Chionanthus

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fringetrees
Chionanthus pygmaeus USBG.jpg
Chionanthus pygmaeus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Tribe: Oleeae
Genus: Chionanthus
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Mayepea Aubl.
  • Freyeria Scop.
  • Thouinia L.f.
  • Ceranthus Schreb.
  • Cylindria Lour.
  • Linociera Sw. ex Schreb.
  • Bonamica Vell.
  • Minutia Vell.
  • Pogenda Raf.
  • Tessarandra Miers
  • Dekindtia Gilg
  • Campanolea Gilg & G.Schellenb.
  • Sarlina Guillaumin

Chionanthus /ˌk.ɵˈnænθəs/, common name: fringetrees, is a genus of about 150 species of flowering plants in the family Oleaceae.

Chionanthus virginicus flowers
Chionanthus pubescens
Chionanthus retusus flowers

The genus has a wide distribution primarily in the tropics and subtropics, but with three species extending north into temperate regions, one (C. retusus) in eastern Asia and two (C. virginicus and C. henryae) in eastern North America.[1][2] Most of the tropical species are evergreen, while the three temperate species are deciduous. Some botanists restrict Chionanthus to the deciduous, temperate species, treating the evergreen species in a separate genus Linociera, but apart from leaf persistence, there is no other consistent difference between them.

They are shrubs and small to medium-sized trees growing to 3–25 m tall. The leaves are opposite, simple. The flowers are produced in feathery panicles, with a corolla subdivided into four slender lobes; they are white, pale yellow, or tinged pink. The fruit is a drupe containing a single seed.[2]

Species[edit]

The following species are accepted by[1]

