China Central Television
|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Chinese Wikipedia. (August 2010)|
Satellite television and
|Founded||2 September 1958|
|Headquarters||China Central Television Headquarters, Beijing|
|Key people||Jiao Li (President)
Zhang Changming (Vice-President)
|Products||Television content, television programming|
|Operating income||RMB 1.12 Billion|
|Parent||State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television|
|China Central Television|
China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV, is the predominant state television broadcaster in mainland China. CCTV has a network of 45 channels broadcasting different programmes and is accessible to more than one billion viewers. Most of its programmes are a mixture of documentary, comedy, entertainment, and drama, the majority of which consists of Chinese soap operas and entertainment. CCTV has 45 TV channels（22 for free, 23 for pay-vision), the largest number of television subchannels in the world.
CCTV Peking (Beijing) Television (北京电视台) or China People's Television Network broadcast its first program on 2 September 1958. Due to increasing demands, it soon launched its second channel in 1963 and third channel in 1969. Starting from 1 May 1973, Peking Television began broadcasting experimentally in colour on its second channel every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday using the PAL-D system, and fully converted to colour broadcasting by 1977. The network changed its name to CCTV on 1 May 1978.
Until the late 1970s, CCTV held only evening broadcasts, usually closing down at midnight. During the summer and winter academic vacations, it occasionally transmitted daytime programming for students. In 1980 CCTV experimented with news relays from local and central television studios via microwave. By 1985, CCTV had already become a leading television network in China. In 1987 CCTV's popularity soared due to the adaptation and presentation of Dream of the Red Chamber. The 36-episode TV series—the first Chinese television drama to enter the global market— still remains popular in the international market. In the same year, CCTV exported 10,216 programmes to 77 foreign television stations.
Initially, the Publicity Department of the Communist Party of China Central Committee issued directive censorship of programs. During reform in the 1990s, the Party adopted new standards for CCTV, "affordability" and "acceptability", loosening the previous government control. Affordability refers to purchasing ability of programs, while acceptability requires that a programme has acceptable content, preventing broadcasts of material that contains inappropriate content or holds against the Communist Party of China.
On 2 September 2008 the new CCTV Headquarters was opened on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of CCTV.
Today, CCTV has 24 channels, most of them airing 24 hours a day. On 17 June 2013, CCTV announce General channel, News channel and other 24 public channels starting broadcast on the new site of CCTV.
China Central Television falls under the supervision of the State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television which is in turn subordinate to the State Council of the People's Republic of China. A Vice Minister of the state council serves as chairman of CCTV. The organisation has relationships with regional television stations run by local governments, which must reserve up to two channels for the national broadcaster.
The network's principal directors and other officers are appointed by the State, and so are the top officials at local conventional television stations in mainland China; nearly all of them are restricted to broadcasting within their own province or municipality. Editorial independence is subject to government policy considerations, and as a result, it has been charged with being "propaganda aimed at brainwashing the audience" in its history and news programmes in a letter written by a number of Chinese intellectuals who also called for a boycott of state media was posted on a US-based website and has circulated through Chinese websites.
Journalists working for CCTV-NEWS, the network's English-language international channel, are under constant pressure to present a positive account of China, according to Anne-Marie Brady's study published in 2008. "In August 2005, a series of items reported factually on coal mining disaster in China; soon after the channel's leaders received a warning from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs that its reports were harming China's international image. Following this incident, senior editorial staff and journalists were all forced to write self-criticisms."
Brady says that while the channel's equipment is state-of-the-art, the employees are not well trained in how to use it, so there are frequent errors during broadcast. "The political controls on the station contribute to a general low level of morale and initiative among station staff," she writes.
A recent study done by the observer of Chinese film and television, Ying Zhu, suggests that “CCTV is full of serious-minded creators who regularly experience bouts of self-doubt, philosophical ambivalence, and in some cases, clinical depression.” During her extensive interviews with key CCTV players, Zhu notes that “Certain common themes, about ideals distorted or altogether thwarted by commercial and political pressure, emerged.”  
- On 27 December 2007, Xinwen Lianbo aired a report about the wide and easy availability of explicit content on the internet. The report appealed to juristic institutions and government to hurry to make relevant legislation in order to purify the internet environment. In the report, a young student described a pop-up advertisement she saw as being "very erotic very violent". After the airing of the report, many parodies were posted by internet users ridiculing the comment and CCTV's credibility in part. The incident also questioned the reliability of Xinwen Lianbo, noting the unlikelihood of a web page being both violent and erotic at the same time (even though such pages do exist), and the age of the student interviewed. Personal information of the interviewed girl was later also leaked, identifying the girl in the report by name. Online message boards were populated by large threads about the incident, and a satirical work even stated that CCTV's website was the number one "very erotic very violent" website on the internet, with some users even creating their own toplists of sites which meet these criteria, the "top 8 very erotic very violent sports events" and even identifying things that are yellow as being erotic (since 黄, huáng, the Mandarin character for "yellow", also means "erotic").
