China–Cuba relations

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Sino-Cuban relations relations
Map indicating locations of  Cuba  and  China

Cuba

China

Cuban–Chinese relations are the interstate relations between China and Cuba. The relations are based on trade, credits, and investments which have increased significantly since the 1990s. China is Cuba’s second largest trading partner after Venezuela. At a ceremonial trade gathering in Havana in early 2006, China’s ambassador to Cuba said “Our government has a firm position to develop trade co-operation between our countries. The policy, the orientation, has been determined. What’s left is the work to complete our plans.”[1]

Commerce[edit]

Bilateral trade between China and Cuba in 2005 totaled US$777 million, of which US$560 million were Chinese exports to Cuba.[2] China is sending a growing amount of durable goods to Cuba. Chinese goods have become the primary tools both in the planned revitalization of Cuban transport infrastructure and in the “Energy Revolution” of 2006 to provide electricity to the Cuban population. Some large-scale transactions include:

Transportation[edit]

As of mid-2006, Cuba had purchased 100 locomotives from China for US$130 million.[3][4]

As of early 2006, Cuba had signed a contract for 1,000 Chinese buses for urban and inter-provincial transportation.[5]

Refrigerators[edit]

The Cuban government is replacing older appliances with newer, more energy-efficient models, including (as of early 2006) 30,000 Chinese refrigerators.[6]

Investments[edit]

Nickel[edit]

As of 2004, China had agreed to planning to invest US$500 million in the completion and operation of Las Camariocas, an unfinished processing facility from the Soviet era. Under the agreement, Cubaníquel, the state-run nickel producer, owns 51 percent and Chinese-government owned Minmetals Corporation owns 49 percent. Financing for the project is from the China Development Bank, with Sinosure, the Chinese Export and Credit Insurance Corporation, providing guarantees.[7]

Oil[edit]

SINOPEC, the Chinese state oil company, has an agreement with state-owned CUPET (Cuba Petroleum) to develop oil resources. As of mid-2008, SINOPEC had done some seismic testing for oil resources on the island of Cuba, but no drilling.[8] The company also has a contract for joint production in one of Cuba's offshore areas of high potential yield, off the coast of Pinar del Río,[9] but had done no off-shore drilling as of mid-2008.[8]

In November 2005, PetroChina Great Wall Drilling Co., Ltd. and CUPET held a ceremony for the signing of two drilling service contracts, to provide di;[10] Great Wall Drilling has provided drilling rigs for oil exploration on Cuba's north coast.

Biotechnology[edit]

In December 2005, the two countries signed an agreement to develop biotech joint ventures within the next three to five years.[11] Two manufacturing plants using Cuban technology and processes, were operating in China as of early 2006.[12]

Political and military relations[edit]

In the late 1990s, China provided the Cuban government with equipment to block signals from Radio Martí.[13]

Chinese President Hu Jintao visited Cuba in November 2004.[14]

Chinese personnel have been operating two intelligence signal stations in Cuba since early 1999.[15]


Other Areas of Cooperation[edit]

  • Scientific and technical exchange and innovation in the industrial and agriculture sectors[16]
  • Cultural exchanges[17]
  • Medical, education and training exchanges[18]
  • Energy and transport infrastructure

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Marc Frank, "Trade With China Primes Cuba’s Engine for Change", The Financial Times, 29 March 2006
  2. ^ “Trade with China helps Cuba to move up a gear,” Financial Times, March 8, 2006
  3. ^ Fidel Castro Public Address, May 1, 2006, cited in "China Cuba ties report from Cuba Transition Project", Havana Journal, June 2, 2006
  4. ^ “12 Chinese locomotives arrive in Cuba,” People’s Daily, January 10, 2006
  5. ^ “Cuba to buy more vehicles from China,” Granma Internacional, February 17, 2006
  6. ^ “Entrega empresa china primer lote de refrigeradores para Cuba,” Granma Internacional, March 15, 2006
  7. ^ “China edges out Western investors in Cuba nickel,” Reuters, November 23, 2004
  8. ^ a b Erika Bolstad and Kevin G. Hall, "GOP claim about Chinese oil drilling off Cuba is untrue", McClatchy Newspapers, June 11, 2008
  9. ^ “Firman Cuba y China contrato para producción compartida de petróleo,” Granma Internacional, January 31, 2005
  10. ^ "PetroChina Great Wall Drilling Co. wins contracts in Cuba", China Chemical Reporter, November 26, 2005
  11. ^ “Pacto biotecnológico de Cuba y China,” Office of Cuba Broadcasting, December 29, 2005, cited in "China Cuba ties report from Cuba Transition Project", Havana Journal, June 2, 2006
  12. ^ "Cuban and Chinese Biotech have found pathways of mutual benefits", press release, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Havana, Cuba, January 20, 2006, retrieved June 13, 2008
  13. ^ “Those Men in Havana Are Now Chinese,” Wall Street Journal, July 30, 1999
  14. ^ “China’s Hu boosts Cuba ties in first visit,” Reuters, November 22, 2004
  15. ^ "China's electronic spy bases in Cuba", China Reform Monitor, No. 487, March 3, 2003, American Foreign Policy Council
  16. ^ http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WO1306/S00449/china-and-cuba-to-advance-cooperation-in-agriculture.htm
  17. ^ http://www.havanatimes.org/?p=95164
  18. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-06/28/c_132494498.htm

External links[edit]