Chitwan District

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Chitwan (चितवन)
Narayangarh city view from Maula Kalika temple Gaindakot
Narayangarh city view from Maula Kalika temple Gaindakot
Motto: हाम्रो चितवन, राम्रो चितवन
Narayani districts.png
Chitwan (चितवन) is located in Nepal
Chitwan (चितवन)
Chitwan (चितवन)
Location in Nepal
Coordinates: 27°35′N 84°30′E / 27.583°N 84.500°E / 27.583; 84.500Coordinates: 27°35′N 84°30′E / 27.583°N 84.500°E / 27.583; 84.500
Country    Nepal
Development Region Central
Zone Narayani Zone
District Chitwan District
Headquarters Bharatpur
HDI Increase 0.520 Medium[1]
HPI Decrease 31.9 Low
Established 1300s AD[2]
 • Total 2,218 km2 (856 sq mi)
Elevation 415 m (1,362 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 579,984[3]
 • Ethnicities Brahmin, Chhetri, Tharu, Newar, Gurung, Magars, Tamang, Chepang etc.
 • Religions Hindu, Buddhist,is main religions
 • Local Nepali, Tharu, Nepal Bhasa, Tamang, Gurung, Magar, Chepang
 • Official Nepali
Time zone Nepal Time (UTC+5:45)
Area code(s) 056

The Chitwan District (Nepali: चितवन जिल्लाAbout this sound Listen  is one of 75 Districts of Nepal, and is located in the southwestern part of Narayani Zone with Bharatpur, the fifth largest city of Nepal, as its district headquarters. It covers an area of 2,218 km2 (856 sq mi), and in 2011 had a population of 579,984 (279,087 male and 300,897 female) people. Bharatpur is a commercial and service centre of central south Nepal and merger destination for higher education, health care and transportation of the region.

The district takes its name from the Chitwan Valley, one of Nepal's Inner Terai valleys between the Mahabharat and Siwalik ranges, both considered foothills of the Himalayas.

Bharatpur is located on the banks of the Narayani River, and is the main town with numerous shopping zones where people come from all over the district and neighbouring districts.

Now there are about 40 Village Development Committees, each of which has nine wards or villages and one sub-Metropolitan city - Bharatpur and the municipalities Ratnanagar , Parsa and Chitrawan each of which has more than nine wards or urban areas.

Chitwan is one of the few remaining undisturbed vestiges of the Terai region, which formerly extended over the foothills of Nepal.


There are several predication on the origin of the name Chitwan. Some of the most satisfactory predications on the origin of its name are:

1. The name Chitwan is a composite of the Sanskrit words चित्त, transliterated "citta" meaning heart and वन, transliterated "vana" meaning jungle or forest.[4][5] Thus, the meaning of Chitwan is Heart of the Jungle.

2. Chitwan was a dense forest ruled by the Tharu God/King Chitrasen Baba. He used to worship in the deep forest and ruled over his state. People believe him as the incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Still today,Tharu people worship his idol during HariBodhini Ekadashi in Chitrasari (Headquarters of Chitrasen Baba), way to Sauraha. Since the forest locally called ban (वन) was ruled by Lord Chitrasen, it was called Chitra Ban, later transliterated to Chitwan.

3. Chitwan, still known as Dense Forest was a land of Leopard and Bengal Tiger. Leopard is locally called चित्रि according to Tharu language. Since the forest (वन) was densely populated by leopard or चित्रि, it was called the forest of Leopard called चित्रि वन (Chitri Ban), later transliterated to Chitwan.

4. Chitwan, a land of aborigines "Tharus", were very rich in their art & drawings, & are still renowned for it. Their houses are decorated by religious drawings denoting different phases of history, culture and environment along that time. Since their homes in the forest were decorated with their drawings, locally called चित्र, the land was called चित्र वन (Chitra Ban), later transliterated to Chitwan.

Chitwan was originally a dense forest ruled by Chitrsen Baba, where different RishiMunis came to have their meditation during ancient time with numbers of wild animals like Leopard & Bengal Tiger where aborigine people with different culture and lifestyle called Tharus lived.

