|Literally "Chinese sojourners"
|Alternate Japanese name
|Literally "Chinese people resident in Japan"
Chinese people in Japan (or Chinese Japanese) refers to migrants who moved to Japan from China, their descendants, and the Chinese without children who moved to Japan mainly due to political, social, and economic issues.
Population and distribution
Most Chinese who are living in Japan resides in major cities such as Kobe, Osaka, Yokohama, and Tokyo. Chinatowns were developed in the cities of Kobe and Yokohama. There are Chinese schools that teach the Chinese language. A study that was conducted in 1995 estimated that the Chinese population in Japan was ~150,000, among whom between 50,000 to 100,000 can speak spoken Chinese. In 2000, the Japanese governmental statistics revealed that there were 335,575 Chinese residents in Japan.
A Chinese legend of uncertain provenance states that Xu Fu, a Qin Dynasty court sorcerer, was sent by Qin Shi Huang to Penglai Mountain (Mount Fuji) in 219 BC to retrieve an elixir of life. Xu could not find any elixir of life and was reluctant to return to China because he knew he would be sentenced to death, Xu instead stayed in Japan.
However, Japan's first verifiable Chinese visitor was the Buddhist missionary Hui Shen, whose 499 AD visit to an island east of China known as Fusang, typically identified with modern-day Japan, was described in the 7th-century Liang Shu. Chinese people are also known to have settled in Okinawa during the Sanzan period; the people of the village of Kumemura, for example, are alleged to all be descended from Chinese immigrants.
Significant part of Japanese people ancestors came from China. That's said, their descendants do not consider themselves to be "Chinese people". There have been various migrations since Han Dynasty.
In 1906, more than six thousand Chinese students lived in Japan. Most of them resided in the district of Kanda in Tokyo.
The term shin-kakyō refers to people of Chinese descent who immigrated to Japan from Taiwan and Mainland China.
Many famous Chinese intellectuals have studied in Japan, among them Sun Yat-sen, Lu Xun, and Zhou Enlai.
The Industrial 'training scheme' used to bring Chinese workers to Japan has been criticized by lawyers as exploitation, after several deaths.
Long-term residents and their descendants
Many Japanese war orphans left behind in China after World War II have migrated to Japan with the assistance of the Japanese government, bringing along their Chinese spouses and children.
Chinese restaurants in Japan serve a fairly distinct style of Chinese cuisine. Though in the past Chinese cuisine would have been primarily available in Chinatowns such as those in port cities of Kobe, Nagasaki, or Yokohama, Japanese-style Chinese cuisine is now commonly available all over Japan. As Japanese restaurants are often specialized to offer only one sort of dish, cuisine is focused primarily on dishes found within three distinct types of restaurants: ramen restaurants, dim sum houses, and standard Chinese-style restaurants.
Tokyo governor Shintaro Ishihara has publicly used controversial terms such as sangokujin to refer to Chinese staying illegally in Japan, and implied that they might engage in rioting and looting in the aftermath of a disaster.
There is a public perception in Japan that many Chinese immigrants come to Japan to engage in criminal activities. Some Chinese workers have entered Japan under false pretenses on cultural visas. As Japanese immigration law does not provide mechanisms for the entry of unskilled workers, and admission under a student visa requires the approval of a recognised university, prospective workers instead apply to study in language schools, which are more lightly regulated. Business owners with a need for low-cost labour have been known to open language schools as fronts for the importation of Chinese workers.
This is a list of Chinese expatriates in Japan and Japanese citizens of Chinese descent.
- Chen Kenmin, chef regarded as the "father of Sichuan cuisine" in Japan and father of Chen Kenichi
- Go Seigen, professional Go player
- Sun Yat-sen, politician
- Lu Xun, writer
- Qiu Jin, feminist
- Shosei Go, professional baseball player
- Chiang Kai-shek, politician and general
- Song Jiaoren, revolutionary and political figure, founder of Tongmenghui
- Jiang Baili, general
- Guo Moruo, poet and political figure
- He Yingqin, general
- Wang Jingwei, revolutionary and political figure
- Tai Chi-tao, political figure
- Chen Duxiu, co-founder of Chinese Communist Party
- Li Dazhao, co-founder of Chinese Communist Party
- Zhou Zuoren, writer
- Huang Fu, general and politician
- Chen Qimei, revolutionary
- Zhou Enlai, politician
- Momofuku Ando, founder of Nissin Foods
- Chen Kenichi, longest-serving participant on Japanese cooking show Iron Chef
- Agnes Chan, pop singer, professor, and writer
- Rissei Ō, professional Go player
- O Meien, professional Go player
- Sadaharu Oh, professional baseball player
- Rin Kaiho, professional Go player
- Cho U, professional Go player
- Chin Shunshin, novelist