Ching chong

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This article is about the pejorative term. For the Hong Kong journalist, see Ching Cheong.

Ching chong or ching chang chong is a pejorative term sometimes employed by speakers of English to mock or play on the Chinese language, people of Chinese ancestry, or other East Asians who may be mistaken for Chinese that resided in Western countries. Several public commentators have characterized the term as derogatory while noting that assaults or physical intimidation of Asians are often accompanied by racial slurs or imitation Chinese.[1][2]

Historical usage[edit]

The term "ching chong" is based on how the Chinese languages supposedly sounds to English speakers who do not speak the language and the people of Chinese ancestry that spoke them. The "ch" reflects the relative abundance of voiceless coronal affricate phonemes in the Chinese languages (six in Mandarin Chinese: /ts/, /tʂ/, /tɕ/, /tsʰ/, /tʂʰ/, /tɕʰ/), whereas English only has one: /tʃ/ ("ch"). The "ng" reflfects the greater phonotactic constraints on codas in many Chinese languages; for example, Mandarin only allows /n/ or /ŋ/ ("ng") in syllable codas.

While usually intended for ethnic Chinese, the slur has also been directed at other East Asians. Mary Paik Lee, a Korean immigrant who arrived with her family in San Francisco in 1906, writes in her autobiography that on her first day of school, girls circled and hit her, chanting:

Ching Chong, Chinaman,
Sitting on a wall.
Along came a white man,
And chopped his tail off.[3]

A variation of this rhyme is repeated by a young boy in John Steinbeck's novel Cannery Row in mockery of a Chinese man. In this version, "wall" is replaced with "rail", and the phrase "chopped his tail off" is changed to "chopped off his tail".

In 1917, a ragtime piano song entitled "Ching Chong" was co-written by Lee S. Roberts and J. Will Callahan.[4] Its lyrics contained the following words:

"Ching, Chong, Oh Mister Ching Chong,
You are the king of Chinatown.
Ching Chong, I love your sing-song,
When you have turned the lights all down."

Modern incidents[edit]

In December 2002, NBA star Shaquille O'Neal received media flak for saying "Tell [NBA center] Yao Ming, 'Ching chong yang, wah, ah soh'" during an interview on Fox Sports Net.[5] O'Neal later said it was locker-room humor and he meant no offense. Yao believed that O'Neal was joking, but he said a lot of Asians would not see the humor.[6] Yao joked, "Chinese is hard to learn. I had trouble with it when I was little."[7] O'Neal added, "I mean, if I was the first one to do it, and the only one to do it, I could see what they're talking about. But if I offended anybody, I apologize."[7]

On January 24, 2006, comedian Dave Dameshek created an audio parody of the Asian Excellence Awards for The Adam Carolla Show. The premise of the parody was using the words "ching" and "chong" to mimic the awards show.[8] Branding the segment as demeaning and racist, several Asian American organizations threatened to ask advertisers to withdraw their support from the show if the station did not issue an apology.[9][10] On February 22, 2006, Carolla read a brief apology for the segment.[11] On April 26, 2006, Carolla had the head of the Media Action Network for Asian Americans, Guy Aoki on his show. Aoki opined that "ching chong" is the equivalent to the "N-word".[12][13]

In November 2006, Bryn Mawr College canceled a performance by the independent band Ching Chong Song, both of whose members are white, after protests from various campus groups, including the Asian Students Association.[14]

On December 5, 2006 comedian and co-host Rosie O'Donnell of The View used a series of ching chongs to imitate newscasters in China.[2] O'Donnell made a comment in reference to people in China talking about Danny DeVito's drunken appearance on the show, "You know, you can imagine in China it's like, 'Ching-chong, ching-chong. Danny DeVito. Ching-chong, ching-chong-chong. Drunk. The View. Ching-chong.'"[15] The Asian American Journalists Association said her comments were "a mockery of the Chinese language and, in effect, a perpetuation of stereotypes of Asian Americans as foreigners or second-class citizens ... and gives the impression that they are a group that is substandard to English-speaking people"[16] Cindi Berger, O'Donnell's representative, said: "She's a comedian in addition to being a talk show co-host. I certainly hope that one day they will be able to grasp her humor." On December 14 on The View, O'Donnell said she was unaware that ching chong was an offensive way to make fun of Asian accents, and she was informed it was on par with the "N-word". She apologized to "those people who felt hurt".[17][18] Jeff Yang, who tracks Asian and Asian-American trends for a market research firm, said O'Donnell shouldn't have apologized for people's hurt feelings. "She should have apologized for spreading and encouraging ignorance."[2] O'Donnell warned that "there's a good chance I'll do something like that again, probably in the next week, not on purpose. Only 'cause it's how my brain works."[19] Time called it a "pseudo-apology".[20] O'Donnell later wrote in her autobiography Celebrity Detox: The Fame Game that "I wish I had been a bit more pure in my public apology."[21]

In 2010, the Pan Asian Repertory Theatre was forced to release a statement explaining their decision to produce a play by Lauren Yee titled Ching Chong Chinaman. Artistic Producing Director Tisa Chang explained the controversy as follows:

It has come to my attention that some in the community do not understand why Pan Asian is producing a play with the controversial title CHING CHONG CHINAMAN and how much emotional upset and consternation it is creating. This is my open letter to try to clarify this miscommunication.