Agriculture and industry[edit]

The people inhabiting the Chitwan District are predominantly peasant farmers cultivating mainly food and cash crops such as rice, maize, wheat, beans, lentils, mustard and vegetables. The district is the major maize producing area in Nepal, with an area under maize cultivation of 27,170 ha (104.9 sq mi) in the year 2003-04. Maize is cultivated on irrigated /seasonal irrigated land in winter and spring, and on rain fed land in summer. Due to an easy road access, maize produced can be easily distributed to other parts of the country. The poultry industry in the district constitutes a significant proportion of the country's poultry industry.[6]

Chitwan is famous in Nepal for mustard growing and production of mustard oil. This popularity of the mustard in Chitwan is attributed to the predominant soil type silt, resulting from the flooding of the Narayani River and tributaries. Chitwan is also profusely spotted with clay lands, which are very good for growing rice, wheat and vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, radish, potato, broccoli, cucumbers, pumpkins, and carrot. Chitwan is also famous for floriculture, mushroom cultivation and bee keeping.

At present Bharatpur's largest business area, Narayangadh, is less accessible due to the movement of the main bus terminal due to the previous king's son's anger with the politics of the citizens of the city. This bus terminal is however no longer in use following a successful people's movement in 2006. It is believed that Nepali leftist revolutionary leader Prachanda spent his childhood and youth in Chitwan. Chitwan is adapting the New Community Movement South Korean model of development.


Chitwan is very popular for tasty Taas (Nepali: तास) a spicy fried goat-meat lunch dish served with Bhuja or Cheura available in many restaurants. Momo, Sukuti Khaja Set and other Newa Cuisine also available. Dal bhat is the staple food of the area, and meat and dairy products are also widely consumed. For centuries, traditional fermented foods and beverages have constituted about 20 per cent of the local diet. Depending on altitudinal variation, finger millet, wheat, buckwheat, barley, vegetable, potato, and soybeans are grown.

Places of interest[edit]

Chitwan National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Rhinos leofleck.jpg
Elephant safari after One horned rhinos
Bish Hajari Lake in Chitwan National Park
Narayani bridge in Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal
Elephant polo World cup 2012 in Meghauli, Nepal
Elephant Bathing
Chitwan Mahotsav 2063 (Chitwan Mahotsav 2007 A.D.) in Narayangarh, Chitwan

Chitwan has a particularly rich flora and fauna. Nepal's first national park, the Chitwan National Park together with the adjacent Parsa Wildlife Reserve support a species diversity much higher than any other on the Indian subcontinent. Rare species include Bengal tiger, gharial and the world's second largest population of Asian Rhinoceros, but also leopards, Mugger crocodile, Indian rock python and several species of deer. The protected areas are guarded by a battalion of the Nepal Army and patrolled by anti-poaching units.[7]

The Rapti River flows east to south west in the south of Bharatpur and forms the northern border of the Chitwan National Park. The Narayani River flows north to south in the west of Bharatpur. It is the deepest and also one of the biggest rivers of Nepal. The Narayani Bridge over the river connects Chitwan District with Nawalparasi District of Nepal. Small islands, like Nagarban in Narayani river are popular picnic spots.

Bish Hazari (20 Thousand) lake is in the southern corner of Bharatpur. The lake is very attractive for the bird lovers and serves as an important bird watching centre.The lake area houses lots of crocodiles and thus is equally attractive for the reptile lovers. The Lake Lies nearby Chitwan National Park. Bish hazari lake lies just 5 km (3.1 mi) south of the city centre (Chaubishkothi) of Bharatpur.

Das Dhunga is a famous place in Chitwan. The people's leader Madan Bhandari was killed there in an accident.

Narayangarh is the main shopping area of Bharatpur city, ward no.1,2,3,4 areas. Is the main transit point for all the vehicles traveling via east-west Mahendra Highway and also for the people traveling from Kathmandu, Gorkha, and Pokhara through Mugling road. Recently, Narayangarh has become a retail and commercial capital of whole Chitwan district and Bharatpur Municipality. It is also the center for hospitality industry which includes hotels, lodges, restaurants and transportation hub for the district.

