Chipaya language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Chipaya
Puquina
Region Bolivian Andes
Native speakers
1,200  (1995)[1]
Uru–Chipaya
  • Chipaya
Language codes
ISO 639-3 cap
Glottolog chip1262[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Chipaya is a native South American language of the Uru–Chipaya language family. The only other language in the grouping, Uru, is considered by some to be a divergent dialect of Chipaya. Ethnologue lists the language vitality as "vigorous," with 1200 speakers out of an ethnic population of around 1800. Chipaya has been influenced considerably by Aymara, Quechua, and more recently, Spanish, with a third of its vocabulary having been replaced by those languages.

The Chipayan language is spoken in the area south of Lake Titicaca along the Desaguadero River in the mountains of Bolivia and mainly in the town of Chipaya located in the Sabaya Province of the Bolivian department of Oruro north of Coipasa Salt Flats. Native speakers generally refer to it as Puquina or Uchun Maa Taqu ("our mother language"), but is not the same as the extinct Puquina language. Chipaya is an agglutinating language, but has features uncommon to most language of this type, according to preliminary research by the organization DOBES.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

  Bilabial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular
plain labialized plain labialized
Nasal   m  /m/   n  /n/   ň  /ɲ/     ŋ  /ŋ/      
Plosive plain   p  /p/   t  /t/     č  /c/   k  /k/    /kʷ/   q  /q/  
ejective   p'  /pʼ/   t'  /tʼ/     č'  /cʼ/   k'  /kʼ/     q'  /qʼ/  
Affricate plain     ¢  /ts/   ch  /tʃ/          
ejective     ¢'  /tsʼ/   ch'  /tʃʼ/          
Fricative     s  /s/   sh  /ʃ/   š  /ç/   h  /x/    /xʷ/   x  /χ/    /χʷ/
Approximant     l  /l/    /lʲ/   y  /j/     w  /w/    

Consonant clusters[edit]

Multiple possibilities are separated by slashes, and optional elements are enclosed in parentheses.

Possible syllable onsets are:

  • (s/š) + p + (h)
  • (s/š/sh) + k/q + (h//x/)
  • s/š + p/k//q//h//m/n
  • t + h//x/
  • ¢/č/ch/l + h

Possible syllable codas are:

  • h/x + p/t/k/q/l//r + (t)
  • / + k/q + (t)
  • Consonant + t

Vowels[edit]

  • Vowels have continental values for a, [a], e [e], i [i], o, [o], and u [u]. Each vowel can be short, e.g., a [a], or long, e.g., a• [aː].

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chipaya at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Chipaya". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

External links[edit]