CHING CHONG CHINAMAN takes its controversial title from the late 19th century pejorative jingle and uses irony and satire to reverse prejudicial attitudes towards Asians and other outsiders. This is a funny and surprising new perspective from a young writer tackling assumptions of stereotype which are not relegated to any one race and can be evidenced within our own.[22]

On January 19, 2011, conservative political commentator Rush Limbaugh mocked Chinese president Hu Jintao during his visit to the White House on his radio show. "Hu Jintao -- He was speaking and they weren’t translating. They normally translate every couple of words. Hu Jintao was just going ching chong, ching chong cha," said Limbaugh, who imitated Hu's speech for 17 seconds. Representative Judy Chu of California said that Limbaugh's words were the same ones that Chinese Americans have heard in the past 150 years as they faced racial discrimination while "they were called racial slurs, were spat upon in the streets, derided in the halls of Congress and even brutally murdered."[23] New York Assemblywoman Grace Meng said it was Limbaugh's prerogative to attack Hu, "but at the same time he offended 13% of New York City's population."[24] California State Senator Leland Yee also criticized Limbaugh for his remarks: "His classless act is an insult to over 3,000 years of cultural history, and is a slap in the face to the millions of Chinese Americans who have struggled in this country and to a people who constitute one-quarter of the world's population."[23] Yee demanded an apology from Limbaugh for what he and others view as racist and derogatory remarks. He also organized with civil rights groups—including Chinese for Affirmative Action, Japanese American Citizens League and the California National Organization for Women—to boycott companies like ProFlowers, Sleep Train and Domino's Pizza that advertise on Limbaugh's talk show.[24][25] Yee has received threatening messages and also received a fax from an unknown sender which made racist comments and called him a Marxist. "Rush Limbaugh will kick your Chink ass and expose you for the fool you are," part of the memo said.[26]

In March 2011, UCLA student Alexandra Wallace uploaded a YouTube video entitled "UCLA Asians in the library", ranting about the "hordes of Asians" in UCLA who don't "use American manners".[27][28][29] In a rant about Asians speaking loudly on a cellphone in the campus library, she mimicked one as saying, "Ohhh! Ching chong ling long ting tong? Ohhh!".[30][31] The video went viral, resulting in the student receiving multiple death threats via e-mails and telephone calls.[28] Her rant inspired heated criticism, not only because of her use of the "ching chong" stereotype but also because of the timing: a major tsunami had just occurred in Japan, leading her to complain, "I swear they're going through their whole families, just checking on everybody from the tsunami thing."[31] Responses included a line of T-shirts featuring the "Ching-chong" slur, with all proceeds going to Red Cross relief for the tsunami.[31] Over 40 percent of the school's 36,000 students are Asian American and Pacific Islanders. The Sacramento Bee wrote, "The students [she] mocked can inspire resentment, jealousy and fear—the kindling of ethnic slurs— because their success is about achievement and a pathway to status."[32] UCLA deemed the video offensive and called it "repugnant". The student later wrote to The Daily Bruin, issuing an apology to "the entire UCLA campus".[28][33][34][35][36] The New York Times published an editorial criticizing the video, but supporting her First Amendment right to free speech.[37] Several days later, UCLA announced it would not discipline the student, but she withdrew from the university.[38][39] AsianWeek wrote that "any negatives [the student] experienced are just a fraction of what Asian Americans have experienced since coming to America."[40]

A Colbert Report tweet, in March 2014, brought the slur back into the limelight. The Colbert Report was poking fun at the controversy surrounding the name of the Washington Redskins football team, along with that team's owner's response to the squabble. The team's owner, Daniel Snyder, had announced that he was dedicating a charity to Native Americans. The Colbert Report tweeted, "I am willing to show #Asian community I care by introducing the Ching-Chong Ding-Dong Foundation for Sensitivity to Orientals or Whatever."[41] This quickly led to people creating a #CancelColbert hashtag, and the show's Twitter account pointed out that the tweet had not come from Stephen Colbert himself, but from a Comedy Central account. Some other Twitter users supported Colbert and his show, while others demanded an apology.

