Chinese Singaporean

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Singaporeans of Chinese Origin
新加坡华人 or 新加坡華人
Lee Kuan Yew.jpg
LeeHsienLoong-IISSConf-Singapore-20070601.jpg
Tony Tan 20110623.jpg
Tanya-chua.jpg
Gong Li Cannes 2011.jpg
TeoCheeHean-Singapore-20060603.jpg
Yanzi.jpg
George Yeo by Michael Wuertenberg.jpg
Fannwong.jpg
Total population
2,808,300
74.1% of the Singaporean population (2011)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Singapore City
Languages
English, Hokkien, Teochewese, Hakkanese, Mandarin, and Cantonese
Religion
Buddhism, Christianity, Taoism, Atheism
Related ethnic groups
Malaysian Chinese, Southern Chinese, Overseas Chinese

Chinese Singaporeans or Singaporean Chinese (Chinese: simp. 新加坡华人, trad. 新加坡華人, pin. Xīnjiāpō Huárén, Cantonese jyutping san1gaa1po1 waa4 jan4) are people of full or partial Chinese – particularly Han Chinese – ethnicity who hold Singaporean nationality. As of 2011, Chinese Singaporeans constitute 74.1% of Singapore's resident population – approximately three out of four Singaporeans – making them the largest ethnic group in Singapore.[1] Outside Greater China, Singapore is the only country in the world where ethnic Chinese constitute a majority of the population and are well represented in all levels of Singaporean society, politically and economically.[2][3] It is the home of the fifth largest community of Overseas Chinese, behind the Chinese communities in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the United States.

Ethnic Chinese in Singapore tend to identify themselves primarily as Singaporeans (s 新加坡人, t 新加坡人, p Xīnjiāpōrén) and only secondarily as Chinese; however, the Chinese language tends to view ethnic Chinese status as primary. Thus, the English terms "Chinese Singaporean" and "Singaporean Chinese" are used interchangeably. In the Chinese language, though, Chinese Singaporeans clearly distinguish themselves as full Chinese (s 华人, t 華人, p Huárén) rather than overseas Chinese (s 华裔, t 華裔, pin. Huáyì; s 华侨, t 華僑, pin. Huáqiáo).[citation needed] A separate group is the Peranakan Chinese, who are the offspring of ethnic Chinese who had married the indigenous Malays and have developed a unique culture distinct from the Chinese majority.

Definition[edit]

The Singapore Department of Statistics defines "Chinese" as a "race" or "ethnic group" and "Chinese in Singapore" as referring to persons of Chinese origin such as the Hoklo, Teochew, Cantonese, Hakka, Hokkien, Hainanese, Hockchias, Foochows, Henghuas, Shanghainese, and so on.[4] Singaporeans of mixed parentage are classified as "Chinese" if their father is classified as such.

Ancestral origins or language groups[edit]

Chinatown, Singapore was an enclave for the early Chinese immigrants in Singapore in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

In general, the Chinese in Singapore are grouped according to their respective Chinese linguistic, cultural, or ancestral groups. The ancestral origins of the Chinese Singaporeans are diverse; some are identified by their linguistic group, others by their ancestral home (祖籍, zuji; 籍贯, jiguan).

Most of the Chinese in Singapore belong to several cultural groups, mostly from the southeastern coast of China in the provinces of Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan. The Hoklo, Teochew, and Cantonese together form more than three-quarters of the Chinese population. The Hakka, Hainanese, and other groups account for most of the remainder. These are generally the descendants of the free and indentured immigrants from southern China during the 19th and early half of 20th century and are typically known as "'native' Singaporean Chinese" (s 新加坡本地华人, t 新加坡本地華人, p Xīnjiāpōběndì Huárén). The 1990s and early 21st century saw Singapore experience a third wave of migration from different parts of China.

Intermarriage between different ancestral Chinese groups is quite common in Singapore, but association of different cultural groups typically follows the ancestry of the father's side. For instance, if one's father is of Hokkien ancestry and another's mother is of Teochew ancestry, the children will tend to associate with other Hokkien. Some Chinese Singaporeans also tend to associate according to their clans and ancestral origins, as seen in the Singapore Chinese Clan Associations.

Population Profile of Singapore Chinese Dialect Groups[5]
Dialect Group Ancestral home 1990 2000
Hoklo
(Hokkien / Minnanese)
Zhangzhou Hokkiens (漳州闽南人): Zhangzhou (漳州芗城区、漳州龙文区), Longhai (龙海市), Yunxiao (云霄县), Dongshan (东山县), Zhao'an (诏安县)

Quanzhou Hokkiens (泉州闽南人): Quanzhou (泉州市区), Nan'an (南安市), Anxi (安溪县), Huian (惠安县), Yongchun (永春县), Jinjiang (晋江市). Xiamen Hokkiens (厦门闽南人): Xiamen (厦门岛), Tongan (厦门同安)

896,080 1,028,490
Teochew Chaozhou, Shantou, Chao'an, Chaoyang, Jieyang, Raoping, Chenghai, Puning, Huilai 466,020 526,200
Cantonese Guangzhou, Zhaoqing, Shunde, Taishan, Heshan 327,870 385,630
Hakka Mei, Dapu, Hepo, Huizhou, Huiyang, Yongding 155,980 198,440
Hainanese Wenchang, Haikou 148,740 167,590
Foochow
(Mindong)
Fuzhou 36,490 46,890
Henghua
(Putian)
Putian, Xianyou 19,990 23,540
Shanghainese Shanghai 17,310 21,550
Hockchia
(Fuqing)
Fuqing 13,230 15,470
Other 50,150 91,590

Hoklo (Hokkien)[edit]

Thian Hock Keng is the oldest Hokkien temple in Singapore.

The Hokkien (福建人) constitute around two-fifths of the Chinese Singaporean population. They are the largest linguistic group in Singapore. They come from the Minnan or Hoklo people who originated in the southern parts of the Fujian province, including Xiamen, Quanzhou, and Zhangzhou.

They speak Singaporean Hokkien, the standard of which is based on the Amoy dialect of Xiamen, which is 50.4% comprehensible with Teochew although less so with Hainanese.[6] The Hokkien language was a lingua franca among coastal Chinese and was also used by other ethnic groups such as the Malays and Indians to communicate with Chinese before Mandarin came to dominance during the 1980s and 1990s.

