Chimantá Massif

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Chimantá Massif
Chimantá Massif is located in Venezuela
Chimantá Massif
Chimantá Massif
Location in Venezuela
Elevation 2,698 m (8,852 ft)[1]
Location
Location Bolívar, Venezuela
Coordinates 05°15′48″N 62°08′52″W / 5.26333°N 62.14778°W / 5.26333; -62.14778Coordinates: 05°15′48″N 62°08′52″W / 5.26333°N 62.14778°W / 5.26333; -62.14778

The Chimantá Massif is a highly fragmented complex of tepuis in Bolívar state, Venezuela. The massif comprises around 11 tepuis[2] and has a total summit area of 615 km2 (237 sq mi) and an estimated slope area of 915 km2 (353 sq mi).[3] It is divided in two by the Río Tírica, with the northern section being both larger and higher. The massif is notable for its high species richness and for its varied habitat types.[3] It reaches an elevation of 2,698 metres (8,852 ft)[1] on its highest peak, Murey-tepui (also known as Eruoda-tepui).[3] The massif is situated entirely within the bounds of Canaima National Park.[4] It hosts extensive cave systems, including the world's largest known quartzite cave, Cueva Charles Brewer, named after discoverer Charles Brewer-Carías.[5][6][7] The processes behind their speleogenesis are the subject of some debate.[8][9][10]

The isolated southern peaks of Angasima-tepui and Upuigma-tepui are sometimes considered part of the Chimantá Massif.[4][11]

Tepuis[edit]

The major tepuis of the northern and southern parts of the Chimantá Massif are listed below. Coordinates given correspond to the approximate centre points of the tepui summit plateaus. Unless otherwise indicated, all information in the tables is sourced from Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana.[3]

Northern group[edit]

Name Coordinates Maximum elevation Summit area
Abacapá-tepui 05°11′04″N 62°17′51″W / 5.18444°N 62.29750°W / 5.18444; -62.29750 (Abacapá-tepui) 2,400 m (7,900 ft) 28.13 km2 (10.86 sq mi)
Agparamán-tepui 05°14′50″N 62°12′29″W / 5.24722°N 62.20806°W / 5.24722; -62.20806 (Agparamán-tepui) 2,400 m (7,900 ft) 22.5 km2 (8.7 sq mi)
Apacará-tepui 05°19′12″N 62°13′43″W / 5.32000°N 62.22861°W / 5.32000; -62.22861 (Apacará-tepui) 2,450 m (8,040 ft) 173.12 km2 (66.84 sq mi)
Chimantá-tepui 05°16′37″N 62°07′52″W / 5.27694°N 62.13111°W / 5.27694; -62.13111 (Chimantá-tepui) 2,550 m (8,370 ft) 93.75 km2 (36.20 sq mi)
Murey-tepui 05°22′36″N 62°05′36″W / 5.37667°N 62.09333°W / 5.37667; -62.09333 (Murey-tepui) 2,698 m (8,852 ft)[1] 51.25 km2 (19.79 sq mi)
Tirepón-tepui 05°22′04″N 62°01′12″W / 5.36778°N 62.02000°W / 5.36778; -62.02000 (Tirepón-tepui) ±2,600 m (8,500 ft) 8.75 km2 (3.38 sq mi)
Toronó-tepui 05°12′42″N 62°10′33″W / 5.21167°N 62.17583°W / 5.21167; -62.17583 (Toronó-tepui) 2,500 m (8,200 ft) 59.38 km2 (22.93 sq mi)

An additional plateau, Sarvén-tepui, may be distinguished to the east of Chimantá-tepui (05°17′55″N 62°04′17″W / 5.29861°N 62.07139°W / 5.29861; -62.07139 (Sarvén-tepui)).[3]

Southern group[edit]

Name Coordinates Maximum elevation Summit area
Acopán-tepui 05°10′55″N 62°02′42″W / 5.18194°N 62.04500°W / 5.18194; -62.04500 (Akopán-tepui) 2,200 m (7,200 ft) 92.5 km2 (35.7 sq mi)
Amurí-tepui 05°08′57″N 62°07′16″W / 5.14917°N 62.12111°W / 5.14917; -62.12111 (Amurí-tepui) 2,200 m (7,200 ft) 36.88 km2 (14.24 sq mi)
Churí-tepui 05°15′12″N 62°00′41″W / 5.25333°N 62.01139°W / 5.25333; -62.01139 (Churí-tepui) 2,500 m (8,200 ft) 47.5 km2 (18.3 sq mi)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Nogué, S., V. Rull, E. Montoya, O. Huber & T. Vegas-Vilarrúbia (October 2009). Paleoecology of the Guayana Highlands (northern South America): Holocene pollen record from the Eruoda-tepui, in the Chimantá massif. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 281(1–2): 165–173. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.07.019
  2. ^ Briceño, H., C. Schubert & J. Paolini (1990). Table-mountain geology and surficial geochemistry: Chimantá Massif, Venezuelan Guayana Shield. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 3(4): 179–194. doi:10.1016/0895-9811(90)90002-I
  3. ^ a b c d e Huber, O. (1995). Geographical and physical features. In: P.E. Berry, B.K. Holst & K. Yatskievych (eds.) Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Volume 1. Introduction. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis. pp. 1–61.
  4. ^ a b (Spanish) Torres, I.N. & D.D. Martín (November 2007). Informe Final de la Evaluación del Parque Nacional Canaima, Venezuela, como Sitio de Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad. PDF Mejorando Nuestra Herencia.
  5. ^ Aubrecht, R., C. Brewer-Carías, B. Šmída, M. Audy & Ľ. Kováčik (30 January 2008). Anatomy of biologically mediated opal speleothems in the world's largest sandstone cave: Cueva Charles Brewer, Chimantá Plateau, Venezuela. Sedimentary Geology 203(3–4): 181–195. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2007.10.005
  6. ^ (Spanish) Brewer-Carías, C. (2011). El Sistema Charles Brewer: la cueva de cuarcita más grande del mundo. Río Verde 4: 67–84.
  7. ^ (Spanish) Brewer-Carías, C. (2010). El origen de los tepuyes: los hijos de las estrellas. Río Verde 3: 54–69.
  8. ^ Aubrecht, R., T. Lánczos, M. Gregor, J. Schlögl, B. Šmída, P. Liščák, C. Brewer-Carías & L. Vlček (15 September 2011). Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: return to pseudokarst? Geomorphology 132(3–4): 351–365. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.05.023
  9. ^ Sauro, F., L. Piccini, M. Mecchia & J. De Waele (2013). Comment on "Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: return to pseudokarst?" by R. Aubrecht, T. Lánczos, M. Gregor, J. Schlögl, B. Smída, P. Liscák, Ch. Brewer-Carías, L. Vlcek, Geomorphology 132 (2011), 351–365. Geomorphology, published online on 29 November 2012. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.11.015
  10. ^ Aubrecht, R., T. Lánczos, M. Gregor, J. Schlögl, B. Šmída, P. Liščák, C. Brewer-Carías & L. Vlček (2013). Reply to the comment on "Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: return to pseudokarst?". Geomorphology, published online on 30 November 2012. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.11.017
  11. ^ (Spanish) Adankasima. ClimTepuyes.

Further reading[edit]