In July 2014, a customer service representative at the Bowery Street Whole Foods store in New York city, asked a Chinese American customer who went there for a pre-order for his Fourth of July celebration, "Are you the ching-chong?"[42] Whole Foods has investigated into the incident after media attention but has not made a public apology.[43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tang, Irwin (3 January 2003). "APA Community Should Tell Shaquille O’Neal to ‘Come down to Chinatown.’". AsianWeek. Archived from the original on 2010-11-08. Retrieved 2010-11-09. "Also in June, Shaq announced that he would test Yao’s toughness by taking an elbow to Yao’s face. This comment, combined with Shaq’s racist taunts are particularly disturbing, as Asian Pacific Americans often suffer racial taunts while being assaulted or physically intimidated." 
  2. ^ a b c Chung, L.A. (16 December 2006). "'Ching-chong' joke spreads ignorance". San Jose Mercury News. Archived from the original on 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2010-11-09. "Those words once accompanied violence and lynchings. "Ching-Chong Chinaman" rhymes dating to the 19th century weren't just schoolyard taunts. To be ignorant of that, as O'Donnell was, doesn't eliminate the history. Americans also mock Chinese Americans such as calling them by their Chinese name, Such as "Hon Man" or any other name" 
  3. ^ Paik Lee, Mary (1990). Sucheng Chan, ed. Quiet Odyssey: A Pioneer Korean Woman in America. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 16–17. 
  4. ^ 'Ching Chong,' words by J. Will Callahan, music by Lee S. Roberts
  5. ^ Guillermo, Emil (14 January 2003). "Shaq's Apology Not Good Enough". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2010-11-09. "Perhaps we should put it in terms Shaq might understand: If a white comedian imitated Shaq by making monkey sounds while eating fried chicken and watermelon, would the point be clearer?" 
  6. ^ Vecsey, George (12 January 2003). "Sports of The Times; Fans in Shanghai Are Voting in the Mainstream". New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2010. "Yao quickly said: "The world is getting smaller, and I think it's important to have a greater understanding of other cultures. I believe Shaquille O'Neal was joking, but I think that a lot of Asian people don't understand that kind of joke."" 
  7. ^ a b Brown, Tim (10 January 2003). "Tall tale? Shaq says Yao comments were said in jest". SI.com (CNN). Associated Press. Retrieved 26 August 2010. ""Chinese is hard to learn. I had trouble with it when I was little," Yao joked." 
  8. ^ Adam Carolla on January 24, 2006 (mp3)
  9. ^ Wu, Esther (2006-01-27). "Radio Show Mocks Asian Awards Ceremony". Asian American Journalists Association. Archived from the original on 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2010-11-09. 
  10. ^ "CAAM Guest Filmmaker Blogs | CAAM Home". Asianamericanmedia.org. Archived from the original on 2008-02-13. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  11. ^ Adam Carolla on February 22, 2006 (mp3)
  12. ^ Braxton, Greg (27 April 2006). "An exchange of opinions?". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2010-11-09. "Though Carolla said he should have checked the routine before it aired, Aoki and Teddy Zee, the producer of the awards show who accompanied Aoki to the program, said that Carolla seemed to be dodging responsibility for the routine." 
  13. ^ "The Adam Carolla Show". 26 April 2006. CBS Radio. KLSX-FM (97.1). http://angryasianman.com/other/adamcarolla2006-04-26.mp3. "I had no idea. "Ching chong" to most "round eyes", as we call ourselves, are just a simple nursery school, whatever, make-fun-of ryhme. It means nothing to us. We don't know certain things and I'm glad you have enlightened us."
  14. ^ LaMendola, Julie (February 6, 2007). "Letter to the Editor". The Bi-College News. Archived from the original on November 19, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2010. 
  15. ^ Bonisteel, Sara (11 December 2006). "Asian Leaders Angered by Rosie O'Donnell's 'Ching Chong' Comments". Fox News. Retrieved 27 August 2010. ""The View" co-host is in hot water for using the expression "ching chong" to describe Chinese people talking about Danny DeVito's drunken appearance on her show." 
  16. ^ Astudillo, Rene M. (8 December 2006). "AAJA Responds to Rosie O'Donnell's Offensive Mimic". Asian American Journalists Association. Archived from the original on 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2010-11-09. "We feel strongly that it is our responsibility to call attention to what we consider a mockery of the Chinese language and, in effect, a perpetuation of stereotypes of Asian Americans as foreigners or second-class citizens." 
  17. ^ Silverman, Stephen M. (14 December 2006). "Rosie Apologizes for Asian Joke on The View". People. Archived from the original on 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2010-11-09. "So apparently 'ching-chong,' unbeknownst to me, is a very offensive way to make fun, quote-unquote, or mock, Asian accents. Some people have told me it's as bad as the n-word. I was like, really? I didn't know that." 