Unlike some other areas,[example needed] Singaporeans do not use "Hokkien" as a catch-all in reference to Chinese from Fujian, but only to the Minnan from its southern coast. Thus Singaporean Hokkien is not inclusive of northern Fujianese such as those arriving from Fuzhou, Putian, and so on. Early Hokkien migrants settled around Amoy Street and Telok Ayer Street, forming enclaves around the Thian Hock Kheng Temple. They subsequently set up clan headquarters (Hokkien Huey Kuan) there and later expanded to Hokkien Street and the vicinity of China Street. The Hokkien were the most active in early trading that centred along the Singapore River.

As early settlers came from the southern coast of China, they were active in sea trade and worshipped one of the patron-deities of Taoist pantheon, the Heavenly Mother Ma Zhu, a protectress of sailors. In Singapore, her idol was at the Thian Hock Kheng Temple, which was thus also known as the Ma Zhor Kheng. Other popular deities are the Nine Emperor Gods and the Jade Emperor, who is celebrated on his birthday on the 9th day of Chinese New Year.[citation needed]

A traditional Taoist practice by a spiritual medium (乩童, p jītóng, Hokkien tangki) is also popular. The tangki goes into a trance and purportedly channels a chosen deity for the petitioner. The deity then provides a wide range of help ranging from religious rituals to answering queries to providing protective talismans.[citation needed]

Teochew[edit]

The Ngee Ann Kongsi is based at the Teochew Building on Tank Road.

The Teochew in Singapore constitute about a fifth of the Chinese population in Singapore, making them the second largest Chinese dialect group in Singapore. They originated from Chaoshan region in eastern Guangdong, in cities like Chaozhou, Shantou, and Jieyang. Many trace their origins from different Northern cities, but were settled there to maintain as county authorities within the south of China.

Despite similarities, the Teochews and Hokkiens consider themselves distinct and did not get along during their early settlement in Singapore, especially during the British colonial era. The Teochew were dominant for a period of time during the 19th century. Mass immigration from Fujian changed this, although the majority of the Chinese along the banks of the Straits of Johor were Teochew until the HDB initiated redevelopment in the 1980s. The Straits Times reports that Hougang still has a relatively high concentration of Teochew residents.[citation needed]

Most Teochew settled along the Singapore River in Chinatown during the 19th and early 20th century. Teochew who settled in Chinatown worked in many commercial sectors as well as the fisheries. Commercial sectors once dominated by Teochews include Circular Road and South Bridge Road. Other Teochew businessmen set up gambier and pepper plantations in the dense forests of north Singapore and Johor Bahru. The Chinese first started their plantations with the approval of the Sultan of Johor and then developed the kangchu (江厝, p jiāngcuò, lit. "river house") system. Chu was the clan name of the first headman of the plantations in the area. These kangchus gave rise to modern place names such as Choa Chu Kang, Lim Chu Kang and Yio Chu Kang, all of which were plantation areas prior to urban redevelopment.

Early Chinese immigrants clustered themselves to form clan and language associations. These clan associations (kongsi) served as unions for the mostly illiterate Chinese labourers and represented them when dealing with their colonial administrators or employers. One of the more prominent associations for the Teochew was the Ngee Ann Kongsi, formed in 1845 and still in operation.

Cantonese[edit]

The Cantonese make up 15% of the Chinese Singaporean population. They originated from Hong Kong and the southern region of Guangdong province in China, including Guangzhou, Zhaoqing, Shunde, Taishan, and Heshan.

The Cantonese speak several dialects belonging to the Yue family. Yue Hai is considered the prestige dialect from its occurrence in Guangzhou. Other variants include Luoguang, Siyi and Gouyeung. The Gwainaam is spoken by immigrants from Guangxi and shares close affinity with Pinghua.

The Cantonese worked mainly as professionals and tradesmen during the early and mid 20th centuries, and their businesses dominated the shop houses along Temple Street, Pagoda Street, and Mosque Street. Cantonese women from the Samsui district worked at construction sites and contributed greatly toward Singapore's development. These Samsui women left their families behind in China and came to Singapore to work at construction sites for a living during the early 20th century. Cantonese women from the Siyi district of Jiangmen wore black headgear similar to the Samsui women and mainly worked at Keppel Harbour and the shipyards at the old harbour along the Singapore River. Many Cantonese women also worked as majie in rich people's households. More Cantonese immigrated from Hong Kong in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

As of 2010, Singaporeans recognize Chinatown for having a large number of Cantonese people.

Hakka[edit]

Ying Fo Fui Kun is the first Hakka clan association in Singapore.

The Hakka constitute 11.4%.[clarification needed][7] They originated mainly from the northeastern part of Guangdong, from such areas as Mei and Dapu. Mr. Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of the Republic of Singapore, has Hakka ancestry tracing back to Dapu.

Ying Fo Fui Kun (应和会馆), a Hakka clan association, is the oldest clan association in Singapore. Its clan house is located at Telok Ayer Street in the Outram Planning Area, within the Central Area, Singapore's central business district.

Many Hakka women who came to Singapore during the early 20th century worked in construction sites and wore headgear similar to the Samsui women. However, unlike the Samsui, the Hakka women wore black headgear.

Other Min[edit]

This group constitutes about 5% of the Chinese Singaporean population. Of them, the majority are from Hainan and speak Hainanese. The Hainanese in Singapore originated mainly from north-east part of the island, from cities such as Wenchang and Haikou.

As relative late-comers to Singapore in the late 19th century, most of them worked as shop assistants, chefs, and waiters in the hospitality sector. Hainanese chicken rice became a famous dish. They were also known for their Western cooking, as many of the early Hainanese migrants worked as cooks on European ships.

The Hockchew and Hockchia originated from northeastern Fujian and southern Zhejiang, particularly Fuzhou. They speak various Eastern Min or Mindong languages.

The Puxian or Hinghwas originated from Central Fujian – Putian and Xianyou – and speak Puxian Min.

Taiwanese[edit]

This group numbers around 60,000 (2009) and constitutes less than 2% of Singaporean population. In Singapore, due to their small population, the Taiwanese are often grouped into larger populations, such as the Hokkien and Hakka, according to their dialect or ancestral origin. Newer Taiwanese immigrants have formed a distinctive group on their own. They may speak Taiwanese Mandarin, Hokkien, or Hakka and originate from many different cities, including Taipei, New Taipei, Hsinchu, Taichung, Tainan, and Kaohsiung.

