Chitrakoot, Madhya Pradesh

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This article is about the municipality in Madhya Pradesh. For the municipality in Uttar Pradesh, see Chitrakoot Dham (Karwi). For the district in Uttar Pradesh, see Chitrakoot district. For the waterfall in Chhattisgarh, see Chitrakoot Falls.
Chitrakoot
चित्रकूट
Chitrakoot
city
View of Ramghat at Chitrakoot
View of Ramghat at Chitrakoot
Chitrakoot is located in Madhya Pradesh
Chitrakoot
Chitrakoot
Coordinates: 25°00′N 80°50′E / 25.00°N 80.83°E / 25.00; 80.83Coordinates: 25°00′N 80°50′E / 25.00°N 80.83°E / 25.00; 80.83
Country India
State Madhya Pradesh
District Satna
Population (2001)
 • Total 22,294
Languages
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)

Chitrakoot (चित्रकूट) is a town and a nagar panchayat in Satna district in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is a town of religious, cultural, historical and archaeological importance, situated in the Baghelkhand region. It borders the Chitrakoot district in Uttar Pradesh, whose headquarters Chitrakoot Dham (Karwi) is located nearby. The town lies in the historical Chiktrakoot region, which is divided between the present-day Indian states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It is known for a number of temples and sites mentioned in Hindu scriptures.

Many people gather here on each Amavasya. Somwati Amavasyas, Deepawali, Sharad-Poornima, Makar Sankranti and Ramanavami are special occasions for such gatherings and celebrations. It attracts crowds throughout the year including above occasions and for Free Eye Hospital Camps. Noted 'Ayurvedic' and 'Yoga' centres like 'Arogyadham' are located in Chitrakoot.

Geography[edit]

Chitrakoot means the 'Hill of many wonders'. Chitrakoot falls in the northern Vindhya range of mountains spread over the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The Chitrakuta region is included in the District Chitrakuta of Uttar Pradesh and the District Satna of Madhya Pradesh. Chitrakoot district in Uttar Pradesh was created on 4 September 1998.[1]

Chitrakoot Parvat Mala includes Kamad Giri, Hanumaan Dhara, Janki Kund, Lakshman pahari, and Devangana famous Religious mountains.

History[edit]

Ancient Indian (Bharata) cities.)
View of Mandakini River at Anusuya ashrama

Chitrakuta’s spiritual legacy stretches back to legendary ages: It was in these deep forests that Rama, Sita and his brother Lakshmana spent eleven and half years of their fourteen years of exile; the great sage Atri, Sati Anusuya, Dattatreya, Maharshi Markandeya, Sarbhanga, Sutikshna and various other sages, seers, devotees and thinkers meditated; and here the principal trinity of the Hindu pantheon, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, took their incarnations.[2]

It is said that all the gods and goddesses came to Chitrakuta when Rama performed the Shraddha ceremony of his father to partake of the shuddhi (i.e. a feast given to all the relatives and friends on the thirteenth day of the death in the family). The first known mention of the place is in the Valmiki Ramayana, which is believed to be the first ever Mahakavya composed by the first ever poet. As Valmiki is said to be contemporaneous with (or even earlier than) Rama and is believed to have composed the Ramayana before the birth of Rama, the antiquity of its fame can well be gauged.

Valmiki speaks of Chitrakuta as an eminently holy place inhabited by the great sages, abounding in monkeys, bears and various other kinds of fauna and flora. Both the sages Bharadwaja and Valmiki speak of Chitrakuta in glowing terms and advise Rama to make it his abode during the period of his exile. Lord Rama himself admits this bewitching impact of this place. In the 'Ramopakhyana' and descriptions of teerthas at various places in the Mahabharata, Chitrakuta finds a favoured place. In 'Adhyatma Ramayana' and 'Brihat Ramayana' testify to the throbbing spiritually and natural beauty of Chitrakuta. Various Sanskrit and Hindi poets also have paid similar tributes to Chitrakuta. Mahakavi Kalidas has described this place beautifully in his epic 'Raghuvansha'. He was so much impressed with its charms that he made Chitrakuta (which he calls Ramgiri because of its time-honoured associations with lord Rama) the place of exile of his yaksha in Meghdoot.

