Chinese compound surname

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A Chinese compound surname is a Chinese surname using more than one character. Many of these surnames derive from noble and official titles, professions, place names and other areas, to serve for a purpose. Some are originally non-Han, while others were created by joining two one-character family names. Only a few of these names (e.g. Ouyang, Shangguan, Sima, Situ) survive in modern times. Many clans eventually took on a single-character surname for various reasons. A small minority of Koreans and Vietnamese also have compound surnames.

Compound surnames[edit]

(listed alphabetically by their Mandarin pinyin spellings)

Chinese characters Meaning/Origin Non-Han origin Mandarin
(Pinyin)
Cantonese
(Jyutping)
Vietnamese Korean Japanese Notable people
愛新覺羅
(爱新觉罗)
Gold Manchu Àixīnjuéluó (Aisin Gioro) Oi3 San1 Gok3 Lo4 Ái Tân Giác La Aesin-gangna; Aesin-gangra
(애신각라)
Aishinkakura Emperors of Qing Dynasty
阿史那 Possibly Turkic Āshǐnà Aa3 Si2 Naa5 A Sử Na Asana
(아사나)
Ashina Empress Ashina
百里 Hundred li Bǎilǐ Baak3 Lei5 Bách Lý Baengni; Baengri
(백리)
Hyakuri Baili Xi
孛兒只斤
(孛儿只斤)
Mongol Bó'érzhījīn
(Borjigin)
But6 Ji4 Zi2 Gan1 Bột Nhi Chỉ Cân Bar-ajigeun
(발아지근)
Botsujishikin Emperors of Yuan Dynasty
淳于 A small country in Chunqiu Chúnyú Seon4 Jyu1 Thuần Vu Sun-u
(순우)
Jun'u Chunyu Qiong
第五 The fifth Dìwǔ Dai6 Ng5 Đệ Ngũ Je-o
(제오)
Daigo Diwu Qi
東方 (东方) "East", descendants of Fuxi clan according to legend Dōngfāng Dung1 Fong1 Đông Phương Dongbang
(동방)
Tōhō Dongfang Shuo
(東方朔)
東閣 (东阁) "Eastern Pavilion" Dōnggé Dung1 Gok3 Đông Các Donggak
(동각)
Tōkaku
東郭 (东郭) "Eastern Wall" Dōngguō Dung1 Gwok3 Đông Quách Donggwak
(동곽)
Tōkaku Mr Dongguo
(東郭先生)
東門 (东门) "East Gate", place of residence, from Zhou dynasty Dōngmén Dung1 Mun4 Đông Môn Dongmun (동문) Tōmon
端木 Upright tree Duānmù Dyun1 Muk6 Đoan Mộc Danmok
(단목)
Tanboku Duanmu Ci
(端木賜),
Duanmu San
(phonologist)
獨孤 (独孤) Xianbei Dúgū Duk6 Gu1 Độc Cô Dokgo
(독고)
Dokko/Dokuko Empress Dugu Qieluo
公孫 (公孙) "Dukes' descendants", an address of the noble descendants in the Spring and Autumn period Gōngsūn Gung1 Syun1 Công Tôn Gongson
(공손)
Kōson Gongsun Zan Gongsun Long
公羊 Branch of Gongsun Gōngyáng Gung1 Joeng4 Công Dương Gong-yang
(공양)
Kōyō Gongyang Gao
(公羊高)
公冶 Branch of Ji, from courtesy name of Jiye (季冶) of Lu in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty Gōngyě Gung1 Je5 Công Dã Gong-ya
(공야)
Kōya Gongye Chang
(公冶長)
公西 Gōngxī Gung1 Sai1 Công Tây Gongseo
(공서)
Kōsai Gongxi Chi
(公西赤)
毌丘 Place name Guànqiū Kwun3 Jau1 Quán Khâu Gwan-gu
(관구)
Kankyū Guanqiu Jian
穀梁 (谷梁)
穀粱 (谷粱)
Sorghum grains (?) Gǔliáng Guk1 Loeng4 Cốc Lương Gongnyang; Gongryang
(곡량)
Kokuryō
賀蘭 (贺兰) Mt. Helan Xianbei Hèlán Ho6 Laan4 Hạ Lan Haran
(하란
Garan Princess Dowager Helan
赫連 (赫连) Xiongnu Hèlián Haak1 Lin4 Hách Liên Hyeongnyeon; Hyeongryeon
(혁련)
Kakuren Helian Bobo
赫舍里 Manchu Hèsheli Haak1 Se2 Lei5 Hách Xá Lý Hyeoksari
(혁사리)
Kakushari Heseri Sonin,
Empress Xiaochengren,
Songgotu
賀若 (贺若) Xianbei Hèruò Ho6 Joek6 Hạ Nhược Ha-yak
(하약)
Kajaku Heruo Bi
(賀若弼)
皇甫 Branch of Zi (子), from 皇父, the courtesy name of Huangfu Chongshi (皇父充石) of the Duchy of Song in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty Huángfǔ Wong4 Pou2 Hoàng Phủ Hwangbo
(황보)
Kōfu Huangfu Song
呼延 Xianbei Hūyán Fu1 Jin4 Hô Diên Ho-yeon
(호연)
Koen Empress Huyan