According to the book "Japanese's view of Singapore" 《日本人眼裡的新加坡》 edited by Mr. Lin Shaobin, the Vice-Chairman of Singapore Japanese cultural society, the "bank of Taiwan" started its operation in Singapore from 1912 to 1925. The book also indicated that according to Japanese statistics of 1932, there were around 105 Taiwanese living in Malaya (including Singapore). According to verbal accounts by Singaporeans, many of the "Japanese" soldiers involved in the occupation of Singapore during World War II were in fact Taiwanese serving in the Imperial Japanese Army. Similar accounts relate that many teachers of Chinese in the 1950s and 1960s came from Taiwan. After 1965, military ties led to the immigration of some Taiwanese military personnel as high-ranking officers in Singapore Armed Forces. More immigration began during the 1970s and 1980s from investors, businessmen, and students. Most of these were highly educated and employed in professions such as engineering, business, investment, research and education. Intermarriages between Chinese and Taiwanese Singaporeans often resulted in the Taiwanese partner moving to Singapore and obtaining citizenship.[8]

Peranakan[edit]

Peranakans in Singapore were once concentrated in Katong.

The Peranakan or Baba-Nyonya are early Chinese immigrants from Malacca and Penang who later migrated to Singapore. As they are of mixed Chinese and Malay ancestry, the Peranakans are classified as a separate ethnic group and have a distinct identity from either separate group.[citation needed] The men are known as Baba while the women are known as Bibiks or Nyonyas.[clarification needed]

Peranakans in Singapore were once concentrated around the Malay settlement at Geylang and the Chinese enclave at Katong, because they often served as intermediaries for businesses and social groups in colonial Singapore owing to trilingual fluency in English, Malay, and Hokkien. Many Peranakans and Hokkien Chinese moved out of the congested town of Singapore – today's Central Business District – and built seaside mansions and villas along the East Coast in Tanjong Katong for their families. After Singapore's independence, Peranankan people have moved throughout the island.

Many Peranankans converted to Roman Catholicism during the 18th-century Portuguese colonisation of southeast Asia, which saw missionaries set up posts in Batavia (today's Jakarta) and along the Malay peninsula.

New Chinese Migrants[edit]

Prior to 1990, Mandarin speakers from Beijing and northern China and Wu speakers from Shanghai and the central Pacific coast of China constituted less than 2% of the Chinese Singaporean population. Most of the current population of native Mandarin speakers immigrated to Singapore much later than the other groups, after the Singaporean government relaxed immigration laws in 1989. Because of this, the members of this third wave are called the "New Immigrants" (, p Xīnyímín). They all speak Standard Mandarin,[citation needed] the lingua franca among mainland Chinese groups today, and many speak other languages or dialects as well. Since the 1990s, the population of mainland Chinese who come to Singapore to study or work has steadily increased every year. Many stayed only for a short time and then returned to China, but eventually many settled down permanently and became Singaporean permanent residents or citizens. This group now constitutes about a fifth of Singapore's population.[clarification needed][citation needed]

New Immigrants tend to be highly paid white-collar workers in multinational corporations or academics in research and educational institutes. There is also an increasing number of teachers of Chinese from the PRC working in primary and secondary schools and junior colleges in Singapore.[citation needed]

Language[edit]

Overview[edit]

Traditionally, Chinese Singaporeans used their respective mother tongues as their main avenue of communication. Although that led to much inconvenience amongst the varying dialect groups, it has nevertheless forged strong dialectal bonds amongst the Chinese community.

But today, the languages spoken by Chinese in Singapore exhibited a diversity including English, Singlish, Mandarin, Singdarin (Colloquial Singaporean Mandarin), Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese, Hakka, Hainanese and other Chinese dialects. Most Chinese Singaporeans are generally bilingual, whereby they can speak both English and Mandarin or some other Chinese dialects.

Before the 1980s[edit]

Before the 1980s, Chinese Singaporean were either English-educated or Chinese-educated. The English educated Chinese were educated with English as the medium of instruction and learnt little or no Mandarin in school (In such cases, the Mandarin language became an optional language). As a result, they became affianced to English-speaking and inevitable distanced from the Chinese language and their respective mother tongues. On the other hand, the Chinese-educated were educated with Mandarin as the medium of instruction but learnt little or no English. They usually speak Mandarin and their respective mother tongues with little or no English. There were of course a portion of Chinese Singaporeans who were bi-lingual, i.e. simultaneously educated with English and Mandarin as the medium of instruction, or alternatively they attended Chinese-based primary schools and subsequently transferred to English-based schools from their secondary education.

After the 1980s[edit]

After the 1980s, all schools (including former Chinese-based schools) in Singapore began to use English as the primary medium of instruction with Mandarin as a secondary language. Thus, Chinese Singaporean educated in the post-80s are usually bi-lingual.

English is supposedly the 1st language and therefore presumably spoken by all Singapore residents. This was partly due to Singapore government's policy of making English the medium of instruction in all schools in the 1980s (including former Chinese-based schools),as well as making English the working language for administration and business in Singapore (in short making English the lingua franca among all Singaporean). The presence of English language in Singapore has its roots originating from Singapore's colonial past, whereby Singapore was part of British colony. As a result of the government's policy, English or Singlish has become widespread among the Singapore residents, including but not confining to the Chinese Singaporeans (esp. the young people). The increase of English/Singlish speaking Chinese family in Singapore was a result of misperceived social and cultural values that the preservation of mother tongues is "low-class" resulting in desperate attempts to replace mother tongues with the English language. As of 2010, it was estimated that 32.6% of Singapore Chinese speak English at home.[9] But at work or in the city and business district, English is the official lingua franca, but there remains a notably undeniable fact, albeit ironical, that the Hokkien dialect remains extant amongst Singaporeans, not limiting to the Chinese, and operates as the unofficial common language.

Mandarin is another widely spoken language among Chinese Singaporeans. As of 2010, it was estimated that 47.7% of Chinese Singaporeans speak Mandarin at home.[9] Evidently, Singapore government's Speak Mandarin Campaign was launched in the 1980s with the intention of making Mandarin the lingua franca among the Chinese in Singapore.[10] It was intentionally a way to unify the Chinese from different dialect groups. In the 1990s, this campaign began to target the English-speaking Chinese Singaporeans. As a result of this campaign, Mandarin became widespread in places such as residential area, HDB, neighbourhood shopping and even business districts. Evidently, Mandarin is also often spoken in most "traditional Chinese-based" schools, despite the fact that English is their medium of instruction. Colloqually, as with all other languages spoken in Singapore, the Chinese Singaporeans prefers a localized flavour in mixing words from English, Hokkien, Malay, and some other dialects, into the Mandarin language. Most young Chinese Singaporeans are capable of conversational Mandarin, but are weaker in their ability to write Mandarin.