  18. ^ Ono, Kent A.; Pham, Vincent (2008). Asian Americans and the Media. Polity. pp. 104–107. ISBN 978-0-7456-4273-4. Retrieved March 23, 2011. 
  19. ^ Hua, Vanessa (15 December 2006). "O'Donnell apologizes for Chinese parody / But comedian warns she is likely to spoof languages again". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2010-11-09. "But I'm also gonna give you a fair warning that there's a good chance I'll do something like that again, probably in the next week -- not on purpose. Only 'cause it's how my brain works." 
  20. ^ "Apologies: a Great Tradition". Time.com. 10 April 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
  21. ^ O'Donnell, Rosie (2007). Celebrity Detox: (The Fame Game). Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 978-0-446-58224-7. Retrieved March 23, 2011. 
  22. ^ Chang, Tisa (2010). "Ching Chong Chinaman". Pan Asian Repertory Theatre. Retrieved 19 June 2011. 
  23. ^ a b "Rush Limbaugh Mocks Chinese President Hu Jintao". ABC News. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-21. 
  24. ^ a b "Asian-American officials seek Limbaugh apology". USA Today. Associated Press. January 28, 2011. Retrieved January 28, 2011. "She added: "He was, in his own way, trying to attack the leader of another country, and that's his prerogative as well, but at the same time he offended 13% of New York City's population."" 
  25. ^ Lin, Judy (January 28, 2011). "Asian-American lawmakers demand Limbaugh apology". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 28, 2011. Retrieved January 28, 2011. "In recent days, the state lawmaker has rallied civil rights groups in a boycott of companies like Pro Flowers, Sleep Train and Domino's Pizza that advertise on Limbaugh's talk show." 
  26. ^ "Senator Yee says racist statements, death threats need to stop". MercuryNews.com (MediaNews Group). Bay City News Service. January 27, 2011. Archived from the original on January 28, 2011. Retrieved January 28, 2011. "State Sen. Leland Yee said at a San Francisco news conference today that threatening messages sent to his office via fax, text message and email need to stop, and that the messages have made him disappointed in the country." 
  27. ^ Ching Chong! Asians in the Library Song (Response to UCLA's Alexandra Wallace) - YouTube
  28. ^ a b c "Alexandra Wallace: YouTube racist Asian rant on day of Japan tsunami | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. 2011-03-15. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  29. ^ Lovett, Ian (March 15, 2011). "U.C.L.A. Student’s Video Rant Against Asians Fuels Firestorm". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Making ting tong cool". The Economist. February 4, 2012. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. 
  31. ^ a b c Wilson, Simone. "Alexandra Wallace, UCLA Student, Rants on Asians for Phoning Tsunami Victims in the Library (VIDEO)". L.A. Weekly. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  32. ^ Breton, Marcos (March 20, 2011). "UCLA student's slurs gave new voice to old prejudice". Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on July 2, 2011. 
  33. ^ Mashhood, Farzad; Parkinson-Morgan, Kate (March 13, 2011). "UPDATED: Viral YouTube video called "repugnant" by UCLA administration". The Daily Bruin. Archived from the original on April 28, 2011. 
  34. ^ "*UPDATED:* UCLA student's YouTube video 'Asians in the Library' prompts death threats; violent responses criticized as equally damaging". The Daily Bruin. 2011-03-15. Retrieved 2012-09-05. 
  35. ^ Kelly, Devin (March 16, 2011). "From the regents meeting: Students speak with UC Regents about campus climate in light of offensive YouTube video". The Daily Bruin. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. 
  36. ^ Parkinson-Morgan, Kate (March 17, 2011). "UCLA law professor says Alexandra Wallace's YouTube video constitutionally protected, police still investigating threats". The Daily Bruin. Archived from the original on March 22, 2011. 
  37. ^ "The U.C.L.A. Video". The New York Times. March 17, 2011. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. 
  38. ^ Gordon, Larry. "UCLA won't discipline creator of controversial video, who later withdraws from university". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  39. ^ Alexander, Jackie (February 16, 2012). "These days, videos can swiftly go viral". The Gainesville Sun. Archived from the original on September 5, 2012. 
  40. ^ Guillermo, Emil (May 21, 2011). "Amok: This year, Alexandra Wallace for Street Fair Queen". AsianWeek. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012. 
  41. ^ Stephen Colbert on the Defensive After ‘Ching-Chong Ding-Dong’ Tweet - ABC News
  42. ^ "Whole Foods investigates apparently racist incident at New York store". AsAmNews. July 5, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2014. 
  43. ^ "Whole Foods opens dialogue about racist incident, but no public apology". AsAmNews. July 7, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2014.