令狐 Place name Línghú Ling6 Wu4 Lệnh Hồ Yeongho; Ryeongho
(령호)
Reiko Linghu Chu
甪里 Place name Lùlǐ Luk6 Lei5 Lộ Lý Nongni; Rongri
(록리)
Rokuri
閭丘 (闾丘) Place name Lǘqiū Leoi4 Jau1 Lư Khâu Yeogu; Ryeogu
(려구)
Ryokyū Luqiu Luwei
(閭丘露薇)
万俟 Xianbei Mòqí Mak6 Zi6 Mặc Kỷ Mansa
(만사)
Bokuji Moqi Chounu
(万俟醜奴)
慕容 Xianbei Mùróng Mou6 Jung4 Mộ Dung Mo-yong
(모용)
Boyū Murong Huang
納蘭 (纳兰) Variant of 叶赫那拉 (Yehenala) Manchu Nàlán Naap6 Laan4 Nạp Lan Namnan; Namran
(납란)
Nōran Nalan Xingde
南宮 (南宫) Southern Palace Nángōng Naam4 Gung1 Nam Cung Namgung
(남궁)
Nankyū Nangong Kuo (Western Zhou)
歐陽 (欧阳) South of Mt. Ou Yu Ōuyáng Au1 Joeng4 Âu Dương Gu-yang
(구양)
Ōyō Ouyang Xiu
沙吒 Göktürk Shāzhā Saa1 Zaa1 Sa Tra Sata
(사타)
Sata Shazha Zhongyi
(沙吒忠義)
上官 High official (place name) Shàngguān Soeng6 Gun1 Thượng Quan Sanggwan
(상관)
Shōkan Empress Shangguan
申屠 Shēntú San1 Tou4 Thân Đồ Sindo
(신도)
Shinto Shentu Jian
(申屠建)
司馬 (司马) "Master of the Horse" or "Marshall", one of the Three Excellencies from the Han Dynasty Sīmǎ Si1 Maa5 Tư Mã Sama
(사마)
Shiba Sima Qian,
Emperors of the Jin Dynasty
司徒 "Minister over the Masses", one of the Three Excellencies from the Han Dynasty Sītú Si1 Tou4 (SooHoo in Toisan) Tư Đồ Sado
(사도)
Shito Szeto Wah
司空 "Minister of Works", one of the Three Excellencies from the Han Dynasty Sīkōng Si1 Hung1 Tư Không Sagong
(사공)
Shikū Sikong Ting
(司空頲)
司寇 "Minister of Justice" Sīkòu Si1 Kau3 Tư Khấu Sagu
(사구)
Shikō
太史 "Grand Historian", an imperial official title Tàishǐ Taai3 Si2 Thái Sử Taesa
(태사)
Taishi Taishi Ci
澹臺 (澹台) Tántái Taam4 Toi4 Đàm Thái Damdae
(담대)
Tantai Tantai Mieming
(澹臺滅明)
拓跋 Xianbei Tuòbá Tok3 Bat6 Thác Bạt Takbal
(탁발)
Takubatsu Emperors of Northern Wei, formerly surname of Tangut rulers, Western Xia
完顏 (完颜) Jurchen Wányán Jyun4 Ngaan4 Hoàn Nhan Wan-an
(완안)
Kangan Wanyan Aguda
聞人 (闻人) "famous person", descendants of Shaozheng Mao (少正卯) Wénrén Man4 Jan4 Văn Nhân Mun-in
(문인)
Bunjin
巫馬 (巫马) "Horse" Wūmǎ Ng5 Maa5 Ngọ Mã Uma
(우마))
Goba Wuma Shi
(巫馬施)
夏侯 "Marquess Xia", from noble title granted to the descendants of Yu the Great by Duke of Lu in the Spring and Autumn Period Xiàhóu Haa6 Hau6 Hạ Hầu Hahu
(하후)
Kakō Xiahou Dun
鮮于 (鲜于) Xiānyú Sin1 Jyu1 Tiên Vu Seon-u
(선우)
Sen'u Xianyu Zhongtong
(鮮于仲通)
西門 (西门) "West Gate", place of residence, from Marquessate of Zheng in the Spring and Autumn Period Xīmén Sai1 Mun4 Tây Môn Seomun
(서문)
Saimon Ximen Bao
軒轅 (轩辕) The (personal) name of the Yellow Emperor Xuānyuán Hin1 Jyun4 Hiên Viên Heon-won
(헌원)
Ken'en Yellow Emperor
楊子 (杨子) A branch of 楊 (Yang) Yángzǐ Joeng4 Zi2 Dương Tử Yangja
(양자)
Yōshi
耶律 Khitan Yēlǜ Ye4 Leut6 Da Luật/Gia Luật Ya-yul
(야율)
Yaritsu/Jaritsu Emperors of Liao Dynasty
樂正 (乐正) Minister of music Yuèzhèng Ngok6 Zing3 Nhạc Chính Akjeong
(악정)
Gakusei
尉遲 (尉迟) Xianbei Yùchí Wat1 Ci4 Uất Trì/Úy Trì Ulji
(울지)
Utchi/Utsuchi Yuchi Jingde
宇文 Xianbei Yǔwén Jyu5 Man4 Vũ Văn Umun
(우문)
Ubun Yuwen Tai
長孫 (长孙) Xianbei Zhǎngsūn Zoeng2 Syun1 Trưởng Tôn Jangson
(장손)
Chōson Zhangsun Wuji
鍾離 (钟离) A country in Chunqiu Zhōnglí Zung1 Lei4 Chung Ly Jongni; Jongri
(종리)
Shōri Zhongli Mu
(鐘離牧)
諸葛 (诸葛) A branch of 葛 (Ge) Zhūgě Zyu1 Got3 Gia Cát/Chư Cát Jegal
(제갈)
Shokatsu Zhuge Liang
祝融 God of Fire Zhùróng Zuk1 Jung4 Chúc Dung Chug-yung
(축융)
Shukuyū Lady Zhurong
子車 (子车) Zǐjū Zi2 Geoi1 Tử Cừ Jageo
(자거)
Shikyo
左人 Left-handed man Zuǒrén Zo2 Jan4 Tả Nhân Jwa-in
(좌인)
Sajin

See also[edit]

External links[edit]