||It has been suggested that Chiropractor be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2014.|
Chiropractic education trains future chiropractors. The entry criteria, structure, teaching methodology and nature of chiropractic programs offered at chiropractic schools vary considerably around the world.
Regardless of the model of education utilized, prospective chiropractors without relevant prior health care education or experience, must spend no less than 4200 student/teacher contact hours (or the equivalent) in four years of full‐time education. This includes a minimum of 1000 hours of supervised clinical training.
According to Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), 52% of health professionals in the United States in default on Health Education Assistance Loans (a program running from 1978 to 1998) in 2013 are chiropractors, representing approximately 0.89% of total chiropractors. In Canada, only 1% of chiropractic graduates defaulted on their student loans.
No major universities in the United States of America have an affiliated college of chiropractic. Currently all programs exist in non-university affiliated colleges.
The fourth year of education persistently showed the highest stress levels. Every student, irrespective of year, experienced different ranges of stress when studying. The chiropractic leaders and colleges have had internal struggles. Rather than cooperation, there has been infighting between different factions. A number of actions were posturing due to the confidential nature of the chiropractic colleges in an attempt to enroll students.
International degrees in Chiropractic
|Degree||Full Name||Country in which it is awarded|
|B.App.Sc. (clin). & B.C.Sc.||Bachelor of Applied Science (Clinical Science) & Bachelor of Chiropractic Science||Japan|
|B.Sc. (chiro) & B.C.||Bachelor of Science (Chiropractic) & Bachelor of Chiropractic||Australia, Japan|
|B.App.Sc. (Compl) & M.Clin.Chiro.||Bachelor of Applied Science (Complementary Medicine) & Master of Clinical Chiropractic||Australia|
|B.Chiro.||Bachelor of Chiropractic||New Zealand|
|B.Chiro. & M.Chiro||Bachelor of Chiropractic & Master of Chiropractic||Australia|
|B.Sc. (Hons) Chiro||Bachelor of Science (Hons) Chiropractic||Malaysia|
|B.Tech. (chiro) and M.Tech. (chiro)||Bachelor in Technology (Chiropractic) & Master in Technology (Chiropractic)||South Africa|
|D.C.||Doctor of Chiropractic||Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, United States|
|M.C. or M.Chiro.||Master of Chiropractic or Master in Chiropractic||Australia, Switzerland, UK|
|M.C.B.||Master in Clinical Biomechanics||Denmark|
|M.Tech. (chiro)||Master in Technology, Chiropractic||South Africa|
Licensure and regulation
Regulations for chiropractic practice vary considerably from country to country. In some countries, such as. the United States of America, Canada and some European countries, chiropractic has been legally recognized and formal university degrees have been established. In these countries, the profession is regulated and the prescribed educational qualifications are generally consistent, satisfying the requirements of the respective accrediting agencies. However, many countries have not yet developed chiropractic education or established laws to regulate the qualified practice of chiropractic. In addition, in some countries, other qualified health professionals and lay practitioners may use techniques of spinal manipulation and claim to provide chiropractic services, although they may not have received chiropractic training in an accredited programme.
Chiropractic is governed internationally by the Councils on Chiropractic Education International (CCEI). This body is recognized by the World Federation of Chiropractic and the World Health Organization as the accrediting agency for schools of chiropractic around the world. The minimum prerequisite for enrollment in a chiropractic college set forth by the CCEI is 90 semester hours, and the minimum cumulative GPA for a student entering is 3.0 on a 4.0 scale. Common prerequisite classes include those of the biological, chemical, & physical sciences, including: human anatomy and physiology, embryology, genetics, microbiology, immunology, cellular biology, exercise physiology, kinesiology, general chemistry, organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology/pharmacology, nutrition, nuclear medicine, physics, biomechanics, and statistics. Chiropractic programs require at least 4,200 hours of combined classroom, laboratory, and clinical experience.
