Surgeon

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In medicine, a surgeon is a specialist in surgery. Surgery is a broad category of invasive medical treatment that involves the cutting of a body, whether that of a human or other animal, for a specific reason such as the removal of diseased tissue or to repair a tear or breakage. Surgeons may be physicians, dentists, or veterinarians.

In the U.S., surgeons train for longer than other specialists; only after 9 years of training do they qualify. These years include 4 years of medical school and a minimum of 5 years of residency.

History[edit]

In early recorded history, surgery was mostly associated with barber-surgeons who also used their hair-cutting tools to undertake surgical procedures, often at the battlefield and also for their royal paymasters. With advances in medicine and physiology, the professions of barbers and surgeons diverged from each other and by the 19th century barber-surgeons had virtually disappeared and surgeons were almost invariably qualified doctors who had specialised in surgery. Surgeon continued, however, to be used as the title for military medical officers until the end of the 19th century and the title of Surgeon General continues to exist either for senior military medical officers or for senior government public health officers.

Titles in the Commonwealth[edit]

In 1950, the Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCS) in London began to offer surgeons a formal status via RCS membership. The title Mister became a badge of honour, and today, in many Commonwealth countries, a qualified doctor who, after at least four years' training, obtains a surgical qualification (formerly Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, but now also Member of the Royal College of Surgeons or a number of other diplomas) is given the honour of being allowed to revert to calling themselves Mr, Miss, Mrs or Ms in the course of their professional practice, but this time the meaning is different. It is sometimes assumed that the change of title implies consultant status (and some mistakenly think non-surgical consultants are Mr too), but the length of postgraduate medical training outside North America is such that a qualified surgeon may be years away from obtaining such a post: many doctors used to obtain these qualifications in the senior house officer grade, and remain in that grade when they began sub-specialty training. The distinction of Mr (etc.) is also used by surgeons in the Republic of Ireland, Australia, Barbados, New Zealand, South Africa, and some other Commonwealth countries.[1]

Specialties[edit]

Some physicians who are general practitioners or specialists in family medicine or emergency medicine may perform limited ranges of minor, common, or emergency surgery. Anesthesia often accompanies surgery, and anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists may oversee this aspect of surgery. First assistants, surgical nurses, surgical technologists and operating department practitioners are trained professionals who support surgeons.

Pioneer surgeons[edit]

Russian surgeon Nikolay Pirogov - a pioneer of field surgery
Victor Horsley pioneered neurosurgery
For more details on this topic, see List of surgeons.

Organizations and fellowships[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mr. Keith Mutimer
  2. ^ Ira D. Papel, John Frodel, Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
  3. ^ A. Martin-Araguz, C. Bustamante-Martinez, Ajo V. Fernandez-Armayor, J. M. Moreno-Martinez (2002)
  4. ^ US Patent 4,840,175, "METHOD FOR MODIFYING CORNEAL CURVATURE", granted June 20, 1989