains 35 mg of caffeine. Consumer Reports expected that the caffeine content of a beverage should be within 20% of what the label claims, but product testing on United States energy drinks found that the caffeine levels of some energy drinks vary beyond that range. A major producer of energy drinks in the United States explained that they do not report caffeine levels because "there is no legal or commercial business requirement to do so, and also because our products are completely safe, and the actual numbers are not meaningful to most consumers." Scientific groups and consumer organizations have requested more disclosure in ingredient lists.
Frequency of use
Globally, energy drinks are typically attractive to young people. Approximately 66 percent of consumers are between the ages of 13 and 35 years, with males being approximately 65 percent of the market. A 2008 statewide Patient Poll conducted by the Pennsylvania Medical Society's Institute for Good Medicine found that: 20 percent of respondents aged between 21 and 30 had used energy drinks in high school or college to stay awake longer to study, or to write a paper; and 70 percent of respondents knew someone who had used an energy drink to stay awake longer to study or work.
US research by Packaged Facts in 2012 showed that consumers aged between 18 and 34 years, men, Hispanics, Pacific region residents and adults with children in the household were the demographic groups that were using the highest amounts of energy drinks.
Energy drinks were an active subset of the early soft drink industry; Pepsi, for instance, was originally marketed as an energy booster. Coca-Cola's name was derived from its two active ingredients, both known stimulants: coca leaves and kola nuts (a source of caffeine). Fresh coca leaves were replaced by "spent" ones in 1904 because of concerns over the use of cocaine in food products; the federal lawsuit United States v. Forty Barrels and Twenty Kegs of Coca-Cola pressured The Coca-Cola Company into reducing the amount of caffeine in its formula by 1916. These developments brought an end to the first wave of energy drinks.
In the UK, Lucozade Energy was originally introduced in 1929 as a hospital drink for "aiding the recovery;" in the early 1980s, it was promoted as an energy drink for "replenishing lost energy." One of the first post-Forty Barrels energy drinks introduced in America was Dr. Enuf. Its origins date back to 1949, when a Chicago businessman named William Mark Swartz was urged by coworkers to formulate a soft drink fortified with vitamins as an alternative to sugar sodas full of empty calories. He developed an "energy booster" drink containing B vitamins, caffeine and cane sugar. After placing a notice in a trade magazine seeking a bottler, he formed a partnership with Charles Gordon of Tri-City Beverage to produce and distribute the soda. Dr. Enuf is still being manufactured in Johnson City, Tennessee and sold sparsely throughout the nation.
In Japan, the energy drink dates at least as far back as the early 1960s, with the launch of the Lipovitan brand. However, in Japan, most of the products of this kind bear little resemblance to soft drinks, and are sold instead in small brown glass medicine bottles, or cans styled to resemble such containers. These "eiyō dorinku" (literally, "nutritional drinks") are marketed primarily to salarymen. Bacchus-F, a South Korean drink closely modeled after Lipovitan, also appeared in the early 1960s and targets a similar demographic.
In 1985, Jolt Cola was introduced in the United States. Its marketing strategy centered on the drink's caffeine content, billing it as a means to promote wakefulness. The drink's initial slogan read: "All the sugar and twice the caffeine."
In 1995, PepsiCo launched Josta, the first energy drink introduced by a major US beverage company (one that had interests outside energy drinks), but Pepsi discontinued the product in 1999. Pepsi would later return to the energy drink market with the AMP brand.
In Europe, energy drinks were pioneered by the Lisa company and a product named "Power Horse", before Dietrich Mateschitz, an Austrian entrepreneur, introduced the Red Bull product, a worldwide bestseller in the 21st century. Mateschitz developed Red Bull based on the Thai drink Krating Daeng, itself based on Lipovitan. Red Bull became the dominant brand in the US after its introduction in 1997, with a market share of approximately 47% in 2005.
UK supermarkets have launched their own brands of energy drinks, sold at lower prices than the major soft drink manufacturers, that are mostly produced by Canadian beverage maker Cott. Tesco supermarkets sell "Kx" (formerly known as "Kick"), Sainsbury's sell "Blue Bolt" and Asda sell "Blue Charge"—all three drinks are sold in 250-milliliter cans and 1-liter bottles—while Morrison's sell "Source" in 250-milliliter cans. Cott sells a variety of other branded energy drinks to independent retailers in various containers.
Since 2002, there has been a growing trend for packaging energy drinks in bigger cans. In many countries, including the US and Canada, there is a limitation on the maximum caffeine per serving in energy drinks, so manufacturers include a greater amount of caffeine by including multiple servings per container. Popular brands such as Red Bull, Hype Energy Drinks and Monster have increased the amount of ounces per can.