- On January 23, 2011 the CCTV news program Xinwen Lianbo showcased the Chengdu J-10 in the air by firing a missile at an airplane, the target plane then exploded. This footage lasted half a second and the destroyed airplane shown was later identified as that of an F-5E, US fighter jet. It turns out the clip was taken from the 1986 US movie Top Gun.
- In 2011, new CCTV head Zhanfan "was found to have proclaimed in July [or January, both before the CCTV appointment in November] that journalists’ foremost responsibility is to 'be a good mouthpiece'" (当好喉舌工具). Internet posts of the comment blossomed after the appointment, one "juxtapos[ing] CCTV’s ... Xinwen Lianbo (新闻联播) and photos of Chinese crowds waving red flags with black-and-white images from Nazi-era Germany". Comparisons with the Nazi propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels (gepei’er (戈培尔)) also spread. Official media coverage of the Zhanfan's presentation focused on his call to avoid "fake news and false reports (失实报道)" but also incorporated the "mouthpiece" comment.
- During the coalition's military intervention in Libya in 2011, reports from CCTV tended to support Gaddafi's arguments, claiming that the coalition forces attacked Libya civilians and the military intervention was no different than an invasion. In some of the news reports, CCTV used pictures of protesters demonstration and said that these people were against the coalition's military intervention. CCTV also mislabeled a person holding a banner which said "Vive la France" and claimed that he was a supporter of Gaddafi. Later in 27 March, a Chinese banner that said "Muammar Gaddafi is a lier." was shown up in some Libyan demonstration videos from Internet.
- In mid-2011 on CCTV, reporter Li Wenxue asserted that Da Vinci Furniture of Shanghai was falsely labeling Chinese-made furniture as imported from Italy. At the end of the year, "Shanghai's industry and commerce bureau fined Da Vinci more than $200,000 last week for what it called substandard furniture", though in August, "the Shanghai Administration of Industry and Commerce ... cleared Da Vinci of any wrongdoing on its Italian product labeling". Also, Da Vinci produced a tape and bank records to back its assertion that it had paid 1 million yuan ($150,000), via a public relations broker, to Li to stop any further negative reports by CCTV. Li said the claim is "slander" and CCTV made no comment. Zhang Zhi'an, an associate journalism professor at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou said, "I think CCTV has too much power", contrasting the Da Vinci case with extortion attempts by journalists at smaller media outlets. Liam Bussell, Asia-Pacific strategic marketing manager for Mintel in Shanghai, said in part, "Da Vinci's definitely done something". Also, "[g]iven the corruption in Chinese media and the volume of counterfeit products in the country, Bussell sa[id] it's often hard to find someone in these disputes who's totally clean".
CCTV produces its own news broadcasts three times a day and is the country's most powerful and prolific television program producer. Its thirty-minute evening news, Xinwen Lianbo ("CCTV Network News", Chinese:新闻联播), goes on air daily at 7:00 pm Beijing time. All local stations are required to carry CCTV's news broadcast. An internal CCTV survey indicates that nearly 500 million people countrywide regularly watch this program. However, the figure has slumped in recent years; the program now has 10% of the ratings market, compared to 40% before 1998.
Although news reform has been a prominent feature of CCTV networks, the Evening News has remained relatively the same since its first appearance in the early 1980s. Many important political news stories are broadcast through the program.
Focus, first introduced in 1994, is a popular programme on CCTV. This discussion programme regularly exposes the wrongdoings of local officials, which attracts serious attention from higher levels of government. The programme also exposes the Chinese Government's response to the corrupt charges.
The CCTV New Year's Gala (Chinese: 中国中央电视台春节联欢晚会)—a yearly special program for the Chinese New Year—is the most-watched CCTV programme. Research in 2007 showed that the Gala was watched by over 800 million people worldwide.
In 2007 China's television audience rose to 1.2 billion. The 2008 Summer Olympics coverage on CCTV resulted in an aggregate 41% audience share across its network. As content becomes more diversified, there have been concerns about the audience share, as CCTV is losing out to cable, satellite and regional networks. In Guangzhou for example, CCTV programming only accounts for 45% of the weekly audience share, compared to 78% of Hong Kong's TVB Jade and ATV and 80% for Guangzhou TV. Similarly, Shanghai's local stations reported a 71% audience share over CCTV. However, the CCTV New Year's Gala remains extremely popular; it acquires more than 90% audience share over the nation.
Producing a variety of different programming, China Central Television has a number of different program hosts, news anchors, correspondents, and contributors who appear throughout daily programing on the network.
