Chinese alcoholic beverages
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|Chinese alcoholic beverages|
|The courtyard of a Huangjiu maker and the sealed jars of jiu being stored and aged|
Jiu (Chinese: 酒; pinyin: jiǔ) is the Chinese word (or part of a compound word) referring to a drink or beverage containing ethanol. Jiu has in some cases been mistranslated into English as "wine", as this use of "wine" may imply not only a non-fortified beverage produced by fermenting grape juice; but also, jiu may (and more generally does) refer to "alcoholic beverages" or "distilled beverage" (liquor) in general, including versions of Chinese alcoholic beverages directly produced by the fermentation of various non-grape substances, distilled beverages from grape or non-grape substances, or fortified alcoholic beverages, any of which may have been produced primarily from grains, legumes, fruits, or sometimes other types of ingredients, with or without the addition of other specific ingredients (some of which being considered tonic or medicinal). The same Chinese character (酒) is also used in Japanese writing of the Kanji form, where it is pronounced sake or shu, and in Korean writing of the older Hanja form, where it is pronounced "ju." Modern governmental regulatory standards may render these otherwise shared terms less than synonymous.
The origins of the alcoholic beverages in China cannot be traced definitively; however, various sources provide some information in regard to the history of alcoholic beverages in China, including myth, legend, archeological research and scattered historical sources.
The history of Chinese liquors has been dated back thousands years before the present time, based on the analysis of residues from ancient ceramic containers, which show the ancient use of grains, fruits, or various combinations of ingredients. Numerous bronze vessels preserved from the later Shang dynasty (also known as Yin) include many which were apparently used to warm wine or other alcoholic beverages.
Mythology and legend 
A legend said that Yidi, a brewer in the time of the legendary emperor Yu (about 2100 BC), presented Yu with an alcoholic beverage. Another legend says that liquor was invented by Du Kang. At first millet was the main grain, producing the so-called "yellow liquor", before rice began to become increasingly popular. During the Xia dynasty (ca. 2070 – ca. 1600 BCE), there are several instances in which alcoholic beverages were considered to be used in excess. One especially mentioned case involves the 17th and last ruler of the dynasty, Jie of Xia, who has been often been the one credited (or blamed) for the demise of the Xia to the succeeding Shang dynasty: at the behest of his mistress, Jie was said to have ordered the construction of a pool of wine (alcoholic beverage), which when eventually completed and filled was large enough to navigate with some sort of boat. A remarkably similar account involving a similar mistress and a similar wine pool is given in the case of Di Xin, and given with the same implied moral judgement: Di Xin was also the last reigning monarch of his dynasty, the Shang dynasty (which reigned between the end of Xia and the start of the Zhou dynasty which succeeded it).
Literary sources upon Chinese alcoholic beverages refer to their existence back into the semi-historical times of Yu the Great. Although, Yu's title of "the Great" did not stem from his connoisseurship of wine, according to historical literary sources. According to the records, after the Zhou dynasty conquered the Shang dynasty, one of the new ruling group's main problems was dealing with widespread inebriation with ethanol, associated with the Shang culture.
Chinese alcoholic beverages have a long history both as a part of diet and ceremonies (both secular and religious), as well as being a part of the productive activities of many households and commercial establishments.
Traditionally, Chinese distilled liquors are consumed together with food rather than drunk on their own. Huangjiu were also traditionally drunk warm, with the practice going back to early dynastic period. Typical Chinese alcoholic beverages have been traditionally warmed before being consumed. The temperature to which the liquor may be warmed ranges between approximately 35 and 55°C, well below the boiling point of ethanol. Warming the liquor allows its aromas to be better appreciated by the drinker without losing too much alcohol. Optimal temperature for warming depends on the type of beverage as well as the preference of the drinker.
At that time of Du Kang, millet was the main grain, the so-called "yellow liquor", then rice became more popular. It was not until the 19th century that distilled drinks became more popular. Preparation methods vary by the final type of beverage being made.