The energy shot product, an offshoot of the energy drink, was launched in the US with products such as "5-Hour Energy," which was first released onto the market in 2004. A consumer health analyst explained in a March 2014 media article: "Energy shots took off because of energy drinks. If you’re a white collar worker, you’re not necessarily willing to down a big Monster energy drink, but you may drink an energy shot."
In 2007, energy drink powders and effervescent tablets were introduced, whereby either can be added to water to create an energy drink. As of 2009, the industry has moved towards the use of natural stimulants and reduced sugar.
Energy drinks are also popular as drink mixers—Red Bull and vodka is a popular combination. In the US, a product called "Four Loko" formerly mixed beer with caffeine, while Kahlua is a coffee-flavored alcoholic beverage.
Society and culture
Market research firm Euromonitor calculated that the global energy drink market was worth US$3.8 billion in 1999 and this value grew to US$27.5 billion in 2013.
In 2000 the US energy drink market was worth US$350 million and data from the Packaged Facts company shows that the industry grew by 60 percent between 2008 and 2012 in the US—by 2012 total US sales were over US$12.5 Billion. Red Bull and Monster were the two best-selling brands in 2012, accounting for nearly 80% of US energy drink sales, and the energy shot market is worth over US$1 billion in 2014.
Regulation of sale
The energy drink Red Bull did not get market approval in France after the death of an 18-year-old Irish athlete, Ross Cooney, who died within hours after playing a basketball game and consuming four cans of the product. This market approval was challenged in the European Court of Justice in 2004, and consequently lifted. Norway did not allow Red Bull for a time, although this restriction has recently been relaxed. The United Kingdom investigated the drink, but only issued a warning against its consumption by children and pregnant women.
In November 2012, President Ramzan Kadyrov of Chechnya (Russian Federation) ordered his government to develop a bill banning the sale of energy drinks, arguing that as a form of "intoxicating drug", such drinks were "unacceptable in a Muslim society". Kadyrov cited reports of one death and 530 hospital admissions in 2012 due to "poisoning" from the consumption of such drinks. A similar view was expressed by Gennady Onishchenko, Chief Sanitary Inspector of Russia.
In 2009, a school in Hove, England requested that local shops refrain from selling energy drinks to students. Headteacher Malvina Sanders added that "This was a preventative measure, as all research shows that consuming high-energy drinks can have a detrimental impact on the ability of young people to concentrate in class." The school negotiated for their local branch of the Tesco supermarket to display posters asking students not to purchase the products. Similar measures were taken by a school in Oxted, England, which banned students from consuming drinks and sent letters to parents.
Some countries have certain restrictions on the sale and manufacture of energy drinks. In Australia and New Zealand, energy drinks are regulated under the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code; limiting the caffeine content of 'formulated caffeinated beverages' (energy drinks) at 320 mg/L (9.46 mg/oz) and soft-drinks at 145 mg/L (4.29 mg/oz). Mandatory caffeine labeling is issued for all food products containing guarana in the country, and Australian energy drink labels warn consumers to drink no more than two cans per day.
On June 7, 2012, the parliament of Latvia approved changes in the legislation of sale of consumable goods, to prohibit sale of energy drinks to persons under the age of 18.
As of 2013 in the United States some energy drinks, including Monster Energy and Rockstar Energy, were reported to be rebranding their products as beverages rather than as dietary supplements. As beverages they would be relieved of F.D.A. reporting requirements with respect to deaths and injuries and can be purchased with food stamps, but must list ingredients on the can.
In May 2014 Lithuania became the first state in the world to explicitly ban selling energy drinks to minors below 18 years of age, effective November. An energy drink is described as any beverage containing at least 150 mg/L of caffeine.
Ban on caffeinated alcoholic beverages
Some places ban the sale of prepackaged caffeinated alcoholic beverages, which can be described as energy drinks containing alcohol. In response to these bans, the marketers can change the formula of their products.
During repeated cycling tests in young healthy adults an energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance. It has been suggested that reversal of caffeine withdrawal is a major component of the effects of caffeine on mood and performance.
Two articles concluded that the improved information processing and other effects could not be explained in terms of the restoration of plasma caffeine levels to normal following caffeine withdrawal.
In one experiment, a glucose-based energy drink (containing caffeine, taurine and glucuronolactone) was given to eleven tired participants being tested in a driving simulator. Lane drifting and reaction times were measured for two hours post-treatment and showed significant improvement.
In November 2010, the University of Texas Medical School at Houston reported that energy drinks contain more caffeine than a strong cup of coffee, and that the caffeine combined with other ingredients (sometimes not reported correctly on labels) such as guarana, taurine, other herbs, vitamins and minerals may interact. Caffeinated alcoholic beverages like energy drinks mixed with alcohol, may affect heart rates, blood pressure and even mental states. The caffeine content of energy drinks range from 80–300 mg per 16-oz serving whereas a 16-oz cup of coffee can contain 70–200 mg.