In Australia, a minimum of five-years worth of chiropractic education is needed before one may register as a practicing chiropractor. Chiropractic is taught at four public universities: RMIT in Melbourne, Murdoch University in Perth, Macquarie University in Sydney and new in 2012 Central Queensland University in Mackay. The RMIT, UCQ and Macquarie programs graduate chiropractors with a bachelor's degree followed by a master's degree while Murdoch University graduates attain a double bachelor's degree, any of which is necessary for registration with state registration boards.
A graduate of RMIT will have attained a Bachelor of Applied Science (Chiropractic) and a Master of Clinical Chiropractic. Similarly, a typical graduate of Macquarie University will have a Bachelor of Chiropractic Science followed by a Master of Chiropractic. Murdoch University graduates possess the double-degree of Bachelor of Science (Chiropractic Science) / Bachelor of Chiropractic. Students at University of Central Queensland graduate with a Bachelor of Science (Chiropractic) followed by a Master of Chiropractic Science.
There are currently two schools of chiropractic in Canada: Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, in Toronto, Ontario and the Universite du Quebec a Trois Rivieres, in Trois Rivieres, Quebec. Both programs are fully accredited by the Canadian Federation of Chiropractic Regulatory and Educational Accrediting Boards. In 2010, the majority of students (87%) entering the CMCC program had completed a baccalaureate university degree, and approximately 3% have a graduate degree. The CMCC program is a privately funded institution and requires four years of full-time study, including a 12-month clinical internship. The UQTR and CMCC programs both include courses in anatomy, biochemistry, embryology, immunology, microbiology, neurology, clinical nutrition, pathology, physiology, principles of chiropractic, radiology, and other basic and clinical medical sciences.
Pilot projects involving doctors of chiropractic in hospital emergency rooms in the province of Ontario are underway. Canadian Chiropractic Examining Board requires all candidates to complete a 12 month clinical internship to obtain licensure, as well as write a total of three exams in their fourth year of study. Candidates must successfully pass Components A and B (Written Cognitive Skills Examination) to be eligible for the Clinical Skills Examination. Canadian accrediting standards are higher than the United States, and admission requirements into the Doctorate of Chiropractic Degree program are the strictest in North America.
In South Africa (SA) there are two schools offering chiropractic: the Durban Institute of Technology and the University of Johannesburg. Both offer a 6-year full-time course leading to a Masters of Technology (M.Tech) in Chiropractic; the course comprises two years of basic sciences followed by four years specialising in chiropractic, and incorporates a research dissertation. In order to practice in SA chiropractors are required to complete an internship, and must be registered with the Allied Health Professions Council of SA (AHPCSA) the relevant governmental statutory body. Membership of the Chiropractic Association of SA (CASA) is voluntary; CASA is the profession's sole national association and aims to promote Chiropractic through publications in newspaper, interviews, internet and other public enquiries.
In 1993, HRH Princess Diana visited the Anglo-European College of Chiropractic and became its patron. She also appeared at a news conference that launched a report calling for legislation to prevent unqualified individuals from practicing Chiropractic in the UK. In 1994, Parliament passed legislation regulating the practice of Chiropractic, like other health care professions, and creating the General Chiropractic Council as the regulatory board. Since that time, it is illegal to call oneself a Chiropractor in the UK without being registered with the General Chiropractic Council. There are three UK chiropractic colleges with chiropractic courses recognised by the General Chiropractic Council (GCC), the statutory governmental body responsible for the regulation of chiropractic in the UK.
The McTimoney College of Chiropractic offers an Undergraduate Master Degree in human Chiropractic and two post-graduate Masters programmes in Animal Manipulation, plus a masters in Paediatric Chiropractic. The Anglo-European College of Chiropractic graduates chiropractors with an undergraduate Master's degree (MChiro). The WIOC has also recently changed from a Bsc to an Mchiro programme.
It is a legal requirement that all chiropractors in the UK register with the GCC to practice. A minimum of 30 hours per annum Continuing Professional Development is required to retain registration.