Besides the technique common in Western alcoholic beverages of either fermented from fruit juices that already contain simple sugars (wine), or else malted grains with sugar converted from starch using the grain's own enzymes (beer), Chinese jiu (and many other East Asian alcoholic beverages) are most commonly fermented from sugars converted from grain starch using enzymes from certain mold strains. The two main varieties of Chinese alcoholic beverages are fermented beverages (Chinese: 黃酒; pinyin: huáng jiǔ; literally "yellow liquor"), which may be clear, beige, or reddish-brown in color; and distilled beverage (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: bái jiǔ; literally "white liquor"), which are usually clear liquids. Although less traditional as a product, grape wine (Chinese: 葡萄酒; pinyin: pútáo jiǔ; literally "grape liquor") was first mentioned in classical Chinese poems around 2,000 years ago in the Han Dynasty. It has been increasingly produced and consumed in China since 1900 as a result of increased Western influences.
Huangjiu (fermented beverages) 
Huangjiu (Chinese: 黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiǔ, lit. "yellow liquor"), are fermented alcoholic beverages brewed directly from grains such as rice or wheat. Such liquors contain less than 20% alcohol, due to the inhibition of ethanol fermentation at this concentration. These wine are traditionally pasteurized, aged, and filtered before their final bottling for sale to consumers. Huangjiu can also be distilled to produce baijiu (see below).
Huangjiu are classified based on several factors. Among them are the liquor's dryness, the starter used in its production, and its production method.
The term huangjiu is often used as a generic term for all the Chinese fermented alcoholic beverages, but some varieties of Chinese fermented beverage are named separately, and not considered to be varieties of huangjiu; these include choujiu (made from glutinous rice) and Qingke jiu (made from Tibetan highland barley).
Baijiu (distilled beverages) 
Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: báijiǔ, lit. "white liquor"), are distilled alcoholic beverages. Baijiu are also commonly called shaojiu (烧酒; pinyin: shāojiǔ; lit. "hot liquor" or "burned liquor"), either because of the burning sensation in the mouth during consumption, the fact that they are usually warmed before being consumed, or because of the heating required for distillation (similar to the etymology of the term "Brandy"). Liquors of this type typically contain more than 30% alcohol in volume since they have undergone distillation. There are a great many varieties of distilled liquors, both unflavored and flavored.
While yellow liquors have a wide variety of classification methods, white liquors are grouped primarily by their type of fragrance.
Fruit-based wines 
China has a long history of wines and other ethanol-containing drinks produced from grapes and other fruits or berries.
Generally, beer in modern Chinese is referred to by the compound (binomial character/syllable) word (Chinese: 啤酒; pinyin: píjiǔ; literally: "beer"), and would be distinguished as a specific type from the main generic type of jiu.
The three main ingredients that contribute to the unique characters of various Chinese alcoholic beverages are the grains, the water, and the liquor starter. Other ingredients that alter the colour or taste of the final product may also be added.
Chinese alcoholic beverages are traditionally made from grains; in southern China typically only glutinous rice, in northern China wheat, barley, millet, sorghum, and occasionally Job's tears are used.
Grains used in brewing are degermed and polished of their bran. The grains are then soaked and acidfied with the aid of lactobacillus or through the addition of lactic acid into the soaking liquid. Acidification is done to discourage the growth of other microbes on the grains, which can spoil the resulting liquor by creating off flavours in it or rendering it poisonous. This process also gives many Chinese alcoholic beverages a taste and mouth-feel that is unique, and different from most other types of rice wine.
Water is an important component, and not only because it hydrates the grains and enables fermentation to occur, but also because it contributes to the flavour and quality of the liquor, depending on its pH and mineral content. Many regions are famous not only for their alcoholic beverages but also the flavour and quality of their water sources.