CCTV-3 (Art and Entertainment) anchors
CCTV-13 (Chinese News Channel) anchors
CCTV-NEWS (English International Channel) program hosts
- Yin Chen – Culture Express
- Marc Edwards – Travelogue
- Michele Lean – Travelogue, Center Stage
- Edwin Maher – News Update, Asia Today
- Mark "Dashan" Rowswell – Communicate in Chinese
- Charlotte MacInnis (Ai Hua) – Growing up with Chinese
- Tracey Grebinski – "Rediscovering China"
- Vimbayi Kajese – News Update
- Jonas Gilbart – Sports Scene
- Zakka Jacob
CCTV-Français (French Channel) anchors
CCTV-Русский (Russian Channel) anchors
- Anchors list
- Алеся Корзун
- Наталия Каргапольцева
CCTV-العربية (Arabic Channel) anchors
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2009)|
The CCTV channels are listed in sequential order with no discerning descriptions, e.g. CCTV-1, CCTV-2, etc., similar to those channels in Europe and in other places around the world.
All CCTV channels are independently broadcast. The following 22 channels are public channels, it means that the channels are free, audience only need pay the ratings for the maintenace to the local cable without pay subscription fees. The following is list of the channels with their names:
- General (3 channels: SDTV, HDTV, and Hong Kong)
- Finance (formerly Economy until 24 August 2009,SDTV)
- Arts and Entertainment (literally Variety show,2 channels: SDTV, and HDTV)
- International (in Chinese, 3 channels: Asia, America, and Europe,SDTV)
- Sports(2 channels: SDTV, and HDTV)
- Sport Plus (HDTV)
- Movie(2 channels: SDTV, and HDTV)
- Military and Agriculture (SDTV)
- TV series(2 channels: SDTV, and HDTV)
- Chinese Documentary (SDTV)
- International Documentary (in English,SDTV)
- Science and Education(SDTV)
- Chinese Opera(SDTV)
- Society and Law(SDTV)
- News(in Chinese,SDTV)
- Music (Pop music programs broadcast in the CCTV-3,SDTV)
- International News(in English; formerly CCTV-9,SDTV)
- International (in French,SDTV)
- International (in Spanish,SDTV)
- International (in Arabic,SDTV)
- International (in Russian,SDTV)
- CCTV-3DTV Test
All CCTV channels are also broadcast via the following:
- Livestream – 24/7 non-stop online continuous broadcasting facility: (CNTV Bugu live)
- Stream Vision (Same as above)
- Universe Satellite Network
- Galaxy Satellite
- plus additional 10+ advanced integration satellite providers if possible
All CCTV channels are broadcast 24 hours a day except the following channels, the broadcrast time of each channels:
- CCTV-7 Military and Agriculture (SDTV):06:00-00:00(the next day)
- CCTV-10 Science and Education(SDTV):05:55-02:25(the next day)
- CCTV-11 Chinese Opera(SDTV):06:00-02:30(the next day)
- CCTV-12 Society and Law(SDTV):05:55-02:45(the next day)
- CCTV-14 Children(SDTV):5:55-3:05(the next day)
- CCTV-15 Music (Pop music programs broadcast in the CCTV-3,SDTV):05:57-01:50(the next day)
- CCTV-3DTV Test:10:30-00:00(the next day)
Currently CCTV has 10 channels broadcasting around the world (CCTV-娱乐（Entertainment）、CCTV-戏曲(Chinese Opera International)、CCTV-13、CCTV-4 in Chinese, CCTV-NEWS and CCTV-9 Documentary) in English, CCTV-Français in French, CCTV-Español in Spanish, CCTV-العربية in Arabic, and CCTV-Pусский in Russian. CCTV-4 ASIA used Japanese in Japan. A Portuguese channel is planned for the near future.
The CCTV-4 channel split into three separate channels on 1 April 2007—each serves different time zones: China Standard Time (CST), Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), and Eastern Standard Time (EST) in order to improve service for audiences around the world.
On 25 July 2009, CCTV launched its Arabic-language international channel, stating that it aims to maintain stronger links with Arabic nations. The Arabic Channel serves the Middle East, North Africa, and the Asia-Pacific region.
On 10 September 2009 CCTV began broadcasting its Russian-language channel.
On 9 February 2009, the Television Cultural Center caught fire on the last day of the festivities of Chinese New Year, killing one firefighter. The blaze rendered the 42-story structure unusable, as the zinc and titanium alloy of the outer skin was burnt. The Mandarin Oriental Hotel was destroyed before its expected 2009 opening.
The fire had implications for the credibility of CCTV, which was already unpopular because of its dominance in the media. The incident was mocked by netizens who reproduced Photoshopped photos of the fire and criticised CCTV for censoring coverage. Pictures of the fire are widely distributed on the internet, as a result of citizen journalism.
Project after the fire
On 25 February 2013, all of the CCTV channels replaced by New CCTV channels which are completed repair by the end of 2012.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to China Central Television.|
- CCTV Ident
- CCTV Live Site (Chinese)
- CCTV Official Site (Chinese)
- CCTV-News (English)
- CCTV-E (Spanish)
- CCTV-F (French)
- CCTV-Arabic (Arabic)
- CCTV-Pусский (Russian)
- CCTV News Channel Site (Chinese)
- CTV Golden Bridge (Chinese)