- "How much is too much?". mayoclinic.org. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Smith, Leesa (3 September 2014). "'My heart just hit the floor': A mother's pain after her son died from drinking FOUR energy drinks daily... as a doctor warns no more than two caffeinated beverages per day". Daily Mail Australia. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- Meier, Barry (1 January 2013). "Energy Drinks Promise Edge, but Experts Say Proof Is Scant". The New York Times (New York: NYTC). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "Caffeinated Cocktails: Energy Drink Consumption". Wiley Online Library. Wiley Online Library. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2011). "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to taurine and "immune system protection" (ID 611), "metabolism processes" (ID 613), contribution to normal cognitive function (ID 1659), maintenance of normal cardiac function (ID 1661), maintenance of normal muscle function (ID 1949) and delay in the onset of physical fatigue during exercise (ID 1958) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006". EFSA Journal 9 (4): 2035 [19 pp.] doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2035. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- Klineman, Jeffrey (2008-04-30). ""Little competition: energy shots aim for big" profits". Bevnet.com. Retrieved 2013-05-24.
- Marczinski, CA; Fillmore, MT; Bardgett, ME; Howard, MA (2011). "Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on behavioral control: Risks for college students consuming trendy cocktails". Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 35 (7): 1282–92. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01464.x. PMC 3117195. PMID 21676002.
- Hoare, Peter (January 9, 2014). "5 Awesome Drinks You Can Make With Fireball Cinnamon Whisky". Food & drinks. MTV. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- FDA (Last Updated: 11/03/2010). "List of Manufacturers of Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 11 November 2010. Check date values in:
- Zezima, Katie (October 26, 2010). "A Mix Attractive to Students and Partygoers". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
- Bruni, Frank (October 30, 2010). "Caffeine and Alcohol: Wham! Bam! Boozled.". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
- Morning Edition (2009-12-30). "What To Drink When You Want Less Energy". NPR. Retrieved 2010-03-22.
- Eric Wahlgren, Adios, Red Bull? Anti-energy drinks seek to soothe frazzled Americans, DailyFinance, October 7, 2009
- Eunju Lie (2011-07-19). "Relaxation drinks see energetic growth in U.S.". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-20.
- Jennifer Nelson, M.S., R.D. and Katherine Zeratsky, R.D. (2010-03-06). "Relaxation drinks: Does calm come in a can?". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2011-07-20.
- Study: 20K ER Visits Linked to Energy Drinks in 2011, ABC News, January 16, 2013
- Howard, MA; Marczinski, CA (2010). "Acute effects of a glucose energy drink on behavioral control". Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology 18 (6): 553–61. doi:10.1037/a0021740. PMID 21186930.
- Alford, C; Cox, H; Wescott, R (2001). "The effects of red bull energy drink on human performance and mood". Amino Acids 21 (2): 139–50. doi:10.1007/s007260170021. PMID 11665810.
- Van Den Eynde, F; Van Baelen, PC; Portzky, M; Audenaert, K (2008). "The effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance". Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie 50 (5): 273–81. PMID 18470842.
- Smit, HJ; Grady, ML; Finnegan, YE; Hughes, SA; Cotton, JR; Rogers, PJ (2006). "Role of familiarity on effects of caffeine- and glucose-containing soft drinks". Physiology & behavior 87 (2): 287–97. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.10.017. PMID 16388831.
- Scholey, AB; Kennedy, DO (2004). "Cognitive and physiological effects of an "energy drink": An evaluation of the whole drink and of glucose, caffeine and herbal flavouring fractions". Psychopharmacology 176 (3–4): 320–30. doi:10.1007/s00213-004-1935-2. PMID 15549275.
- Winston, AP (2005). "Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 11 (6): 432. doi:10.1192/apt.11.6.432.
- [dead link]
- Loeb, Heather (2009). Do the Ingredients in Energy Drinks Work?. MensHealth.com. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
- "Sport Diet Dilemmas". WINForum.org. pp. 12–13. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
- Taste for Quick Boost Tied to Taste for Risk
- Iyadurai, SJ; Chung, SS (2007). "New-onset seizures in adults: Possible association with consumption of popular energy drinks". Epilepsy & behavior 10 (3): 504–8. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2007.01.009. PMID 17349826.
- Warning: Energy Drinks Contain Caffeine by Allison Aubrey. Morning Edition, National Public Radio, 24 September 2008.
- "Energy Drinks: Ingredients, Dangers, Reviews, & Comparisons". Citynet Magazine. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- O'Brien, MC; McCoy, TP; Rhodes, SD; Wagoner, A; Wolfson, M (2008). "Caffeinated cocktails: Energy drink consumption, high-risk drinking, and alcohol-related consequences among college students". Academic Emergency Medicine 15 (5): 453–60. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00085.x. PMID 18439201.