Transportation and communication[edit]

Bharatpur Airport in the central part of the city offered four domestic airlines and one government airline with seven to 11 flights daily to Kathmandu. Mahendra East West Highway connects the city to various parts of the country, and another highway connects Bharatpur with Kathmandu to the north east and with Birgunj on the border of India to the south. Bus, micro bus and other land transportation are available to go out of the city, for internal transportation taxi, rickshaw and car/jeep hiring is available. Hakim Chowk and Chaubiskothi, Shaheed Chok, Pul Chowk, Bel Chowk and Lila Chowk are major centres at intersections of major roads.

Four major local FM radio stations broadcast from Bharatpur. They are "Synergy FM", "Hamro FM", "Radio Triveni", "Radio Chitwan", "Radio Kotagiri","Chitwan Online FM" "Kalika music FM", "Kalika FM" and "Narayani FM". The city also has Beso Channel, "Aviyan Channel", Unique Television and Avass Television.

Land line telephone services and mobile telephone services are available to the majority of areas. There are multiple private Internet service providers.

Fort Palace and landmark buildings[edit]

  • Upardanghari fort:- It is in the old headquarters of Chitwan district and is believed to be made by Satrubhanjan Shah, son of Prince Bahadur Shah to defend newly founded Kingdom in the 17th century. It is located on the top of a hill and overlooks a very nice natural scenery.
  • Kasara Durbar(Palace):- Is an old palace made by Rana Regime inside the Chitwan National Park. Now it is being used as an office of National park and also hosts a museum .
  • Diyalo Bangala Palace (Aptari Bharatpur):- This was the spring season palace used by the Shah Dynasty of Nepal. This palace was built by Late king Mahendra Bir Bikram Shahdev to rest during winter season. It is located on the banks of Narayani river in Bharatpur Municipality ward no. 2.
  • DAO Building Bharatpur :- This long and attractive old building was built in the period of shifting the headquarters from Upardangghari. Now is used as an office of chief district officer.
  • Bharatpur Covered hall:- Hall in guesthouse of Bharatpur for indoor games.

Geography and Climate[edit]

Climate Zone[8] Elevation Range  % of Area
Lower Tropical below 300 meters (1,000 ft) 58.2%
Upper Tropical 300 to 1,000 meters
1,000 to 3,300 ft.
Subtropical 1,000 to 2,000 meters
3,300 to 6,600 ft.

Major places[edit]

Village Development Committees (VDCs)[edit]

Map of the VDCs in Chitwan District

Ayodhyapuri, Bachhayauli, Bagauda, Bhandara, Bharatpur Nagar, Birendra Nagar, Chandi Bhanjyang, Dahakhani, Darechok, Dibyanagar, Fulbari, Gardi, Gitanagar, Gunjanagar, Jagatpur, Jutpani, Kabilas, Kathar, Kaule, Khairhani Municipality, Korak, Lothar, Madi Kalyanpur, Mangalpur, Meghauli, Narayanpur, Padampur, Pancha Kanya, Parbatipur, Patihani, Piple, Pithuwa, Ratnanagar, Saradanagar, Shaktikhor, Sibanagar, Siddi, Sukranagar[9]

Medical City and Hospitals[edit]

Chitwan district is also known as the medical city of Nepal. There are many top rated medical institutions in the district, although most of them are situated in and around Bharatpu Municipality. People from all over Nepal and also from North India come here for treatment. After Kathmandu and Pokhara, it is the third most medically developed district.

Hospitals in the district comprise:

  • Bharatpur Hospital Government Hospital of Bharatpur medical college with 7 beds. It is providing all sorts of medical services to the locals, occasionally treating them.
  • Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital is a new university hospital is in the heart of Bharatpur providing all types of medical facilities.
  • Bharatpur Eye Hospital is also located in Bharatpur Municipality. With 25 bed capacity, it provides all type of services related to eye problem.
  • B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital situated at Krishnapur, Bharatpur, was established with the help of the Government of People's Republic of China in 1994, with all cancer treatment facilities this is the meager cancer treatment institution in the country. This hospital is named after B.P. Koirala, the democratic leader and the first elected prime minister of Nepal.
  • CMS Teaching Hospital is the teaching hospital of Bharatpur medical college with 7 beds. It is providing all sorts of medical services to the locals, occasionally treating them.
  • Sairam Dental Hospital and Research Center is located at Kamalnagar Chowk, Narayangarh, providing all kinds of Dental Treatment for last 8 years.
  • Maula Kalika Hospital is one of the oldest nursing home turned to hospital, located opposite of Bharatpur Airport, providing all kinds of treatment with specialized doctors.
  • Narayani Community Hospital is a relatively new hospital and is located in the heart of the city, Chaubishkothi with 150 beds.

