Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai

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Chita (English)
Чита (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Map of Russia - Zabaykalsky Krai (2008-03).svg
Location of Zabaykalsky Krai in Russia
Chita is located in Zabaykalsky Krai
Chita
Chita
Location of Chita in Zabaykalsky Krai
Coordinates: 52°03′N 113°28′E / 52.050°N 113.467°E / 52.050; 113.467Coordinates: 52°03′N 113°28′E / 52.050°N 113.467°E / 52.050; 113.467
Coat of Arms of Chita (Chita oblast).png
Flag of Chita (Chita oblast).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of January 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Zabaykalsky Krai[1]
Administrative district Chitinsky District[1]
Administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai,[1] Chitinsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of December 2009)
Urban okrug Chita Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Chita Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[citation needed] Anatoly Mikhalyov[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 324,444 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 56th
Time zone YAKT (UTC+10:00)[4]
Founded 1653[5]
City status since July 11, 1851[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[6] 672000–672051
Dialing code(s) +7 3022[citation needed]
Official website
Chita on WikiCommons

Chita (Russian: Чита; IPA: [tɕɪˈta]) is a city and the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia, located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers and on the Trans-Siberian Railway, 900 kilometers (560 mi) east of Irkutsk. Population: 324,444 (2010 Census);[3] 316,643 (2002 Census);[7] 365,754 (1989 Census).[8]

History[edit]

Before 1825[edit]

The region was originally inhabited by local Mongolic and Turkic tribes, along with various Chinese traders for several centuries before the Russians arrived there.[citation needed]

Chita was founded in 1653,[5] by Pyotr Beketov's Cossacks,[9] but it had been overshadowed by Nerchinsk until the 20th century.[citation needed] Chita was granted town status on July 11, 1851.[citation needed] By 1885, the population had reached 5,728,[citation needed] and by 1897 it increased to 11,500.[9]

1825 to 1918[edit]

After 1825, several of the Decembrists suffered exile to Chita; thus, Chita is on occasion called the "City of Exiles". Many of the Decembrists were intellectuals and members of the middle class, and consequently their arrival had a positive effect.[citation needed]

At the end of the 19th century, many Muslims settled in Chita, attracted by its trading potential. These Muslims were mainly of Tatar origin. They settled down near the Jewish quarter and built a mosque. Many Tatars living in Chita descend from these immigrants.

Chita Mosque

After the massacre of Gapon and his workers in St. Petersburg in January 1905, Chita became a center for worker demonstrations, which led to armed revolutionaries taking control of the city and declaring the "Chita Republic". Troops sent by the Nicholas II of Russia quickly crushed the new government and its leaders were severely punished on the slope of Titovskaya Hill.[citation needed]

1918 to 1945[edit]

Chita railway station in 1910
Chita railway station today

Chita was occupied by the Japanese between 1918 and 1920. From 1920 to 1922, Chita served as the capital of the Far Eastern Republic. From the 1930s to the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Chita was a closed city. During this period, foreigners were prohibited from traveling to Chita, as were many Russians. The basis for the closing of the city was apparently its proximity to China and military installations. During World War II, a significant number of Japanese soldiers were taken as prisoners of war and put to work in the construction industry. Chita has since been famous for hosting numerous examples of Japanese-inspired architecture, especially in the city center.[citation needed]

Post-1945[edit]

In 1945, Puyi, the last Emperor of China, and some of his associates were held prisoner in the city, in a former sanatorium for officers.[10]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Chita is the administrative center of Zabaykalsky Krai, and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Chitinsky District, to which it is also subordinated.[1] As a municipal division, the city of Chita together with one rural locality in Chitinsky District is incorporated as Chita Urban Okrug.[11]

Transportation[edit]

The Trans-Siberian Highway passes through Chita. Two sections of the highway connect in Chita: the M55 Baikal Highway, which goes from Chita to Irkutsk, and the M58 Amur Highway, which goes from Chita to Khabarovsk.

Chita is served by the Kadala Airport.

Education[edit]

Main article: Education in Siberia

Chita is home to several facilities of higher education:

Architecture[edit]

Chita is laid out in a grid pattern, which is rare in Russia. Architecturally, Chita is a clash of styles. Foremost, Chita is populated with five-story concrete buildings. In contrast to these Soviet signatures, Chita is also populated with individual homes made primarily out of wood, the equivalent of those you would see in any mountainous area.[citation needed]

Military[edit]

Chita Northwest air base is located nearby, as well as the 101st (Hub) Communications Brigade and the 53rd Material Support Regiment.

Sports[edit]

FC Chita is Chita's association football club.

Universitet Chita compete in the Professional Rugby League, the top division of rugby union in Russia.

SKA Zabaykalets plays in the highest division of the Russian Bandy League.

Climate[edit]

Chita experiences a borderline subarctic climate/humid continental climate (Köppen Dwc/Dwb) with very cold, very dry winters and very warm, wet summers.