Graduates of chiropractic schools receive the degree Doctor of Chiropractic (DC), and are eligible to seek licensure in all jurisdictions. The Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE) sets minimum guidelines for chiropractic colleges; all 18 chiropractic institutions are accredited by the CCE. The minimum prerequisite for enrollment in a chiropractic college set forth by the CCE is 90 semester hours, and the minimum cumulative GPA for a student entering is 2.5 on a 4.0 scale. Common prerequisite classes include those of the biological, chemical, & physical sciences, including: human anatomy and physiology, embryology, genetics, microbiology, immunology, cellular biology, exercise physiology, kinesiology, general chemistry, organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology/pharmacology, nutrition, nuclear medicine, physics, biomechanics, and statistics. In 1997, American chiropractic schools tended to have lower entry requirements than medical or dental schools. In 2005, only one chiropractic college required a bachelor's degree as an admission requirement.
Chiropractic is governed internationally by the Councils on Chiropractic Education International (CCEI). This body is officially recognized by the World Federation of Chiropractic and the World Health Organization as the accrediting agency for schools of chiropractic around the world.
In 2005, in efforts to improve consistency and equivalency in chiropractic training, the WHO published basic training and safety guidelines to provide international minimum requirements for chiropractic education and to serve as a reference for national authorities in establishing an examination and licensing system for the qualified practice of chiropractic.
- "Basic training and safety in chiropractic". World Health Organization. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- World Health Organization (2005). "WHO guidelines on basic training and safety in chiropractic" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-03-03.
- US Health Resources and Services Administration: http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/scholarshipsloans/heal/
- Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA): http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/scholarshipsloans/heal/defaulters/index.html
- US Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/chiropractors.htm
- Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities: https://osap.gov.on.ca/prodconsum/groups/osap_web_contents/documents/osap_web_contents/prd18721664.pdf
- Hester, H.; Cunliffe, C.; Hunnisett, A. (2013). "Stress in chiropractic education: a student survey of a five-year course.". J Chiropr Educ 27 (2): 147–51. doi:10.7899/JCE-13-4. PMC 3791907. PMID 23957319.
- Johnson, C. (Dec 2010). "Reflecting on 115 years: the chiropractic profession's philosophical path.". J Chiropr Humanit 17 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1016/j.echu.2010.11.001. PMC 3342796. PMID 22693471.
- "Admissions Requirements - D.C". Palmer.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
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- RMIT Chiropractic
- Macquarie University Department of Chiropractic
- Murdoch University Chiropractic
- CQU - Bachelor of Science (Chiropractic)
- "Accreditation of Educational Programmes". Canadian Federation of Chiropractic Regulatory and Educational Accrediting Boards. Retrieved 2009-10-16.
- "An Overview of CMCC Admissions - Shortcuts: Admissions Brochure". Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- "Undergraduate education". Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. Retrieved 2011-08-21.
- "Becoming a Chiropractor". Ontario Chiropractic Association. Retrieved 2009-10-16.
- "Chiropractic Services". St. Michael's Health Centre. Retrieved 2011-11-08.
- Canadian Chiropractic Examining Board
- "CASA : Student Info". Retrieved 2009-10-19.
- Staff (June 18, 1993). "Chiropractic Report Calls for Registry of DCs in United Kingdom". Dynamic Chiropractic 11 (13).
- "Regulation of chiropractic". Retrieved 12/02/2009. Check date values in:
- GCC Criteria for Recognition of Degrees in Chiropractic
- McTimoney College Prospectus
- GCC Continuing Professional Development
- Council on Chiropractic Education (2007). "Standards for Doctor of Chiropractic Programs and Requirements for Institutional Status".
- Council on Chiropractic Education (2007). "Standards for Doctor of Chiropractic Programs and Requirements for Institutional Status". p. 22.
- "Admissions Requirements - D.C". Palmer.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
- Cherkin; Mootz (1997). "Chiropractic in the United States: Training, Practice, and Research". p. 19. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- Wyatt, Lawrence H; Stephen M Perle; Donald R Murphy; Thomas E Hyde (2005-07-07). "The necessary future of chiropractic education: a North American perspective". Chiropractic & Osteopathy 13 (10): 10. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-13-10. PMC 1181629. PMID 16001976.