Other important hospitals and nursing homes are Asha Hospital, Manakamana Hospital, Janasewa Hospital, Chitwan Hospital, Bharatpur Community hospital, Om Hospital, Lok Sewa Pharmacy, and Shanti hospital, Sanjivani Ayurveda & Nature Cure Hospital, Bharatpr-10

Educational Institutions[edit]

indreni ICT college: IT is college of computer science and information technology, affilated by Tribhuvan University, located at muktinagar, bharatpur Chitwan Higher Secondary School , is the first school of Chitwan District. It was established in 2011 BS. It is situated in Bharatpur Municipality, Ward No. 10. Not only it having classes of Higher Secondary but it also has the Bachelors Degree in various subjects. Chitwan Higher Secondar School operates graduate courses as Pragya Chitwan Campus. It is the richest government school in Chitwan District.

Aroma Higher Secondary School: Established in 2054 BS. Currently this School holds around 600 Students in secondary level and around 1200 Students in Higher Secondary Level. It is contributing this society with quality education. This Schools runs Science and Management Program in XI and XII level.......It is one of the fast growing institution in chitwan..

  • Birendra Multiple Campus is the oldest campus of the city, located in the heart of the city, Bharatpur heights. This campus has played a vital role on the higher education history of Chitwan.
  • Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, also known as the Rampur Agriculture Campus, is the agriculture institution under Tribhuvan University, and is the main institution in the fields of agriculture and veterinary science in Nepal. Occupying a huge area, this campus is now declared as a university. Newly established university is named as Agriculture and Forestry University.
  • Balkumari College is located near the Narayangadh Bharatpur Height and is the first public college in the city. Balkumari College, established on 18 September 1986 ( 2nd Aswin 2043), is affiliated to Tribhuvan University and the college has been awarded with Quality Assurance & Accreditation ( QAA) certification by Quality Assurance & Accreditation Committee of University Grants Commission Nepal on 22 November 2009 ( 7th Mansir 2066). It has already been recognized as an ISO 9001 certified institution for quality management system ( QMS) in July 2008.
  • Saptagandaki Multiple Campus is the largest public campus in the city and is in Dipendranagar ward no. 10, Bharatpur. The Chairperson of Board of Director is Ms Shobha Kattel. The Campus Chief is Mr Ram Prakash Adhikari and Assistant Campus Chiefs are Mr Maniraj Mahato, Mr Nandalal Paudel and Mr Binod Khanda Timilsena.The number of teachers are about 85 and supporting staffs are about 25.The students enrollment in the college is about 3500.
  • Jan Aadrash multiple campus Birendranagar is the public campus in Birendranagar ward no. 2.
  • Saheed Smriti Multiple campus, Shantichowk is the biggest campus of eastern Chitwan. It was established in
  • Birendra higher secondary school Birendranagar is the first +2 science public school.
  • Bharatpur college of Medical sciences is a 700 bed teaching hospital situated in Dipendranagar, Bharatpur.
  • International college is a college of higher education and runs the HSEB and TU affiliated programs in management streams. Around 800 students are enrolled currently wit about 35 faculty members participating in teaching activities.
  • Apex Educational Academy is a Higher Secondary School located in Bharapur.
  • Shree Medical and Technical College located in Bharatpur is affilitated to the Purbanchal University and CTEVT . This college offers courses in pharmacology and nursing.
  • Chitwan Health Foundation and Research Center was established in Bharatpur as the nursing School of Chitwan Hospital and Health Foundation, and is one of the pioneer educational institutions of this region catering the health related education and hospital services to the community of Chitwan region and the mid-zone territory. It was established in affiliation with CTEVTE. The college is currently running PCL Medical Laboratory Technology and PCL Nursing. Mr. J.N.Thapaliya is the chairman, Mr. sambhu Prasad Subedi Director of CHHFRC and Mr. Deepak Subedi is the Programme Co-ordinator of PCL Medical Laboratory Technology.
  • Bharatpur Pilot training school is Nepal’s first and the only private pilot training school is in Bharatpur, which provides a Private Pilot License and a Commercial Pilot License, after the completion of the 4 month and 10 month courses respectively.
  • Maiya Devi Girls College is a campus specially for girls education is in Dipendranagar, Bharatpur.
  • Chitwan Medical College and Research Centre is a newly opened medical college with a teaching hospital is located in the heart of the city Dipendranagar, Bharatpur.
  • Prerana Higher Secondary School is providing education up to secondary level, and launched 10+2 program in science stream from 2065 onward.
  • SOS Hermann Gmeiner Higher Secondary School is a newly established science college specially for the orphans and also for the needy students only after being qualified through series of criterion.
  • Sagarmatha Secondary Boarding School, Ratnanagar -11, Jamunapur
  • Chitwan Science College and Orchid Science College are private +2 colleges in Chitwan.
  • Oxford college of engineering and management, Gaindakot, offers courses like BBA, BCA, BE
  • Chitwan Hotel Training Center in Bharatpur