Variations according to age group[edit]

The main languages spoken by Chinese Singaporean vary according to the age group. Most young Chinese Singaporean speak either English or Mandarin while the elderly, though able to converse in Mandarin, have preferred Chinese dialects such as Hokkien, Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, or Hainanese. As the south-eastern Chinese dialects are not taught in school, the number of their speakers has steadily declined, and with it saw the deterioration of Chinese cultures and values. In addition, many parents have begun to communicate with their children solely in English, in the belief that the language is essential to attain upward social mobility. Many of the young Chinese in Singapore are unable to use their mother tongues fluently. However, a few years into the work force, be it white-collar or blue-collar, most would pick up the Hokkien dialect. This applies equally even to the more westernized Chinese Christian community, who prefers the English language over any other. This (the Hokkien dialect) apparently seems to be the only struggling force against the loss of Chinese cultural heritage.

Debate over preferred language[edit]

The question of which language is preferred in Singapore seem to have caused a series of debate among the Chinese Singaporeans recently. The question of declining standards in the command of the Chinese language amongst Chinese Singaporeans seems to cause several revision in the government's education package towards the Chinese language. The Singapore government's continued policy towards bilingualism for all Chinese Singaporean, which is to continue to pursue English as the first language while making Mandarin the lingua franca (or at least the 2nd language or home language) amongst all Chinese has drawn mixed responses. The more English-speaking Chinese Singaporeans will generally prefer English language as the lingua franca or their home language, while the Mandarin-speakers worries that English will replace Mandarin as the lingua franca, thus eliminating the thin thread of Chinese identity altogether, saw English as a strong competition. With the rising economy of China in the 21st century, which has led to more Singapore companies requiring fluency in Mandarin, Mandarin has been viewed with greater importance amongst the Singaporean Chinese than before and has risen in terms of prominence.[11] Both English and Mandarin will continue to dominate the language scene among Chinese Singaporeans.

Chinese Dialects Preservation[edit]

There also exists a strong urge and need in preserving the dialect cultures in Singapore. The decline of the Chinese indigenous religion, Taoism, has also indirectly contributed to the deterioration of Chinese cultural heritage. Unless the government and Chinese Singaporeans take their own initiative in preserving dialect cultures, Chinese dialects may probably decline or even disappear from Singapore in the near future. There is thus a strong need to restore the Chinese identity or risk it falling into extinction one day. This exigency is translated into recent renewed efforts by Chinese clan associations in Singapore to impart and revive their respective Chinese mother tongues, which are met with warm receptions, including the younger generations. Therefore, there lies a greater challenge for the Chinese community in Singapore - the preservation of the Chinese identity - than just the satisfaction of linguistic domination and material gains.

Language Most Frequently Spoken at Home Among Chinese Resident Population Aged 5 and Over.[9][12]
Home language 1990 ('000) 2000 ('000) 1990 (%) 2000 (%) 2010 (%)
Total 1,884.0 2,236.1 100.0 100.0 100.0
English 363.4 533.9 19.3 23.9 32.6
Mandarin 566.2 1,008.5 30.1 45.1 47.7
Chinese Dialects 948.1 685.8 50.3 30.7 19.2
Others 6.4 7.9 0.3 0.4 0.4

Socioeconomics[edit]

Education[edit]

Alongside other ethnic groups, Singaporeans of Chinese origin from all social backgrounds and occupations have achieved significant upward advances in their educational levels, income, and life expectancy and experienced other social indicators. Singapore's rapid industrialization between the 1960s and the 1990s has lifted numerous people out of poverty and has created a broad middle class for many Singaporeans. During the period of rapid economic growth the process, many Chinese began experience upward social mobility for the first time in their lives. In 2000, Chinese Singaporeans represented the second highest proportion of University graduates after the Singaporean Indians.[13] In 2008, 86.2% of Chinese Singaporean students achieved 5 passes at O-level, the exams taken by 15 and 16-year-olds, compared to 59.3% for Singaporean Malays and 73% for Singaporean Indians.[14]

According to the 2010 Census, 22.6% of Chinese Singaporeans have achieved a bachelor’s degree, a figure below the national average of 22.8% and remained the second highest after the Singaporean Indians.[15] This is due to the fact that Singaporean Indians had a larger increase in proportion of university graduates compared with the Chinese and Malays. The increase in proportion of Indian university graduates was partly due to the inflow of Indian permanent residents with university qualifications. Some 60 per cent of Indian permanent residents were university graduates in 2005, up from 51 per cent in 2000.[16]

Employment[edit]

As of 2005, 47.3% of Chinese Singaporeans work in select white-collar occupations compared with the national average of 44.8%.[17] The labor force participation rate was 63.6% contrasting towards the national average of 63.0%.[17] This figure was up from 46.2% in 2000 and was highest participation rate during that year in the white collar workforce among the three major ethnic groups in Singapore.[18][19]

Economics[edit]

While constituting nearly three-quarters of the Singaporean population, Chinese Singaporeans are estimated to control 81% of the Singaporean's publicly listed companies by market capitalization as well as contributing to 81% of Singapore's GNP.[2][3][20][21] Singaporean Chinese businesses are part of the larger bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia that share common family and cultural ties.[22]

Measured in 1990 dollars, the average household monthly income rose from SGD$3,080 in 1990 to SGD$4,170 in 2000 at an average annual rate of 2.8%. According to the 2005 Singaporean census, both the average and median monthly income for Singaporeans of Chinese origin were (S$3,610 and $2,500 respectively), exceeded the national average. Household and median income for Chinese Singaporeans commonly exceed the national average where it remained the highest out of the three major ethnic groups in 2000. Chinese Singaporeans held the second highest median and average household income among all three major ethnic groups in Singapore after Singaporean Indians in 2010.[23][24]

Monthly household income from work by ethnic group of head (2000 and 2010)[23]
Ethnic group Average household income (SGD$)
Median household income (SGD$)
2000 2010 2000 2010
Total 4,988 7,214 3,638 5,000
Chinese 5,258 7,326 3,800 5,100
Malays 3,151 4,575 2,709 3,844
Indians 4,623 7,664 3,438 5,370
Others 7,446 11,518 4,870 7,432

Singaporean Education System[edit]

Singapore's Chinese education began with the establishment of old-style private Chinese schools (known as "Sishu 私塾") by early Chinese immigrants during the 19th century . These schools predominantly used various southern Chinese languages (such as Hokkien) as its medium to teach Chinese classics. In the 1920s, as influenced by China's New Cultural Movement, many Chinese schools in Singapore began to change its medium of instruction to Mandarin. During the British colonial times, the colonial government generally allowed the Chinese community in Singapore to organise and develop its own system of Chinese education. By the 1930s and 1940s, with donations and fundings from the public, more Chinese organisations began to set up more Chinese schools. In 1953, the chairman of Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan, Mr.Tan Lark Sye organised and helped to establish the first overseas Chinese-medium university (Nanyang University) in Singapore, leading to the establishing of a well-structured Chinese-medium education system (from primary school to university) in Singapore.