- Ball State University (2001, November 16). Combining Energy Drinks With Alcohol Potentially Dangerous.. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
- Shrieves, Linda (2010-11-18). "Why mixing alcohol and caffeine is so deadly — Orlando Sentinel". Articles.orlandosentinel.com. Retrieved 2012-10-21.
- "ALCOHOL AND ENERGY DRINKS WARNING". September 21, 2011.
- Ferreira, SE; De Mello, MT; Pompéia, S; De Souza-Formigoni, ML (2006). "Effects of energy drink ingestion on alcohol intoxication". Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 30 (4): 598–605. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2006.00070.x. PMID 16573577. Sometimes this is configured as a bomb shot, such as the Jägerbomb.
- Marczinski, CA; Fillmore, MT (2006). "Clubgoers and their trendy cocktails: Implications of mixing caffeine into alcohol on information processing and subjective reports of intoxication". Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology 14 (4): 450–8. doi:10.1037/1064-1218.104.22.1680. PMID 17115872.
- Consumer Reports (December 2012). "Energy Drinks - Caffeine Levels". consumerreports.org. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- Heckman, Melanie A.; Weil, Jorge; De Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez (2010). "Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in Foods: A Comprehensive Review on Consumption, Functionality, Safety, and Regulatory Matters". Journal of Food Science 75 (3): R77–87. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01561.x. PMID 20492310.
- Mintel Energy Drink Report 2006, 07.05.06
- Pennsylvania Medical Society (19 September 2008). "Energy Drinks "" Busting Your Health for the Buzz". Newswise. Newswise, Inc. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Energy Drink Trends". ReportLinker. January 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Ronald Hamowy (2007), Government and public health in America (illustrated ed.), Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 140–141, ISBN 978-1-84542-911-9
- Fred W. Sauceman (1 March 2009). The Place Setting: Timeless Tastes of the Mountain South, from Bright Hope to Frog Level. Mercer University Press. pp. 89–. ISBN 978-0-88146-140-4.
- , Official Jolt website, 10 Nov 2011.
- Soda With Buzz, Forbes, Kerry A. Dolan, 03.28.05
- "Our brands - V". Frucor. Retrieved 2013-05-24.
- Roberto A. Ferdman (26 March 2014). "The American energy drink craze in two highly caffeinated charts". Quartz. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Clare O'Connor (8 February 2012). "The Mystery Monk Making Billions With 5-Hour Energy". Forbes. Forbes LLC. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Italie, Leanne. "F-bomb makes it into mainstream dictionary". The Washington Times. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "French ban on Red Bull (drink) upheld by European Court". Medicalnewstoday.com. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
- "Kadyrov Vows to Ban Energy Drinks". The Moscow Times. November 21, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
- "Pupils facing energy drink 'ban'". BBC News. 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- "Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code - Standard 2.6.4 - Formulated Caffeinated Beverages - F2009C00814". comlaw.gov.au. Department of Health and Ageing (Australia). 13 Aug 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- Pogson, Jenny (9 May 2012). "Energy drinks pack more punch than you might expect". ABC. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- "Plenary agenda of the Latvian parliament, June 7, 2012".
- Barry Meier (March 19, 2013). "In a New Aisle, Energy Drinks Sidestep Some Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- Forbes, SC; Candow, DG; Little, JP; Magnus, C; Chilibeck, PD (2007). "Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance". International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 17 (5): 433–44. PMID 18046053.
- Yeomans, MR; Ripley, T; Davies, LH; Rusted, JM; Rogers, PJ (2002). "Effects of caffeine on performance and mood depend on the level of caffeine abstinence". Psychopharmacology 164 (3): 241–9. doi:10.1007/s00213-002-1204-1. PMID 12424547.
- Seidl, R; Peyrl, A; Nicham, R; Hauser, E (2000). "A taurine and caffeine-containing drink stimulates cognitive performance and well-being". Amino Acids 19 (3–4): 635–42. doi:10.1007/s007260070013. PMID 11140366.
- Warburton, DM; Bersellini, E; Sweeney, E (2001). "An evaluation of a caffeinated taurine drink on mood, memory and information processing in healthy volunteers without caffeine abstinence". Psychopharmacology 158 (3): 322–8. doi:10.1007/s002130100884. PMID 11713623.
- Horne, JA; Reyner, LA (2001). "Beneficial effects of an "energy drink" given to sleepy drivers". Amino Acids 20 (1): 83–9. doi:10.1007/s007260170068. PMID 11310933.
- Mayo Clin Proc. 85 (11): 1033–1041. 2010. Missing or empty
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Energy drinks.|