  1. Chionanthus acunae (Borhidi & O.Muñiz) Borhidi - Cuba
  2. Chionanthus adamsii Stearn - Jamaica
  3. Chionanthus africanus (Knobl.) Stearn - tropical Africa
  4. Chionanthus albidiflorus ThwaitesSri Lanka
  5. Chionanthus amblirrhinus P.S.Green - Thailand
  6. Chionanthus avilensis (Steyerm.) P.S.Green - Venezuela
  7. Chionanthus axillaris R.Br. – Australia (Queensland)
  8. Chionanthus axilliflorus {{Au|(Griseb.) Stearn}} – Caribbean
  9. Chionanthus ayresii A.J.Scott - Mauritius
  10. Chionanthus bakeri (Urb.) Stearn - Cuba
  11. Chionanthus balgooyana KiewSarawak
  12. Chionanthus battiscombei (Hutch.) Stearn - eastern + southern Africa
  13. Chionanthus beccarii (Stapf) Kiew - Sumatra
  14. Chionanthus boutonii A.J.Scott - Mauritius
  15. Chionanthus brachystachys (Schltr.) P.S.Green - New Caledonia
  16. Chionanthus brachythyrsus (Merrill) P.S.Green – Southern China (Hainan), Vietnam
  17. Chionanthus brassii (Kobuski) Kiew - Papua New Guinea
  18. Chionanthus broomeanus (Horne ex Oliv.) A.J.ScottRéunion + Mauritius
  19. Chionanthus bumelioides (Griseb.) Stearn - Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola
  20. Chionanthus calcicola (Kerr) Kiew - Malaysia + Thailand
  21. Chionanthus callophylloides KiewSarawak + Sabah
  22. Chionanthus callophyllus Blume – Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo
  23. Chionanthus camptoneurus (Gilg & G.Schellenb.) Stearn - Cameroon + Gabon
  24. Chionanthus caudifolius (Ridl.) Kiew - Peninsular Malaysia
  25. Chionanthus caymanensis Stearn - Cayman Islands
  26. Chionanthus celebicus Koord - Sulawesi
  27. Chionanthus clementis (Quisumb. & Merr.) Kiew - Philippines
  28. Chionanthus colonchensis Cornejo & Bonifaz - Ecuador
  29. Chionanthus compactus Sw. – Caribbean
  30. Chionanthus cordifolius Labat, Marc Pignal & O.Pascal - Comoros
  31. Chionanthus cordulatus Koord.Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines
  32. Chionanthus coriaceus (S.Vidal) Yuen P.Yang & S.Y.Lu - Taiwan + Philippines
  33. Chionanthus crassifolius (Mart.) P.S.Green - Brazil
  34. Chionanthus crispus KiewSabah
  35. Chionanthus curvicarpus Kiew – Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines
  36. Chionanthus cuspidatus Blume - Borneo
  37. Chionanthus decipiens P.S.Green - Myanmar + Thailand
  38. Chionanthus densiflorus Zoll. & Moritzi - Java
  39. Chionanthus dictyophyllus (Urb.) Stearn - Hispaniola
  40. Chionanthus diversifolius Miq - Sumatra
  41. Chionanthus domingensis Lam. – Caribbean
  42. Chionanthus dussii (Krug & Urb.) Stearn - Dominica + Martinique
  43. Chionanthus ellipticus Blume - Java + Sumatra
  44. Chionanthus enerve (Steenis) Kiew - Borneo
  45. Chionanthus eriorachis (Kerr) P.S.Green - Thailand
  46. Chionanthus evenius (Stapf) KiewMalesia
  47. Chionanthus ferrugineus (Gilg) P.S.Green - Brazil
  48. Chionanthus filiformis (Vell.) P.S.Green - Brazil
  49. Chionanthus fluminensis (Miers) P.S.Green - Brazil
  50. Chionanthus foveolatus (E.Mey.) Stearn (Pock Ironwood) – Southern Africa
  51. Chionanthus gigantifolius Koord - Sulawesi
  52. Chionanthus gigas (Lingelsh.) Kiew - New Guinea
  53. Chionanthus globosus (Kiew) Kiew – Borneo
  54. Chionanthus glomeratus Blume - Sumatra
  55. Chionanthus grandifolius (Elmer) Kiew - Philippines
  56. Chionanthus greenii Lombardi - Brazil
  57. Chionanthus guangxiensis B.M.Miao. – Southeastern China (Guangxi).
  58. Chionanthus guianensis (Aubl.) Pers - Venezuela + French Guiana
  59. Chionanthus hahlii (Rech.) Kiew - Bismarck, Solomons, Samoa
  60. Chionanthus hainanensis (Merrill & Chun) B.M.Miao. – Southern China (Hainan)
  61. Chionanthus havilandii Kiew – Borneo
  62. Chionanthus henryae H.L.Li - USA (Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Arkansas)
  63. Chionanthus henryanus P.S.Green. – Southwestern China, Burma
  64. Chionanthus holdridgei (Camp & Monachino) Stearn – Caribbean
  65. Chionanthus implicatus (Rusby) P.S.Green - South America
  66. Chionanthus intermedius (Wight) F.Muell.India
  67. Chionanthus insularis Labat - Comoros
  68. Chionanthus jamaicensis (Urb.) Stearn - Jamaica
  69. Chionanthus kinabaluensis Kiew – Borneo
  70. Chionanthus kajewskii (Sleumer) Kiew - Solomon Islands
  71. Chionanthus lancifolius (Ridl.) Kiew - Peninsular Malaysia
  72. Chionanthus leopoldii Kiew – Borneo
  73. Chionanthus ligustrinus (Sw.) Pers. – Caribbean
  74. Chionanthus littoreus Miq - Sumatra
  75. Chionanthus longiflorus (H.L.Li) B.M.Miao. – Southwestern China (Yunnan)
  76. Chionanthus longipetalus (Merr.) Kiew - Sabah, Sarawak
  77. Chionanthus lucens KiewSabah
  78. Chionanthus luzonicus Blume - Philippines
  79. Chionanthus macrobotrys (Merr.) Kiew - Sabah, Sarawak
  80. Chionanthus macrocarpus Blume – Indonesia, Malaysia
  81. Chionanthus macrothyrsus (Merr.) Soejarto & P.K.Lôc - Vietnam
