China–Turkey relations

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Chinese-Turkish relations
Map indicating locations of People's Republic of China and Turkey

China

Turkey

Chinese–Turkish relations are foreign relations between China and Turkey. Turkey recognized the PRC on 5 August 1971. Turkey pursues One-China policy and recognizes the PRC as the sole legal representative of China. The PRC has an embassy in Ankara, and a consulate–general in Istanbul whereas Turkey has an embassy in Beijing and 2 consulates–general in Hong Kong and Shanghai. However, recently, because of China's recent conflicts with Turkic Uyghur separatists, relations have at times been strained.

History[edit]

In 1524 during the Ming dynasty in China, Beijing was visited by representatives of the Ottomans.[1]

During the Boxer rebellion, Boxer rebels killed a Turk, two Swiss, and an Italian in Baoding.[2]

A Chinese army unit with a large amount of Chinese Muslims, known as the Kansu Braves joined the Boxers to fight in the Boxer Rebellion against the invading Eight-Nation Alliance forces, which included German troops. The Muslim Kansu Braves and Boxers defeated the Alliance forces led by the German Captain von Usedom at the Battle of Langfang, forcing the Alliance to retreat and flee, and besieged the trapped Alliance forces during the Siege of the International Legations. It was only on the second expedition in the Gasalee Expedition did the Alliance manage to get through to battle the Chinese Muslim troops at the Battle of Peking. Kaiser Wilhelm II was so alarmed by the Chinese Muslim troops that he requested the Caliph Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire to find a way to stop the Muslim troops from fighting.The German Kaiser Wilhelm II was so alarmed by the Chinese Muslim troops that he requested the Caliph Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire to find a way to stop the Muslim troops from fighting. The Caliph agreed to the Kaiser's request and sent Enver Pasha (not the future Young Turk leader) to China in 1901, but the rebellion was over by that time.[3][4][5][6][7]

Korean War[edit]

Members of the Turkish Brigade move into position in December, 1950 during the Korean War.

During the Korean War a Turkish brigade served in the United Nations forces in support of South Korean and American forces and was attached to the U.S. 25th Infantry Division. Turkey was the second country, after the United States, to answer United Nations Resolution 83 requesting military aid to South Korea following the North Korean invasion. The Turkish government sent a brigade of 5,000 troops to fight under UN Command against North Korea and subsequently the People's Republic of China. The brigade fought in several important actions the Battle of Wawon and the battle of Kumyangjang-Ni (25–26 January 1950), in which they were defeated by the Chinese. The brigade was then awarded Unit Citations from South Korea and the United States.

Visits[edit]

On 28 November 2008, Jia Qinglin, China’s top political advisor and the chairman of the People's Political Consultative Conference, gave an official goodwill visit to Turkey as guest of Turkish Parliament Speaker Köksal Toptan. In Ankara, Jia met Turkish President Abdullah Gül and Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan. After visiting Ankara, Jia attended a business forum entitled "Turkish-Chinese Economic and Commercial Opportunities Forum" in İstanbul.[8]

Turkish President Abdullah Gül has become the first Turkish president to visit China in 14 years with his official visit between on 24–29 June 2009.[9][10] Gül said one of the major goals of his visit was to boost economic relations.[11] In Beijing, Gül hold talks with his Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao and attended a Turkey-China business forum.[12] Following the meetings, seven cooperation agreements were signed between the two countries in the fields of energy, banking, finance and culture.[13] After Beijing, Gül visited Xian, and he was awarded with an honorary doctorate by the Xian Northwest University.[14] In the third leg of his China trip, Gül visited Shenzhen.[15] Upon an invitation of the Beijing administration, Gül also visited Urumqi, and has become the first Turkish president visiting Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.[16]

2009 riots[edit]

Initially in response to the July 2009 Ürümqi riots, the Foreign Ministry of Turkey urged the Chinese authorities to find the perpetrators and bring them to justice.[17] But some officials disagreed: a deputy from ruling Justice & Development (AK) Party resigned from the Turkey-China Interparliamentary Friendship Group,[18] and in his personal capacity, Turkey's industry and trade minister called on Turks to boycott Chinese goods to protest the continuing ethnic violence,[19][20] to which the Chinese chargé d'affaires in Ankara expressed "surprise".[21] After daily demonstrations in Ankara and Istanbul, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan strengthened his rhetoric and said "These incidents in China are as if they are genocide. We ask the Chinese government not to remain a spectator to these incidents."[22] China demanded that Recep Tayyip Erdogan retract his accusation; editorials in the state-run China Daily pointed out that 137 of the 184 victims of the unrest were Han Chinese,[23] A phone conversation between China and Turkey's respective foreign ministers reaffirmed the importance of Turkish-Chinese relations, and Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said that Turkey did not intend "to interfere with the domestic affairs of China".[24]