Apex academy in Kshetrapur, Presidency college in Dipendranagar, Shanti Academy college in Bharatpur, Xavier college in Bel chowk, Sahid Smriti Multiple Campus, New Capital College, Crystal College in Ratnanagar also hold significant number of students.


Bharatpur has became a city of banks. There are more than 60 banks and financial institutions in Narayangarh.

Class B Development Banks[edit]

NDEP Development Bank Limited

Notable People[edit]

  • Milan Lama : Popular Nepalese folk singer
  • Sudip Giri : Nepalese pop singer [16]
  • Santosh Kalwar : Nepalese poet, writer, and computer researcher (first English language novelist of Chitwan) [17][18][19]
  • Swopnil Sharma : Lead Singer of The Shadows Band Nepal [20]


  1. ^ Merlen, S. (ed.) (2011). An Overview of the Central Development Region. United Nations Resident & Humanitarian Coordinator’s Office, Nepal
  2. ^ "History". Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  3. ^ "National Population Census 2011". National Planning Commission Secretariat, Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Government of Nepal. September 2011. 
  4. ^ Sanskrit-English Dictionary Sanskrit word चित्त
  5. ^ Sanskrit-English Dictionary Sanskrit word वन
  6. ^ Paudel, P. and A. Matsuoka (2008). Factors Influencing Adoption of Improved Maize Varieties in Nepal: A Case Study of Chitwan District. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2(4): 823–834.
  7. ^ Gurung, K. K. (1983) Heart of the Jungle. The Wildlife of Chitwan, Nepal. André Deutsch, London.
  8. ^ The Map of Potential Vegetation of Nepal - a forestry/agroecological/biodiversity classification system, . Forest & Landscape Development and Environment Series 2-2005 and CFC-TIS Document Series No.110., 2005, ISBN 87-7803-210-9, retrieved Nov 22, 2013 
  9. ^ "Nepal Census 2001". Nepal's village development committees. Digital Himalaya. Retrieved 19 November 2008. 
  10. ^ Nepali PM Prachanda Sworn In. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
  11. ^ "Surendra PandeyCommunist Party of Nepal (Unified-Marxist- Leninist) Election Area: Chitwan-1 (Elected)". Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  12. ^ CPN-Maoist Gen Secy Thapa bereaved of father. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  13. ^ About Shristi Shrestha – Miss Nepal. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  14. ^ Regmi no more. Retrieved 10 Dec 2013.
  15. ^ Biography of Binita Baral. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
  16. ^ Nepalese pop collection. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  17. ^ Book launch program.. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  18. ^ 'That's My Love Story' Bimochan.. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
  19. ^ Facing Death.. Retrieved 06 August 2014.
  20. ^ The Shadows, Nepal First Hard Rock Band.. Retrieved 06 August 2014.

External links[edit]