Chillán

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Chillán
City and Commune
Ciudad de Chillán.png
Coat of arms of Chillán
Coat of arms
Location of the Chillán commune in the Biobío Region
Location of the Chillán commune in the Biobío Region
Chillán is located in Chile
Chillán
Chillán
Location in Chile
Coordinates: 36°36′S 72°07′W / 36.600°S 72.117°W / -36.600; -72.117Coordinates: 36°36′S 72°07′W / 36.600°S 72.117°W / -36.600; -72.117
Country Chile
Region Bio Bío
Province Ñuble
Founded 1580
Founded by Martín Ruiz de Gamboa
Government[1][2]
 • Type Municipality
 • Alcalde Sergio Zarzar Andonie (ILE)
Area[3]
 • Total 511.2 km2 (197.4 sq mi)
Elevation 124 m (407 ft)
Population (2012 Census)[3]
 • Total 174,777
 • Density 340/km2 (890/sq mi)
 • Urban 148,015
 • Rural 13,938
Demonym Chillanejo or Chillanense
Sex[3]
 • Men 77,007
 • Women 84,946
Time zone CLT (UTC−4)
 • Summer (DST) CLST (UTC−3)
Postal code 3780000
Area code(s) country + city = 56 + 42[4]
Website Official website (Spanish)

Chillán (Spanish pronunciation: [tʃiˈʎan] or [ʃiˈʝan]) is a city in the Bio Bío Region of Chile located about 400 km (249 mi) south of the country's capital, Santiago, near the geographical center of the country. It is the capital of Ñuble Province and, with a population of approximately 175,000 people (253,000 the Chillán Conurbation for 2012), the most populated urban center of this province. Within the city are a railway station, an inter-city bus terminal, an agricultural extension of the University of Concepción, and a regimental military base. The city includes a modern-style enclosed shopping mall in addition to the multi-block open-air street market where fruits, vegetables, crafts and clothing are sold. The nearby mountains are a popular skiing destination.

History[edit]

Chillán was founded in 1580 at the site of Chillán Viejo as San Bartolomé de Chillán by Martín Ruiz de Gamboa, who was campaigning against the local indigenous peoples at the time. However, this moniker did not fare well, and was replaced by the current name, which in the local Indian language means "where the Sun is sitting".

From its foundation, Chillán has been at the heart of Chile's rich agricultural region. It is also in a region of seismic activity, suffering from devastating earthquakes throughout its history; the 1939 Chillán earthquake left over 30,000 dead and mobilized international help.

Chile's national hero, Bernardo O'Higgins, was born in Chillán in 1778. He was the force behind Chile's Independence from Spain, being elected Supreme Director and declaring independence after the Battle of Chacabuco against the Spanish in 1817. His later victory at the Maipo battlefield cemented the country's freedom. He died in exile in Peru in 1842.

Climate[edit]

Chillán has a mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa).[5] Winters are cool but mild with a July average of 8.5 °C (47.3 °F). Most of the precipitation falls during this time of the year with May to July being the wettest months, averaging over 200 millimetres (8 in).[6] Summers on the other hand are dry and warm with a January average of 22.4 °C (72.3 °F) and during this time, precipitation is rare, averaging only 2-3 days per month from December to February. Temperatures can occasionally exceed 30 °C (86.0 °F) anytime from October to April. The average annual precipitation is 1,128 millimetres (44 in) but it is highly variable from year to year with 1982 being the wettest year at 1,813 millimetres (71 in) and 1998 being the driest year at only 473 millimetres (19 in).[6]