However, after the 1960s, the left-wing communist ideology of People's Republic of China and the cultural revolution was in conflict with the capitalist policy of Singapore. In order to attract western investments, Singapore decided to adopt the fundamental policy of making English its main lingua franca and working language. In order to prevent the Singaporean Chinese from being influenced by left-wing political thoughts, Singapore greatly promoted English and placed less emphasis on Chinese education. On the one hand, it encouraged Chinese Singaporeans to attend English-medium schools for economic reasons; on the other hand, it initiated a public effort in denouncing communism. Due to a lesser proficiency in English, Chinese-educated Singaporeans often encountered difficulties in finding jobs in Singapore. Thus, the majority of Chinese Singaporeans sent their children to English-medium schools for better job prospects, causing the number of registered students at Chinese-medium schools to drop annually. All these factors (including that of government policy) eventually caused the Chinese-medium education system to perish in Singapore.

Since the early 1980s, the Singapore government gradually abolished the Chinese-medium education system in Singapore. Apart from Chinese language and moral education subjects, all subjects are taught in English. However, to make sure that Singaporean Chinese still maintain and preserve their mother tongue (Chinese) culture, the Singapore government implemented the teaching of Chinese language in all schools: All Chinese Singaporeans had to learn Mandarin Chinese as a "second language". Singapore also established the Special Assistance Plan Schools. These were formerly traditional Chinese-medium schools and were tasked with the nurturing of Chinese language and cultural talents. The Chinese subject in Singapore did not just involve the teaching of Chinese languages; it was also tasked with the mission of transmitting Chinese cultural values to Chinese Singaporeans. Because of the continuation of Chinese education in Singapore, the Chinese Singaporeans are generally able to speak, read, and write Mandarin Chinese. Chinese Singaporeans are thus one of the few overseas Chinese communities (the other being Malaysian Chinese) which still preserved the Chinese language and culture.

Inter-marriage[edit]

The Chinese in Singapore generally maintain a distinct communal identity and are more likely to intermarry within the Chinese community. Inter-marriage between different Chinese dialect groups are quite common. There is also a minority of Chinese in Singapore who inter-marry with other ethnic groups in Singapore such as Singaporean Malays, Singaporean Indians, Eurasians, Africans, Caucasians, Japanese, Koreans, etc.

Influence on culture of Singapore[edit]

Since most Singaporean Chinese trace their ancestry to southern China, their culture generally has a closer affinity with southern Chinese culture (predominantly that of Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan) instead of northern Chinese culture. This is especially true in terms of various southern Chinese dialects, customs, cultural, and religious practices in Singapore.

Although Singaporean culture is diverse in nature, Singapore is one of the few countries outside Greater China with a vibrant Chinese cultural presence. On one glance, Singapore's infrastructure and environment might seem Western, but on closer observation, Chinese culture is generally present across all corners of Singapore. This includes the widespread use of different Chinese languages/dialects, various Chinese writings across Singapore, various Chinese press and entertainment media, a thriving Chinese pop culture, various Chinese organisations, Chinese cultural festivals, Chinese opera, Chinese religious activities, Chinese bookshops etc.

Values[edit]

Chinese immigrants to Singapore brought many of their ideas and values with them. Although they were influenced by western culture, many continue to uphold Chinese values such as Confucian respect for elders, filial piety, meritocracy, emphasis on education, courtesy etc. The Chinese languages taught in Singapore was also critical in propagating traditional Chinese values such as filial piety, respect and care for elders, social harmony and meritocracy etc. to the Chinese Singaporean.

Linguistics influence[edit]

Mandarin and various Chinese dialects are spoken by the Chinese Singaporeans. They influence the way other Non-Chinese languages are spoken in Singapore. For instance, Singlish is known to be greatly influenced by Singaporean Hokkien and Singaporean Mandarin in terms of grammar, syntax and lexicon.

Religion[edit]

Religions of Chinese Singaporeans Aged 15 years and Above (Year 2010)[9]
Religion Percent
Buddhism
  
43.0%
Christianity
  
20.1%
Taoism/Chinese Folks Religion
  
14.4%
Islam
  
0.4%
Other religions
  
0.3%
No religion
  
21.8%

According to a 2010 census, 43% of Singapore's Chinese population declared themselves Buddhist, 20.1% Christian, 14.4% Taoist, and 21.8% non-religious. Chinese comprise the vast majority in these four groups due to their dominance in Singapore.[9]

While majority of Chinese Singaporeans register themselves as Buddhists, Christianity is increasing in popularity, and there is still a small number who claim to be Taoist. Taoism was once the dominant faith of Chinese Singaporeans, but younger generations have either switched to Buddhism or have become non-religious. In Singapore, Chinese folk religious practices such as ancestor worship and praying to certain deities are often classified under Taoism; though in fact, this was inherited from southern Chinese folk religion, which is a hybrid of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism.[9]

Food[edit]

Many Singaporean Chinese dishes were adapted by early Chinese immigrants to suit local circumstances (such as available ingredients) and cannot strictly be considered mainstream Chinese cuisine. Nevertheless, these dishes exhibited local Singaporean Chinese flavours and tastes. Most local Singaporean Chinese dishes such as Bak kut teh, Mee pok, Ban mian, Char kway teow, Chee cheong fun, Hokkien mee, Hainanese chicken rice, Wan ton mee, and Popiah can still be easily found in food centres throughout Singapore. Some Singaporean Chinese are vegetarians, as they may be devoted followers of Buddhism. With the influx of new migrants from all parts of China in the 21st century, Chinese cuisine of a variety of regional flavours and tastes can be found across Chinese restaurants in Chinatown, Singapore or in other regions of Singapore, such as Sichuanese cuisine, northeastern Chinese cuisine etc.

Chinese-language media[edit]

In Singapore, Mandarin is generally propagated through various Mandarin Chinese TV media (Channel 8 and Channel U), cable TV (Starhub and MioTV) and radio channels (including FM 95.8). Most Chinese dialect media (such as those of Hokkien, Cantonese) are generally censored in the mainstream Chinese media of Singapore, except for some Chinese dialect news broadcasting in radio channel FM95.8. Hokkien media from Taiwan and Cantonese media from Hong Kong are however easily available for sale in shops of Singapore and also present in Karaoke lounges. Some cable channels in Singapore (e.g. Starhub) also have begun to have Hokkien media from Taiwan (e.g. Ruyi Hokkien Channel) and Cantonese media from Hong Kong since 2005.