Tulsidas, the saint-poet of Hindi has spoken very reverently of this place in all his major works-Ramcharit Manas, Kavitawali, Dohawali and Vinaya Patrika. The last-mentioned work contains many verses which show a deep personal bond between Tulsidas and Chitrakuta. He spent quite some part of his life here worshipping Rama and craving his darshan. It was here that he had what he must have considered the crowning moment of his achievements—i.e. the darshan of his beloved deity Lord Ram at the intercession of Hanumanji. His eminent friend, the noted Hindi poet Rahim (i.e. Abdur Rahim Khankhana, the soldier-statesmen-saint-scholar-poet who was among the Nav-Ratnas of Akbar) also spent some time here, when he had fallen from favour with Akbar's son Emperor Jahangir.[3]

Rama left Chitrakuta[edit]

When Bharata was asked by his ministers to take his seat upon the throne of Ayodhya, he refused and came to Chitrakuta to meet Lord Rama. Here at place called Bharat Milap, Bharata met Lord Rama and requested him to return to Ayodhya and rule; but Lord Rama would not. Then Bharata returned to Ayodhya and installed the sandals on the throne, and, living in retirement, carried on the government as their minister. Now Lord Rama decided for two reasons to leave Chitrakuta: first, inasmuch as hosts of rakshasas, out of hatred of him, annoyed the hermits of that place; and, secondly, because the host of men from Ayodhya had tampled and defiled the place; and, moreover, it reminded him too sharply of brother's grief and the citizens' and queen-mothers'. He went, therefore, with Sita and Lakshmana toward Dandaka forest.[4]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2001 India census,[5] Chitrakoot had a population of 22,294. Males constitute 57% of the population and females 43%. Chitrakoot has an average literacy rate of 50%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 63% and female literacy of 34%. 18% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Places of tourist importance[edit]

Shri Kamta Nath 2nd face on Kamadgiri parikrma path

Ramghat[edit]

The ghats that line the Mandakini river are called Ramghat. Here, amidst the chanting hymns and the sweet fragrance of incense, holy men in saffron sit in silent meditation or offer the solace of their wisdom to the countless pilgrims who converge here. The evening arti here witnesses a deep and abiding faith in the sanctity of Chitrakuta. During the exile period Rama, Lakshmana and Sita took bath here and believed to have appeared before the poet Tulsidas. Tulsidas has expressed that historical and religious incidence in the following metre in Hindi .

Kamadgiri[edit]

Kamadgiri, the original Chitrakuta, is a place of prime religious significance. A forested hill, it is skirted all along its base by a chain of temples and is venerated today as the holy embodiment of Rama. Lord Rama is also known as Kamadnathji which literally means fulfiller of all wishes. There is a five KM Parikrama Path around the Kamadgiri Mountain.

Bharat Milap[edit]

Places Related to Ramayana, showing Chitrakuta in Rama's journey from Ayodhya to Lanka.

Bharat Milap temple is located here, marking the spot where Bharata is said to have met Rama to persuade him to return to the throne of Ayodhya. It is said that the meeting of four brother was so emotional that even the rocks and mountains of Chitrakut melted . Foot prints of Lord Rama and his brothers were imprinted on these rocks and are still present today and seen in Bharat Milap Mandir.

Janaki Kund[edit]

Janaki Kund is situated upstream of the Ramghat where it is believed that Sita bathed in the crystal clear waters of Mandakini river during the years of her exile with Rama.

Sati Anasuya ashrama[edit]

Sati Anasuya ashrama is located further upstream, 16 km from the town, set amidst thick forests that round to the melody of birdsong all day. It was here that Atri muni, his wife Anasuya and their three sons (who were the three incarnations of Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh), lived and are said to have meditated.