Climate data for Chillán
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.8
(100)
37.2
(99)
34.8
(94.6)
31.6
(88.9)
27.0
(80.6)
21.4
(70.5)
20.0
(68)
24.7
(76.5)
27.2
(81)
31.4
(88.5)
32.8
(91)
35.2
(95.4)
37.8
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 28.5
(83.3)
28.1
(82.6)
25.4
(77.7)
20.2
(68.4)
15.3
(59.5)
12.3
(54.1)
11.9
(53.4)
13.9
(57)
16.5
(61.7)
19.3
(66.7)
22.7
(72.9)
26.2
(79.2)
20.0
(68)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
21.6
(70.9)
19.3
(66.7)
15.1
(59.2)
11.6
(52.9)
9.1
(48.4)
8.5
(47.3)
10.2
(50.4)
12.4
(54.3)
14.8
(58.6)
17.7
(63.9)
20.8
(69.4)
15.3
(59.5)
Average low °C (°F) 12.2
(54)
11.3
(52.3)
9.6
(49.3)
7.4
(45.3)
6.5
(43.7)
5.1
(41.2)
4.1
(39.4)
4.8
(40.6)
5.9
(42.6)
7.5
(45.5)
9.3
(48.7)
11.6
(52.9)
7.9
(46.2)
Record low °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
0.9
(33.6)
0.0
(32)
−2.5
(27.5)
−5.0
(23)
−4.6
(23.7)
−5.5
(22.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
−5.0
(23)
−1.2
(29.8)
0.0
(32)
2.2
(36)
−5.5
(22.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 14.9
(0.587)
17.9
(0.705)
26.2
(1.031)
70.1
(2.76)
216.4
(8.52)
236.5
(9.311)
201.4
(7.929)
117.6
(4.63)
97.1
(3.823)
68.5
(2.697)
38.2
(1.504)
22.8
(0.898)
1,127.6
(44.394)
Avg. precipitation days 2 2 3 7 13 14 14 11 9 7 4 3 89
 % humidity 50 53 58 68 80 85 83 78 72 67 60 54 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 359.6 296.6 260.4 177.0 120.9 87.0 105.4 142.6 183.0 229.4 282.0 334.8 2,578.7
Source #1: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile[6]
Source #2: Universidad de Chile (sunshine hours only)[7]

The air in Chillán is the fourth-most polluted in Chile, after Santiago, Temuco, and Concepción. "As in Temuco, the main cause of air pollution in Chillán is the use of wood-burning stoves: about 62% of all households in Chillán use firewood as their main source of heating."[8]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2002 census by the National Statistics Institute, the commune of Chillán spans an area of 511.2 km2 (197 sq mi) and has 161,953 inhabitants (77,007 men and 84,946 women). Of these, 148,015 (91.4%) lived in urban areas and 1,938 (8.6%) in rural areas. The population grew by 8.3% (12,442 persons) between the 1992 and 2002 censuses.[3]

The demonym for a person from Chillán, used for more than 400 years by local residents, is Chillanejo, yet this is not found in the Royal Spanish Academy Dictionary, which only recognizes Chillanense.[9]

Notable people[edit]

In addition, Chillán has offered a number of great artists to the world. A very notable example is Claudio Arrau, the world famous pianist. Additionally there is Ramón Vinay, the tenor who was "the" Otello of the 1950s. His recording of the role with Toscanini is a perennial classic. He was a regular at the New York's Metropolitan Opera, where he sang both tenor and baritone roles. One of his last performances at this house was as the Barber of Seville's Basilio, a bass role. He retired from the stage in 1969, in a performance of Otello at Santiago's Municipal Theatre.

Other "chillanejos" are also part of Chile's best artistic and literary traditions: writer Marta Brunet, sculptor Marta Colvin, painter Pacheco Altamirano; and numerous others who, however, did not reach the international acclaim achieved by Arrau and Vinay.

Administration[edit]

As a commune, Chillán is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde who is directly elected every four years. The 2008-2012 alcalde is Sergio Zarzar Andonie (ILE).[1][2]

Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Chillán is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Carlos Abel Jarpa (PRSD) and Rosauro Martínez (RN) as part of the 41st electoral district, (together with Coihueco, Pinto, San Ignacio, El Carmen, Pemuco, Yungay and Chillán Viejo). The commune is represented in the Senate by Victor Pérez Varela (UDI) and Mariano Ruiz -Esquide Jara (PDC) as part of the 13th senatorial constituency (Biobío-Coast).

Transport[edit]

Nowadays, the city of Chillán is connected to Chile's capital Santiago by both a modern highway and a rebuilt railway system that makes the trip in less than five hours.

Gallery[edit]

Cathedral of Chillán
Cathedral of Chillán 
Store "Casa García"
Store "Casa García" 
Shopping in Chillán
Shopping in Chillán 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Asociación Chilena de Municipalidades" (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 February 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Municipality of Chillán" (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 February 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d "National Statistics Institute" (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 September 2010. 
  4. ^ Call prefix for Chillán
  5. ^ Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved December 22, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c "Estadisca Climatologica Tomo II" (in Spanish). Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil. March 2001. Retrieved December 24, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Medias mensuales de horas de sol diarias extraıdas del WRDC para las ciudades Chilenas" (PDF) (in Spanish). Universidad de Chile. September 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2014. 
  8. ^ Severe air pollution plagues Chilean cities Friday, June 29th 2007 - 21:00 UTC]
  9. ^ Chillanense - DRAE (Royal Spanish Academy Dictionary)

External links[edit]