Chinese press[edit]

Singapore had a major Chinese-language press known as Lianhe Zaobao (聯合早報). Lianhe Zaobao was critical in maintaining the Chinese literary scene in Singapore. In addition to this are other newspapers such as Lianhe Zaobao Sunday (联合早报星期日), Lianhe Wanbao (联合晚报), Shin Min Daily News (新明日报), My Paper (我报), zbCOMMA (早报逗号), Thumbs Up (大拇指),Thumbs Up Junior (小拇指) etc.

Literature in Chinese[edit]

Singapore has a thriving literary scene in Chinese. The Singapore Association of Writers (新加坡作家协会) regularly publish Singapore Chinese Literature Journal (《新华文学》), an anthology of literary works by Chinese Singaporeans. A number of writers (or poets) including You Jin 尤今, Wang Runhua 王润华, Liu Duanjin 刘瑞金, RongZi 蓉子 etc. had contributed to the Singapore Chinese literary scene.

The Singapore Chinese literature reflected the immigration and social-historical changes of Singapore. Singapore Chinese literature had its roots from Malaysian Chinese literature, as Singapore was part of Malaya before independence. Early Chinese immigrants started off with the establishment of Chinese schools and Chinese press and as such began to create works of literature.

Early Chinese literary magazines such as New Citizens 《新国民杂志》, Southern Wind 《南风》, Singapore Light 《星光》 in Singapore portrayed the lifestyle of immigrants in Singapore during pre-war Singapore.

During the 1950s, most of the writers in Singapore had literary works portraying the lifestyle of all social spheres of Singapore. These literary works contain large number of use of local Chinese dialect slang, creating unique localized liteary works. The active writers at that time include Miao Xiu 苗秀, Yaozhi 姚紫, Zhaorong 赵戎, Shushu 絮絮 etc.

After Singapore's independence in 1965, the Chinese literature in Singapore began to separate from the Malaysia Chinese literature and continued to develop on its own.

Chinese festivals[edit]

Traditional Chinese festivals are celebrated in Singapore including Chinese New Year, Mooncake Festival, Tomb Sweeping Festivals. Certain traditional Chinese festivals are made public holiday of Singapore, such as Chinese New Year. There existed some differences in the Singapore Chinese festival customs as compared to that from mainland China and Taiwan. For instance, it was common to carry lantern during mooncake festivals, but mainland China and Taiwan only practised the carrying of lantern on the 15th of January lunar calendar.

Chinese pop music[edit]

Singapore features a thriving Chinese pop music scene and are known for producing Mandopop artists such as JJ Lin, Stefanie Sun, Tanya Chua etc. Singapore is also known for holding Chinese music concerts and festivals, including the Taiwanese-originated Spring Wave Singapore Music Festival in 2013.

Cultural differences from mainland China[edit]

There exists, however, some degree of differences between the Singaporean Chinese and mainland Chinese in terms of mindset, culture, and languages. While mainland Chinese are largely Sino-centric in their outlook of the world, Singaporean Chinese are educated in English medium schools (but also are taught the Chinese language) and are exposed to western influences. As such, the local Singaporean Chinese culture is a blend and mix of southern Chinese culture, local Singaporean culture (with various influences from cultures of other ethnicity) and western culture.

There are also some differences in the Singaporean Chinese culture compared to that of China. Some traditional Chinese religious and folks custom are preserved by the Chinese community in Singapore, but are no longer practised or seen in China after the Cultural Revolution. This is especially true of regional rites and rituals practiced by Singaporean descendants of peasant immigrants from southern China.

There are also distinctive recognisable differences between the Singaporean Mandarin and mainland Chinese Mandarin accents. Colloquially, many Chinese Singaporeans also speak a mixed language, toggling between Singlish or Singdarin. Many of the local Chinese dialects in Singapore such as Hokkien, Teochew, or Cantonese have also been largely acculturated and differ from what is spoken in China.

Relation with current Chinese migrants[edit]

Singaporean Chinese and mainland Chinese have had a testy relationship in recent years. While the reasons for such a contentious relationship are multi-factorial, one of those mentioned was the cultural differences between Singaporean Chinese (whose ancestors were mainly from Southern parts of China) and mainland Chinese (who are mainly from Northern China).[25][26]

History[edit]

Before 1819[edit]

The earliest records of Singapore in Imperial Chinese sources named Singapore as "Long Ya Men 龙牙门", "Ling Ya Men 凌衙门", "Dan Ma Xi 单马锡", "Dan Ma Xi 淡马锡", "Xi La 息辣", "Xi Li 息力" or "Shi le 石叻" etc.

Archaeological excavations of artifacts such as Chinese coins or ceramics in Singapore, which dated back to the period of the reign of Emperor Zhenzong of Song (998-1022) and Emperor Renzong of Song (1023–1063), indicated that Chinese merchants or traders had already visited Singapore since Song dynasty.[27]

The Chinese record Annals of various foreign states 《诸蕃志》 (Zhufanzhi) written by Zhao Rushi 赵汝适 in 1225 clearly described Chinese merchant ships arriving in Singapore from Quanzhou and various Chinese trading activities.[28] In this annal, the chapter San Fo Qi men 三佛齐门 (the Chinese name for Srivijaya) clearly recorded Chinese merchant ships must pass by "Ling Ya Men 凌衙门" (the ancient Chinese name for Singapore) in order to reach Srivijaya for trading. The Chinese record Investigation of Southern Pacific 《南洋测蠡》 (Nanyang Celi) described the presence of Chinese tombs in Singapore (known as "Xin Ji Li Po 新忌利波" in Chinese). On the Chinese tomb, there were words and inscriptions recording the period of Later Liang and Emperor Gong of Song. This could have proven that from 907 to 1274, some Chinese had settled, lived, died and were buried in Singapore.

The Chinese traveller Wang Dayuan, visiting the island around 1330, described a small Malay settlement called Dan Ma Xi (淡馬錫, from Malay Tamasik) containing a number of Chinese residents. According to Wang Dayuan, the Chinese inhabitants of Singapore were dressed in local traditional costumes and generally intermarried with local South-East Asian women, following an amalgamamation of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Taoism. These were the earliest Peranakans of Singapore.