  82. Chionanthus mala-elengi (Dennst.) P.S.Green - India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, Cambodia, Peninsular Malaysia, Andaman Islands
  83. Chionanthus mannii (Soler.) Stearn - western + central Africa
  84. Chionanthus maxwellii P.S.Green - Thailand
  85. Chionanthus micranthus (Mart.) Lozano & Fuertes - Brazil
  86. Chionanthus microbotrys (Kerr) P.S.Green - Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
  87. Chionanthus microstigma (Gagnep.) P.S.Green - Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
  88. Chionanthus mildbraedii (Gilg & G.Schellenb.) Stearn - central Africa
  89. Chionanthus minutiflorus Kurz - Burma
  90. Chionanthus montanus Blume - Java, Sulawesi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands
  91. Chionanthus niloticus (Oliv.) Stearn - tropical Africa
  92. Chionanthus nitens Koord. & Valeton - Java, Sulawesi
  93. Chionanthus nitidus (Merr.) Kiew - Philippines
  94. Chionanthus oblanceolatus (B.L.Rob.) P.S.Green - Mexico + Central America
  95. Chionanthus oblongifolius Koord. & Valeton - Java
  96. Chionanthus obtusifolius (Lam.) Stearn - Madagascar
  97. Chionanthus oliganthus (Merr.) Kiew - Sabah, Sarawak
  98. Chionanthus pachyphyllus (Merr.) Kiew – Borneo
  99. Chionanthus palustris Kiew – Borneo
  100. Chionanthus panamensis (Standl.) Stearn - Mexico, Central America
  101. Chionanthus parkinsonii (Hutch.) Bennet & Raizada - Thailand, Vietnam, Andaman & Nicobar Islands
  102. Chionanthus pedunculatus P.S.Green - New Caledonia
  103. Chionanthus peglerae (C.H.Wright) Stearn - South Africa (Natal + Cape Province)
  104. Chionanthus picrophloia F.Muell. – Australia (Queensland)
  105. Chionanthus plurifloroides Kiew – Borneo
  106. Chionanthus pluriflorus (Knobl.) Kiew – Borneo
  107. Chionanthus polycephalus Kiew – Borneo
  108. Chionanthus polygamus (Roxb.) Kiew – Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea
  109. Chionanthus porcatus Kiew – Borneo
  110. Chionanthus proctorii Stearn - Jamaica
  111. Chionanthus pubescens Kunth. Ecuador, Peru, Malaysia
  112. Chionanthus pubicalyx (Ridl.) Kiew – Borneo
  113. Chionanthus purpureus Lam. - Sri Lanka
  114. Chionanthus pygmaeus Small (Pygmy Fringetree) – Southeastern United States (Florida)
  115. Chionanthus quadristamineus F.Muell. – Australia (Lord Howe Island endemic)
  116. Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxburgh – Australia (Queensland), southern China, India, Nepal, Vietnam
  117. Chionanthus remotinervius (Merr.) Kiew - Philippines
  118. Chionanthus retusus Lindley & Paxton (Chinese Fringetree) – China, Japan, Korea
  119. Chionanthus richardsiae Stearn - Zambia
  120. Chionanthus riparius (Lingelsh.) Kiew - New Guinea
  121. Chionanthus rostratus (Teijsm. & Binn.) Miq. - Java
  122. Chionanthus rugosus Kiew – Borneo
  123. Chionanthus rupicola (Lingelsh.) Kiew - Indonesia, New Guinea
  124. Chionanthus sabahensis Kiew – Sabah
  125. Chionanthus salicifolius (Lingelsh.) Kiew - New Guinea
  126. Chionanthus sessiliflorus (Hemsl.) Kiew - New Guinea + Solomon Islands
  127. Chionanthus sleumeri (C.T.White) Stearn – Australia (Queensland)
  128. Chionanthus spicatus Blume – Borneo
  129. Chionanthus spiciferus (Ridl.) Kiew - Peninsular Malaysia
  130. Chionanthus stenurus (Merr.) Kiew - Sulawesi
  131. Chionanthus subsessilis (Eichler) P.S.Green - Brazil
  132. Chionanthus sumatranus Blume - Sumatra + Andaman Islands
  133. Chionanthus sutepensis (Kerr) P.S.Green - Thailand
  134. Chionanthus tenuis P.S.Green - Brazil
  135. Chionanthus thorelii (Gagnep.) P.S.Green - Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam
  136. Chionanthus timorensis Blume - Timor
  137. Chionanthus trichotomus (Vell.) P.S.Green - Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay
  138. Chionanthus tropophyllus (H.Perrier) Stearn - Madagascar
  139. Chionanthus urbanii (Knobl.) Stearn - Hispaniola
  140. Chionanthus velutinus (Kerr) P.S.Green - Thailand
  141. Chionanthus verruculatus D.Fang - China (Guangxi)
  142. Chionanthus verticillatus (Gagnep.) Soejarto & P.K.Lôc - Vietnam
  143. Chionanthus virginicus L. (White Fringetree) – Eastern United States (Texas to Florida to Massachusetts to Missouri)
  144. Chionanthus vitiensis (Seem.) A.C.Sm. - Niue, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga
  145. Chionanthus wurdackii B.Ståhl - Peru
  146. Chionanthus zeylanicus L. - Sri Lanka, southern India
  147. Chionanthus zollingerianus Koord. & Valeton - Java

References[edit]

Cited works[edit]

  • Hyland, B. P. M.; Whiffin, T.; Zich, F. A. et al. (Dec 2010). "Home". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Edition 6.1, online version [RFK 6.1]. Cairns, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), through its Division of Plant Industry; the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 

External links[edit]