Emphasis is placed on gathering the cleanest water directly from springs or streams, or from the center of lakes where the water has been exposed to the least amount of pollutants. Water should be low in iron and sodium, with a higher proportion of magnesium and calcium ions as part of its total mineral content.
Liquor starter 
Also known as a "starter cake" (麴餅; pinyin: qū bǐng) or "liquor medicine" (酒藥, 酒药; pinyin: jiǔ yaò), the liquor starters for Chinese alcoholic beverages are cakes or pastes containing a complex mixture of various yeasts, molds, and bacteria, which are used to inoculate the grains. The starter converts the grain starches to sugars, and sugars to ethanol.
There are three main types of starters:
- Small starter (Chinese: 小麴, 小曲; pinyin: xiǎo qū): Rice that had been cultured predominantly by molds of the genus Rhizopus and Mucor.
- Large starter (Chinese: 酒麴, 酒曲; pinyin: jiǔ qū, or 麥麴, 麦曲; pinyin: maì qū): Rice that had been cultured predominantly by Aspergillus oryzae.
- Red starter (Chinese: 紅麴, 红曲; pinyin: hóng qū): Rice that had been cultured with yeast and Monascus purpureus.
The starter is either mixed in water using only the filtrate of the mixture, or the starter is dried, ground, and applied directly in the form of a dry powder.
Chinese alcoholic beverages may occasionally be made or flavoured with fruits, but this is rather rare (it is more common in Korean wines). Medicinal herbs and spices are more commonly added to Chinese wine. These additives not only impart a reddish, brown, or green colour, but also modify the taste and flavour of the liquor itself. Some production processes also add a dark tan colour without the addition of herbs.
Preparing the seed mash 
Prior to the actual brewing of the liquor, a small batch of grain is prepared to produce the seed mash (酒母; pinyin: jiǔ mǔ). Seed mash is produced by soaking and acidifying the glutinous rice as well as other grains and steaming them on frames or screens for several minutes. This cooks the grains and converts the starch to a gelatinized form that is more easily utilized by the starter culture.
The inoculation temperature of the steamed grains is tightly controlled as it alters the flavour character. This is usually done when the grain has been doused with cold water and cooled to between 23 and 28°C, which is considered the optimal initial fermentation temperature for the seed mash. The small starter is first added and allowed around two days to begin the saccharification, acidification, and fermentation of the grains. In many northern breweries, the large starter is often used instead.
Inoculation with the first starter partially liquifies the steamed grains, which is the signal to add the large starter as well as more water to form a thick slurry. This slurry is carefully stirred by a brewmaster to aerate and maintain an optimal level of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the mixture, as well as to maintain an even temperature throughout the fermenting mass. The slurry is periodically stirred over the course of a week. The stirred slurry is then allowed to go through a more thorough fermentation for approximately one month, following which the pH of the mixture will have dropped to around 3.4, and the concentration of alcohol will have reached approximately 15%. This is the seed mash that will be used to brew the main mash.
Other than for brewing liquor, the seed mash is often made by Chinese families to be eaten or drunk as a sweet dessert.
Brewing the main mash 
More soaked and acidified rice is prepared in the same fashion as in the seed mash, however, depending on the type of yellow liquor being produced, the rice is then either doused with cold water or spread out on a flat surface to cool down. Large factories usually employ air blowers to accomplish this. The cooling method alters the flavour and mouthfeel.
There is a wide variety of production methods. Saccharification and fermentation of the rice can occur in separate phases, similar to the way Japanese sake is produced, or a concurrent process where saccharification and fermentation happens in the same mash. The latter method is the typical process in China. In either case, the alcoholic liquid produced is then is allowed to continue to mature in earthenware jars for several months to several decades. The matured alcoholic liquid is then bottled and sold as "yellow liquor."