Following the decline of Srivijayan power, Temasek was alternately claimed by the Majapahit and the Siamese, but the invasion of 1377 and 1391 caused Singapore to be destroyed. Following that, there were little Chinese records of the visiting of Chinese to Singapore.

The Chinese explorer Zheng He's naval voyage in 1403 indicated Singapore as Dan Ma Xi (淡馬錫, from Malay Tamasik). In 1420, en route the 6th voyage, Zheng He passed by Singapore, but there were no records of presence of Chinese.

1819–1937[edit]

From the founding of modern Singapore by Stamford Raffles till the Japanese occupation in 1942, Singapore was ruled as a colony by the British. When the British first arrived in Singapore, most of the inhabitants on the island of Singapore were fisherman, seamen or pirates, living in small houses. There were about 150 people; about 30 were Chinese, while the rest were Malays.[29]

When Singapore became a Straits Settlement, there were very few Chinese. After Singapore became a British trading post as part of the Straits Settlement, the first batch of Chinese came from Malaysia, predominantly from Malacca and Penang. Amongst these Chinese from Malacca and Penang, many were peranakans or descendants of Chinese in Malaysia for several generations. Most of them were traders and can speak Chinese dialects, Malays; while many were also English-educated and can communicate with the British. In the Manners and customs of the Chinese of the Straits Settlements, Singapore, it was described that the Straits-born Chinese regarded themselves as British subjects instead of Chinese subjects; their lifestyle were more westernized.[30]

After Singapore became the capital of the British Straits Settlements in 1832, the free trade policy attracted many Chinese from Mainland China to trade, and many settled down in Singapore. Because of a booming commerce which required large number of labour force, Chinese coolie trade also appeared in Singapore. Indentured Chinese labourers (known as coolie) were contracted by coolie traders and brought to Singapore to work. The large influx of coolies into Singapore only stopped after William Pickering became the Protector of Chinese. In 1914, the coolie trade was abolished and banned in Singapore.

Because China banned the traveling of Chinese overseas before the Opium War, any form of coolie trade was conducted mainly through the Portuguese-controlled Macau. Thus any form of large migration of Chinese labourers overseas in the beginning of 19th century is quite unlikely. It was only after the Treaty of Nanking signed on 1842 (due to Opium War) that large migration of Chinese coolie began to appear. In 1860 under the 2nd Opium War, Chinese coolie trade became legalized and reached a high peak.

The large influx of Chinese to Singapore led to the establishment of a large number of Chinese associations, schools, and temples in Singapore and, within a century, the Chinese immigrant population exceeded that of the Malays. During this period, Christian missionaries from Europe began evangelising to the Asians, especially the Chinese. By 1849, the Chinese formed half of Singapore's population.

From 19th till mid 20th century, migrants from China were known as "Sinkeh" (新客 - New Guest). Out of these Sinkeh, a majority of them were coolies, workers on steam boats etc. Some of them came to Singapore in search of a better living and to escape away from poverty in China. Many of them also escaped to Singapore due to chaos and wars in China during the first half of 20th century. Many of them came from Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan province. Most of them paid loyalty to China and regarded themselves as "Huaqiao".

Peranakans or those English-educated Chinese who had descended for many generations in Singapore were typically known as "Laokeh" (老客 - Old Guest) or "Straits Chinese". Most of them paid loyalty to the British Empire and did not regard themselves as "Huaqiao".

1937–1945 (World War II)[edit]

The Lim Bo Seng Memorial at Esplanade Park commemorates Lim Bo Seng, a World War II anti-Japanese Resistance fighter who was based in Singapore and British Malaya.

The Second Sino-Japanese War, started in 1937, revived a perceived sense of patriotism in the local Chinese to China and soon the Singaporean Chinese imposed an embargo against Japanese goods and products in Singapore. During the war, fearing for the safety of their relatives in China, some of the immigrants returned to China to fight the Japanese, while established entrepreneurs sent economic aid or military equipment to China. After the Japanese took Singapore in 1942, the Kempeitai tracked down many Chinese who aided the Chinese war effort against Japan. However, the Kempeitai's Sook Ching Operation was simply a massacre designed to drive fear into the local populace, so the Kempeitai simply picked out people based on accounts of masked informers, which in many cases were false accounts based on personal vendettas. There were also active anti-Japanese resistance during the war, such as Force 136, headed by Lim Bo Seng.

After 1945[edit]

Race riots were common during the early post-war period, predominantly in the period between self-governance and independence in 1965. One major riot took place during birthday celebrations in honour of Muhammad, on 21 July 1964. There were records of high casualties (23 killed and 454 injured), as well as claims that the riot was politically motivated to oust the then Prime Minister (Lee Kuan Yew) and his cabinet as well as to prevent the promotion of a Malaysian Malaysia concept in Peninsular Malaysia.

After the independence of Singapore in 1965, Singapore began to foster a more racially harmonious society in Singapore. Following the construction of Singapore national identity and nationhood, the Chinese in Singapore began to change their mindset from temporary stay to permanent settlements in Singapore, thus taking roots in Singapore. Following this transformation, the Chinese in Singapore gradually began to recognize nationally as "Singaporeans", while racially as "Huaren" instead of "Huaqiao".

Chinese migrants from China during the late 20th century and early 21st century were generally known as "Xinyimin 新移民" (new immigrants). They came from various parts of China.

Chinese associations or institutions in Singapore[edit]

Historical Background[edit]

When the Chinese migrants first arrived in Singapore in the 19th and early 20th century, they settled in an enclave such as Chinatown. Due to closer dialectal affinity, they tend to group themselves according to similar Chinese dialects or place of origins in China. This led the Chinese to form 5 dialectal Cohorts (known as Bangqun 幫群), namely the Hokkien Bang, Teochew Bang, Cantonese Bang, Hakka Bang and Hainanese Bang.

During the British colonial period, the colonial government basically adopted the approach of using "the Chinese to govern the Chinese". They appointed Chinese leaders to govern the Chinese community. Effectively, the Chinese community existed in a half-autonomy state. Most Chinese leaders used the Chinese civil societies (small organizations) to help govern the Chinese community and to help new Chinese immigrants settled into Singapore, including finding jobs and lodgings for them.

As most of these Chinese civil societies were involved in Chinese family religious activities such as funerals or ancestral worship, they were in fact religious-oriented. This gradually evolved into the development of Chinese Temples or Chinese clan associations in Singapore. As time passed by, the Chinese had grown to have more achievements in the business and education in Singapore. Some rich and powerful Chinese businessmen began to establish Clubs, such as the Ee Ho Hean Club (怡和轩) in 1895,[31] and Chamber of Commerce, such as the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry, in order to broaden the Chinese social circle. Established in 1906, the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry was the highest body of organization within the Chinese community in Singapore. It was responsible for fighting the rights of the Chinese in Singapore during the British colonial period. During the World War II, the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry had managed to help raise funds and resources to help relieve the sufferings in war-torn China.

