Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2013)|
|- City -|
Location of Zabaykalsky Krai in Russia
|Administrative status (as of January 2012)|
|Federal subject||Zabaykalsky Krai|
|Administrative district||Chitinsky District|
|Administrative center of||Zabaykalsky Krai, Chitinsky District|
|Municipal status (as of December 2009)|
|Urban okrug||Chita Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Chita Urban Okrug|
|Mayor||Anatoly Mikhalyov|
|Population (2010 Census)||324,444 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||56th|
|Time zone||IRKT (UTC+08:00)|
|City status since||July 11, 1851|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 3022|
|Chita on WikiCommons|
Chita (Russian: Чита; IPA: [tɕɪˈta]) is a city and the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers and on the Trans-Siberian Railway, 900 kilometers (560 mi) east of Irkutsk. Population: 324,444 (2010 Census); 316,643 (2002 Census); 365,754 (1989 Census).
Chita was founded in 1653, by Pyotr Beketov's Cossacks, but it had been overshadowed by Nerchinsk until the 20th century. Chita was granted town status on July 11, 1851. By 1885, the population had reached 5,728, and by 1897 it increased to 11,500.
1825 to 1918
After 1825, several of the Decembrists suffered exile to Chita; thus, Chita is on occasion called the "City of Exiles". Many of the Decembrists were intellectuals and members of the middle class, and consequently their arrival had a positive effect.
At the end of the 19th century, many Muslims settled in Chita, attracted by its trading potential. These Muslims were mainly of Tatar origin. They settled down near the Jewish quarter and built a mosque. Many Tatars living in Chita descend from these immigrants.
After the massacre of Gapon and his workers in St. Petersburg in January 1905, Chita became a center for worker demonstrations, which led to armed revolutionaries taking control of the city and declaring the "Chita Republic". Troops sent by the Nicholas II of Russia quickly crushed the new government and its leaders were severely punished on the slope of Titovskaya Hill.
1918 to 1945
Chita was occupied by the Japanese between 1918 and 1920. From 1920 to 1922, Chita served as the capital of the Far Eastern Republic. From the 1930s to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Chita was a closed city. During this period, foreigners were prohibited from traveling to Chita, as were many Russians. The basis for the closing of the city was apparently its proximity to China and military installations. During World War II, a significant number of Japanese soldiers were taken as prisoners of war and put to work in the construction industry. Chita has since been famous for hosting numerous examples of Japanese-inspired architecture, especially in the city center.
Administrative and municipal status
Chita is the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Chitinsky District, to which it is also subordinated. As a municipal division, the city of Chita together with one rural locality in Chitinsky District is incorporated as Chita Urban Okrug.
The Trans-Siberian Highway passes through Chita. Two sections of the highway connect in Chita: the M55 Baikal Highway, which goes from Chita to Irkutsk, and the M58 Amur Highway, which goes from Chita to Khabarovsk.
Chita is home to several facilities of higher education:
- Transbaikal State University (formerly Chita State University)
- Chita State Academy of Medicine
- Transbaikal State Humanitarian Pedagogical University named after N. Chernyshevsky
Chita is laid out in a grid pattern, which is rare in Russia. Architecturally, Chita is a clash of styles. Foremost, Chita is populated with five-story concrete buildings. In contrast to these Soviet signatures, Chita is also populated with individual homes made primarily out of wood, the equivalent of those you would see in any mountainous area.
|Climate data for Chita (1982-2013)|
|Record high °C (°F)||0.4
|Average high °C (°F)||−18.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−24
|Average low °C (°F)||−29.6
|Record low °C (°F)||−49.6
|Precipitation mm (inches)||2.4
|Avg. precipitation days||8.5||5.1||5.6||6.9||9.8||9.6||11.5||11.0||9.3||5.5||8.7||11.1||102.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||144.2||180.6||244.9||247.5||269.7||283.5||263.5||238.7||217.5||190.6||138.0||116.3||2,535|
|Source #1: climatebase.ru (1933-2011)|
|Source #2: weatheronline (only temperature 1982-2013)|
Twin towns and sister cities
Chita is twinned with:
- Ulan-Ude, Russia; from 2011
- Manzhouli, China; from 1999
- Abilene, Texas, United States; from 1996
- Choibalsan, Mongolia; from 1995
- Chita, Japan; from 1994
- Hailar District, China; from 1992
- Yevgeni Alkhimov (born 1977), Russian professional footballer.