As per description of Valmiki at one time there was no rain in Chitrakuta for ten years. There was a severe famine and nothing was left to eat or drink for animals and birds. Sati Anasuya performed hard and intensive austerities and got the river Mandakini down on earth. This led to the greenery and forests to grow which removed the sufferings of all sages and the animals.[6]

Sati Anasuya ashrama at present is a very peaceful place where various streams from the hills converge and form the Mandakini River. It is said that Rama along with Sita had visited this place to meet Maharishi Atri and Sati Anasuya. It is here Sati Anasuya explained to Sita the grandeur and importance of satitva. The dense forests of Dandaka start from this place. It was ruled by Ravana. Ravana had appointed strong rakshasas like Khara and Viradha as its rulers. The place was infected by the terror of rakshasas.[7]

Sphatic Shila[edit]

A few kilometres beyond Janaki Kund is another densely forested area on the banks of the Mandakini. One can climb up to the boulder, which bears the Rama's footprint and Sita. According to Ramacharit Manas it is said that Lord Rama with Lakshman was sitting on this shila (rock) when Hanuman returned from Lanka after setting it afire and confirmed the news to Lord Rama that Sita has been imprisoned in Ashoka vatika at Lanka.

Gupt-Godavari[edit]

Temples in Panchmukhi Hanuman Dhara

Gupt-Godavari is situated at a distance of 18 km from town. Here is a pair of caves, one high and wide with an entrance through which one can barely pass, and the other long and narrow with stream of water running along its base. It is believed that Rama and Lakshmana held court in latter cave, which has two natural throne-like rocks.

Pampapur[edit]

It is situated in the valley of Devangana. Here we find sacred caves. Sacred caves related to Lord Rama.

Hanuman Dhara[edit]

Located on a rock-face several hundred feet up a steep hillside is a spring, said to have been created by Rama to assuage Hanuman when the latter returned after setting Lanka afire. A couple of temples commemorate this spot, which offers a panoramic view of Chitrakut.

Bharat Koop[edit]

Shri Kamta Nath 2nd face on Kamadgiri parikrma path

Bharath Koop is where Bharata stored holy water collected from all the places of pilgrimage in India. It is small, an isolated spot a few kilometres from the town. It has a small well and temple situated next to it. The water in the well remains pure and clean round the year. The story goes, that Bharatji came to Chitrakoot to convince Shri Ram to come back to Ayodhya, after the death of King Dasharath, to ask Shri Ram to become king of Ayodhya and rule it, thus creating Ram-Rajya. For this purpose, he also bought the waters of five rivers along with him to do Lord Shri Ram's Rajya-Abhishek. But, Lord Ram told Bharath that he does not wish to break his vow given to King Dasharath of coming back to Ayodhya only after completing Vanvas of 14 years. Hence, Bharath asked rishi Vashisht how to use the 5 rivers water that he brought along with him for Lord Ram's Rajya Abhishek. Rishi Vashisht advised him to put all the water along with flowers he had got for Rajya-abhishek in a well specified near Chitrakoot. He explained that the water in this well will remain pure and will be revered till the end of the time. Hence, upon the advice of rishi Vashisht, king Bharath followed his instructions and thus this place was named as Bharath koop.

Ram Shaiya[edit]

This place is located on the way between Chitrakoot and Bharat Koop, in an isolated location. It is the place where Shri Ram, Sitaji and Laxmanji used to sleep and rest in the evening after wandering around the forest of Chitrakoot. It is located between mountains with no town near-by, with absoluted silence in the environment. It has a large flat-bed rock which bears imprints of Shri Ram, Lakshman, and Sita Mata. There is a tree above it and the entire place is walled by brick structure on the sides to preserve it. It falls in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

References[edit]

  1. ^ District Unit Chitrakoot, National Informatics Centre
  2. ^ Vinod Avasthi: Chitrakuta darshan (Hindi), Purushotam Das Agarwal, Banda
  3. ^ District Unit Chitrakut, National Informatics Centre
  4. ^ Sister Nivedita & Ananda K.Coomaraswamy: Myths and Legends of the Hindus and Bhuddhists, Kolkata, 2001 ISBN 81-7505-197-3
  5. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  6. ^ Ayodhya kanda – sarga 117 shloka 9, 10
  7. ^ Ayodhya kanda – sarga 116 shloka 11, 12

Tahsil