In traditional Chinese huangjiu production, the main mash is made by mixing the seed mash, additional large starter, and fresh water into newly cooked steamed glutinous rice that has been cooled into large glazed earthenware pots (up to 2 meters in diameter and height). The mixture is mounded on the sides of the pots and allowed to ferment. The seed mash and the starter will saccharify, ferment, and liquify the cooked rice in the main mash.
If the process where separate saccharification and fermentation occurs is desired, the seed mash is typically not used as a main mash is never actually produced. A mash of water, steamed glutinous rice, and other grains is inoculated with rice that has already been cultivated with the mold Aspergillus oryzae or molds of the Rhizopus genus and certain strains of Lactobacillus. When mixed into the mash the molds cultivate the mixture and convert the starch in the grains into sugars and lactic acid, respectively. This sweet and slightly sour liquid is drained and reserved, while additional water (and sometimes also malt) is added to the mixture. The process is repeated until the grains are exhausted.
Yeast is then added to this liquid in order to convert the sugars in the liquid to alcohol.
The production of baijiu is so similar in color and mouthfeel to vodka that some foreigners refer to it as "Chinese vodka" or "Chinese white vodka." However, unlike vodka, baijiu is generally distilled only once (as opposed to five or more times for some vodkas) and less thoroughly filtered, which gives each liquor its own unique and sometimes penetrating (or even somewhat harsh) flavour and fragrance.
Medicinal use 
Sometimes there is no clear cut distinction made between alcoholic beverages and medicine, and some beverages may contain extracts of plants, herbs, animal parts, or various mineral compounds, which have or are thought to have medicinal value. Some of these beverages are of only of historical interest, or have only limited use.
One type of a traditional alcoholic beverage containing a mineral compound is "realgar wine": on the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese calendar comes the holiday of the Double Fifth (Duanwu). One of the activities traditional in parts of China has customarily been the drinking of alcoholic beverages containing arsenic sulfide, which is potentially toxic, though in this case (usually small, annual dose) "realgar wine" has traditionally been thought to be medicinal: these arsenic-containing beverages, drunk on the day of the Double Fifth were regarded by the ancients as effective in preventing disease or evil and promoting health and well-being. On other occasions, this traditional arsenic compound might be put to medical use to treat parasites of the digestive system. "Realgar wine" is famous from the story Legend of the White Snake, as the substance which forced Madam White Snake to reveal her true form.
See also 
- Aspergillus oryzae (a micro-organism used for fermentation)
- Baijiu ("white liquor", or certain distilled beverages)
- Chinese beer (Beer in China)
- Chinese cuisine
- Choujiu (glutinous rice wine)
- Du Kang
- Eight Immortals of the Wine Cup
- Globalization of wine
- History_of_wine#Ancient_China (section on wine in ancient China)
- Huangjiu ("yellow" wine, generally from rice)
- Jiuniang (a mildly alcoholic glutinous rice porridge)
- Kaoliang ("sorghum liquor")
- Lychee wine (a type of fruit-based desert wine)
- Mijiu (a type of rice wine similar to Japanese sake)
- Non-grape-based wine
- Rice baijiu (white liquor distilled from rice)
- Rice wine
- Rice wine (list)
- Shaoxing wine (a regional yellow wine)
- Snake Wine
- Traditional Chinese medicine (medicinal wines or wine-based medications)
- Wine in China (grape wine)
- Xifeng jiu
- Zhang Qian
- Wu, 225
- For example, see Mengzi, "Li Lou" II:48 ("禹惡旨酒而好善言。")
- Wu, 110-111, and
- Wu, 229
- Schafer, 141
- "Orient Express." Decanter, June 2006, p. 103.
- Schafer, Edward H. (1985) The Golden Peaches of Samarkand. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-05462-2.
- Wu, K. C. (1982). The Chinese Heritage. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-54475X.
- China Wines Information
- Shrine to Spirits: Chiew and soju
- Chinese wine photos
- Chinese wines page
- Types of Huangjiu
- Chinese wine and Culture
- Grandiose Survey of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks and Beverages
- Wine in China