- Oleg Lundstrem (1916–2005), Soviet and Russian jazz composer.
- Igor Mirnov (born 1984), Russian professional ice hockey player.
- Ivan Nagibin (born 1986), Russian professional football player.
- Lev Okhotin (1911–1948), member of the Supreme Council of the Russian Fascist Party.
- Aleksandr Perfilyev (1895–1973), Russian journalist, poet and writer.
- Anastasia Pivovarova (born 1990), Russian professional tennis player.
- Boris Polevoy (1918–2002), Russian historian.
- Volodymyr Shkidchenko (born 1948), Ukrainian military, General of Army of Ukraine.
- Sergei Smirnov (born 1950), Russian security services official.
- Anatoly Sobchak (1937–2000), Russian politician.
- Vitaly Solomin (1941–2002), Soviet and Russian actor, director and screenwriter.
- Yury Solomin (born 1935), Soviet and Russian actor and director.
- Alina Stadnik (born 1991), Ukrainian female wrestler.
- Alexander Stranichkin (born 1955), Abkhazian politician.
- Lyudmila Titova (born 1946), Russian speed skater.
- Dmytro Tymchuk (born 1972), Ukrainian military expert and blogger.
- Yemelyan Yaroslavsky (1878–1943), Russian revolutionary, Soviet politician, communist party organizer.
- Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of Zabaykalsky Krai
- Law #316-ZZK
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Howard Amos (March 3, 2013). "Chita: China's Back Door to Russia". The Moscow Times. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 519. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
- S. I. Kuznetsov and S. V. Karasov, "The Last Emperor of China: Internment in the Soviet Union", The Journal of Slavic Military Studies 18(2), 207-226 (2005). doi:10.1080/13518040590944430
- The Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities lists one city, three urban-type settlements, and fifty-four rural localities in Chitinsky District. The city of Chita and one rural locality are listed as a part of Chita Urban Okrug in Law #316-ZZK.
- "Chita, Russia". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- Zabinfo: CHITA and ULAN UDE is twin towns[dead link]
- Encyclopedia of Transbaikal Region. Twinning towns
- Coe, Andre (April 25, 2000). "Abilene gives Western farewell to delegates from new sister city". Abilene Reporter-News. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
- Министерство территориального развития Забайкальского края. 1 января 2014 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Забайкальского края», в ред. Распоряжения №209-р от 10 июня 2014 г.. (Ministry of the Territorial Development of Zabaykalsky Krai. January 1, 2014 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of Zabaykalsky Krai, as amended by the Directive #209-r of June 10, 2014. ).
- Законодательное Собрание Забайкальского края. Закон №316-ЗЗК от 18 декабря 2009 г. «О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края», в ред. Закона №770-ЗЗК от 26 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Забайкальского края "О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Забайкальский рабочий", №239–242, 21 декабря 2009 г. (Legislative Assembly of Zabaykalsky Krai. Law #316-ZZK of December 18, 2009 On the Borders of the Municipal Districts and Urban Okrugs of Zabaykalsky Krai, as amended by the Law #770-ZZK of December 26, 2012 On Amending the Law of Zabaykalsky Krai "On the Borders of the Municipal Districts and Urban Okrugs of Zabaykalsky Krai". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication.).
- Materials on Jewish life were taken from the Chita Oblast State Archives but most accountable and reliable ones are still in the local KGB Archives.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Official website of Chita (Russian)
- Account of Englishman's life in Chita, 2005-2006
- Old Chita, website of local history (Russian)