After Singapore gained independence and autonomy in the 1960s, the Singapore government undertook measures to help foster racial harmony in Singapore. It encouraged various races of different languages and religious backgrounds to intermingle and to live side by side. Following the growth of Singaporean nationhood and national identity, the Chinese immigrants began to change their mindset from temporary migration to permanent settlements, thus soiling their roots in Singapore. With the strengthening of Singaporean national identity, the Chinese clans association gradually declined in terms of importance. Their role of organizing and governing the Chinese community was soon taken over by the Singapore government.

Today[edit]

Today, all Singapore's clans associations came under the flagship of Singapore Federation of Chinese Clans Association (SFCCA). They function as the cultural role for connecting Chinese Singaporeans to their Chinese roots or Ancestral home. In addition, the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCCI) continued to look after the interests of the Chinese business community as well as sourcing business opportunities in China. The Chinese Development Assistance Council was founded out of these two organizations (SFCCA and SCCCI) to help nurture and develop the potential of the Chinese community in contributing to the continued success of multiracial Singapore. There are also various Chinese cultural organizations such as Singapore Chinese Calligraphy Society, Singapore Chinese Orchestra, Nanyang Confucian Association, Singapore Chinese Opera Institute etc. In addition, there are also major Chinese religious Associations such as Singapore Taoist Federation, Singapore Buddhist Federation to look after the religious affairs of Chinese Singaporeans.

All these Chinese organizations continue to play an important role in the economical, cultural and religious activities of Chinese Singaporeans.

List of Chinese Singaporeans[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b "POPULATION TRENDS 2011", Singapore Department of Statistics, Social Statistics Section, retrieved 2012-05-07 
  2. ^ a b Vatikiotis, Michael (February 12, 1998). Entrerepeeneurs. Bangkok: Far Eastern Economic Review. 
  3. ^ a b "Chinese of Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines - World Directory of Minorities". Faqs.org. Retrieved 2012-04-23. 
  4. ^ "Glossary of Terms and Definition" (PDF). Singapore Department of Statistics. 2000. Retrieved 2010-11-18. 
  5. ^ Edmund Lee Eu Fah, "Profile of the Singapore Chinese Dialect Groups", Social Statistic Section, Singapore Department of Statistics (2000)
  6. ^ "Minnan".
  7. ^ "Overview Singapore". 2006. Retrieved 2010-11-18. 
  8. ^ 陈能端 (Chen Nengduan). "他們來自另一個島嶼 (They come from another island)". zaobao.com. Retrieved 2011-01-10. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Table 4 Resident Population Aged 5 Years and Over by Language Most Frequently Spoken at Home", Singapore Department of Statistics, Social Statistics Section, retrieved 2011-01-12 
  10. ^ Leong Koon Chan. "Envisioning Chinese Identity and Multiracialism in Singapore". Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  11. ^ Reuters (2009-09-16). "RPT-FEATURE-Eyeing China, Singapore sees Mandarin as its future". Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  12. ^ Lee, Edmund E. F., "Profile of the Singapore Chinese Dialects", Singapore Department of Statistics, Social Statistics Section, retrieved 2010-10-18 
  13. ^ Singapore Department of Statistics (June 2002). CHANGING EDUCATION PROFILE OF SINGAPORE POPULATION. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology SAR: Singapore Department of Statistics. 
  14. ^ Bland, Ben. "Singapore government dodges Malay education issue again". Asian Correspondent. Retrieved 7 May 2012. 
  15. ^ SingStat, SingStat (Feb. 2011). Key Indicators. Singapore: Government of Singapore. p. 2. 
  16. ^ EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE. Singapore: Singaporean Statistics Bureau. 2005. 
  17. ^ a b SingStat, SingStat (2005). Key Indicators. Singapore: Government of Singapore. pp. 1–2. 
  18. ^ "THE RESIDENT LABOUR FORCE:". Economic Characteristics of the Resident Population. 2000. 
  19. ^ "THE RESIDENT LABOUR FORCE". SingStat. 2000. 
  20. ^ Asian Brand Strategy: How Asia Builds Strong Brands - Martin Roll - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2012-04-23. 
  21. ^ Business Networks in Asia: Promises, Doubts, and Perspectives - Google Books. Books.google.ca. Retrieved 2012-04-23. 
  22. ^ Murray L Weidenbaum (1 January 1996). The Bamboo Network: How Expatriate Chinese Entrepreneurs are Creating a New Economic Superpower in Asia. Martin Kessler Books, Free Press. pp. 4–8. ISBN 978-0-684-82289-1. 
  23. ^ a b Singapore Stat; Singapore Stat. "EDUCATION AND LANGUAGE". Singapore Stat. Retrieved 7 May 2012. 
  24. ^ Ong, Andrea (2011). Households smaller but more affluent. The Straits Times. 
  25. ^ Peidong, Yang. "Why Chinese nationals and S'poreans don't always get along". 
  26. ^ Peidong, Yang. "Why Chinese nationals and S'poreans don't always get along (Part 2)". 
  27. ^ "新加坡华语戏曲的发端". Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  28. ^ 周定国 (Zhou Dingguo). ""狮城"新加坡地名文化(Singapore local geographical culture)". Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  29. ^ Newbold, Thomas John. Political and statistical account of the British settlements in the Straits of Malacca, viz, Pinang, Malacca and Singapore: with a state with a history of the Malayan states on the Peninsula of Malacca. vol 1. London: J Murray. 1839. p279
  30. ^ Vaughan, Jonas Daniel. "The manners and customs of the Chinese of the Straits Settlements" . Singapore: Mission Press. 1879 . pp4-5
  31. ^ 中国侨网 (zhonguo qiaowang). "新加坡怡和轩俱乐部(Singapore Ee Ho Hean Club)". Retrieved 12 February 2011. 
Bibliography

Further reading[edit]

  • Lynn Pan (Singapore Chinese Heritage Center) (1998). The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Singapore: Archipelago Press Landmark Books. ISBN 981-3018-92-5. 
  • 许教正 (Xu Jiaozhen) (1965). 东南亚人物志》 (Historical Figure of South East Asia). Singapore: Xu Jiaozhen Pub. 
  • Song Ong Siang (1993). One Hundred Years' History of the Chinese in Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce Publisher. 

External links[edit]