Reconciliation[edit]

On October 7, 2010, China and Turkey signed eight cooperation agreements relating to trade, cultural and technical exchange, marine cooperation, and other things. At the signing ceremony attended by both of the countries' prime ministers, both pledged to increase bilateral trade to $50 billion by 2015, and to cooperate in building high-speed rail to link Ankara to Istanbul.[25] Later in November, Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu toured China for six days and met with his counterpart Yang Jiechi, after Chinese premier Wen Jiabao visited Turkey and upgraded the China–Turkey relationship to a "strategic partnership". Among the joint pledges the foreign ministers made in China were to start a Turkish industrial zone in Xinjiang[26] and to jointly crack down on separatism and terrorism, including on anti-China separatist activities in Turkey.[27] Commentators have cited these stronger ties as further proof of a realignment of Turkish foreign policy to the "East".[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chase, Kenneth Warren (2003). Firearms: A Global History to 1700 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 141. ISBN 0521822742. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Preston, Diana (2000). The Boxer Rebellion: The Dramatic Story of China's War on Foreigners That Shook the World in the Summer of 1900 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 58. ISBN 0802713610. Retrieved 24 April 2014. 
  3. ^ Kemal H. Karpat (2001). The politicization of Islam: reconstructing identity, state, faith, and community in the late Ottoman state. Oxford University Press US. p. 237. ISBN 0-19-513618-7. 
  4. ^ The Spectator, Volume 87. F.C. Westley. 1902. p. 243. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  5. ^ Harris, Lillian Craig (1993). China Considers the Middle East (illustrated ed.). I. B. Tauris. p. 56. ISBN 1850435987. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  6. ^ "The official Russian announcement that...". The Straits Times. 10 July 1901. p. 2. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  7. ^ The Moslem World, Volumes 1-3. Contributor Hartford Seminary Foundation. Hartford Seminary Foundation. 1966. p. 190. Retrieved 1 April 2013. 
  8. ^ "Top Chinese Advisor in Istanbul to Attend Business Forum". Cihan News Agency. 28 November 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  9. ^ "Turkish President Arrives in China for Official Visit". Cihan News Agency. 24 June 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  10. ^ "President Gul Arrives in China". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  11. ^ "Turkey Willing to be in Close Touch with Far-East". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  12. ^ "Presidents of Turkey, China Hold Talks". Cihan News Agency. 25 June 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  13. ^ "China, Turkey sign seven cooperation agreements". Cihan News Agency. 25 June 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009. 
  14. ^ "Turkey Pursues A Foreign Policy Safeguarding Security, President Gul". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  15. ^ "Turkish President Gul Visits Shenzhen, Third Leg of China trip". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  16. ^ "Turkish President Arrives in Urumchi". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 10 July 2009. 
  17. ^ "Tension runs high as China cracks down on Uyghur riot". Today's Zaman. 7 July 2009. 
  18. ^ "Turkish Lawmaker Reacts to China, Resigns from Parliamentary Friendship Group". Anadolu Agency. 8 July 2009. 
  19. ^ "Turkish pressure mounting on China to stop killings in Xinjiang". Today's Zaman. 9 July 2009. 
  20. ^ "Turkey calls for boycott of Chinese goods". The Times of India. 9 July 2009. 
  21. ^ "China warns Turkey: visa for Rebia Kadeer could damage bilateral relations". Azerbaijan Press Agency. Retrieved 10 July 2009. 
  22. ^ "Turkish PM compares violence in China to genocide". The Associated Press. Retrieved 10 July 2009. [dead link]
  23. ^ "China demands Turkish retraction". BBC News. 14 July 2009. 
  24. ^ "Turkish Foreign Minister Davutoglu Talks to His Chinese Counterpart on the Phone". Today's Zaman. 12 July 2009. Retrieved 13 July 2009. 
  25. ^ "China, Turkey ink 8 cooperation agreements". China Knowledge. 2010-10-12. Retrieved 2010-11-05. 
  26. ^ a b Yanatma, Servet; Erol, Osman (2010-11-03). "Turkey, China move for 'new cooperation paradigm'". Today's Zaman. Retrieved 2010-11-05. 
  27. ^ "China, Turkey voice commitment in fight against terrorism, separatism". Xinhua. 2010-11-01. Retrieved 2010-11-05. 

External links[edit]