Climate data for Chita (1982-2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
7.4
(45.3)
18.3
(64.9)
26.5
(79.7)
34.4
(93.9)
38.8
(101.8)
38.0
(100.4)
40.6
(105.1)
30.9
(87.6)
22.7
(72.9)
12.7
(54.9)
3.3
(37.9)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) −18.3
(−0.9)
−10.9
(12.4)
−1.2
(29.8)
8.1
(46.6)
17.0
(62.6)
23.8
(74.8)
25.3
(77.5)
22.6
(72.7)
15.8
(60.4)
6.4
(43.5)
−6.2
(20.8)
−16.2
(2.8)
5.52
(41.92)
Daily mean °C (°F) −24
(−11)
−18.2
(−0.8)
−8.4
(16.9)
1.6
(34.9)
9.8
(49.6)
16.7
(62.1)
19.1
(66.4)
16.6
(61.9)
9.4
(48.9)
0.4
(32.7)
−11.5
(11.3)
−21.2
(−6.2)
−0.81
(30.56)
Average low °C (°F) −29.6
(−21.3)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−15.6
(3.9)
−4.9
(23.2)
2.6
(36.7)
9.7
(49.5)
12.9
(55.2)
10.6
(51.1)
3.1
(37.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
−16.7
(1.9)
−26.2
(−15.2)
−7.09
(19.23)
Record low °C (°F) −49.6
(−57.3)
−48.0
(−54.4)
−45.3
(−49.5)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−13.3
(8.1)
−5.4
(22.3)
0.0
(32)
−9.2
(15.4)
−10.7
(12.7)
−33.1
(−27.6)
−41.1
(−42)
−47.8
(−54)
−49.6
(−57.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 2.4
(0.094)
2.4
(0.094)
3.7
(0.146)
10.7
(0.421)
21.6
(0.85)
54.5
(2.146)
94.2
(3.709)
83.7
(3.295)
40.9
(1.61)
10.0
(0.394)
5.5
(0.217)
4.2
(0.165)
334.2
(13.157)
Avg. precipitation days 8.5 5.1 5.6 6.9 9.8 9.6 11.5 11.0 9.3 5.5 8.7 11.1 102.6
 % humidity 77.1 71.0 60.4 46.6 46.3 54.7 64.7 67.8 62.6 59.7 72.0 78.4 63.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 144.2 180.6 244.9 247.5 269.7 283.5 263.5 238.7 217.5 190.6 138.0 116.3 2,535
Source #1: climatebase.ru (1933-2011)[12]
Source #2: weatheronline (only temperature 1982-2013)

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Chita is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of Zabaykalsky Krai
  2. ^ a b Law #316-ZZK
  3. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b Howard Amos (March 3, 2013). "Chita: China's Back Door to Russia". The Moscow Times. Retrieved December 15, 2013. 
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  7. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  8. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 519. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  10. ^ S. I. Kuznetsov and S. V. Karasov, "The Last Emperor of China: Internment in the Soviet Union", The Journal of Slavic Military Studies 18(2), 207-226 (2005). doi:10.1080/13518040590944430
  11. ^ The Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities lists one city, three urban-type settlements, and fifty-four rural localities in Chitinsky District. The city of Chita and one rural locality are listed as a part of Chita Urban Okrug in Law #316-ZZK.
  12. ^ "Chita, Russia". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved January 24, 2013. 
  13. ^ Zabinfo: CHITA and ULAN UDE is twin towns
  14. ^ Encyclopedia of Transbaikal Region. Twinning towns
  15. ^ Coe, Andre (April 25, 2000). "Abilene gives Western farewell to delegates from new sister city". Abilene Reporter-News. Retrieved September 21, 2013. 

Sources[edit]

  • Министерство территориального развития Забайкальского края. 1 января 2012 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Забайкальского края». (Ministry of the Territorial Development of Zabaykalsky Krai. January 1, 2012 Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and the Inhabited Localities of Zabaykalsky Krai. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Забайкальского края. Закон №316-ЗЗК от 18 декабря 2009 г. «О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края», в ред. Закона №770-ЗЗК от 26 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Забайкальского края "О границах муниципальных районов и городских округов Забайкальского края"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Забайкальский рабочий", №239–242, 21 декабря 2009 г. (Legislative Assembly of Zabaykalsky Krai. Law #316-ZZK of December 18, 2009 On the Borders of the Municipal Districts and Urban Okrugs of Zabaykalsky Krai, as amended by the Law #770-ZZK of December 26, 2012 On Amending the Law of Zabaykalsky Krai "On the Borders of the Municipal Districts and Urban Okrugs of Zabaykalsky Krai". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication.).
  • Materials on Jewish life were taken from the Chita Oblast State Archives but most accountable and reliable ones are still in the local KGB Archives.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]