Chlorine azide

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Chlorine azide
Chlorine azide.svg
Chlorine-azide-3D-spacefill.png
Identifiers
CAS number 13973-88-1 YesY
PubChem 61708
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula ClN3
Molar mass 77.4731 g/mol
Appearance Yellow orange liquid or gas
Melting point −100 °C (−148 °F; 173 K)
Boiling point −15 °C (5 °F; 258 K)
Solubility Soluble[vague] in butane, pentane, benzene, methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon disulfide; slightly soluble in water
Explosive data
Shock sensitivity Extreme
Friction sensitivity Extreme
Hazards
Main hazards Extremely sensitive explosive
Related compounds
Related compounds Fluorine azide Bromine azide Hydrazoic acid
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Chlorine azide (ClN3) is an inorganic compound that was discovered in 1908 by Friedrich Raschig.[1] Concentrated ClN
3
is notoriously unstable and may spontaneously detonate at any temperature.[2]

Preparation and handling[edit]

Chlorine azide is prepared by passing chlorine gas over silver azide, or by an addition of acetic acid to a solution of sodium hypochlorite and sodium azide.[3]

When treated with ammonia it is conceivable that one or more of the three possible azinamines, NH2N3, NH(N3)2, and N(N3)3 may be formed.[citation needed]

Explosive characteristics[edit]

Chlorine azide is extremely sensitive. It may explode, sometimes even without apparent provocation; it is thus too sensitive to be used commercially unless first diluted in solution. Chlorine azide reacts explosively with 1,3-butadiene, ethane, ethylene, methane, propane, phosphorus, silver azide, and sodium. On contact with acid, chlorine azide decomposes, evolving toxic and corrosive hydrogen chloride gas.[4]

Regulatory information[edit]

Its shipment is strictly regulated by the US Department of Transportation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frierson, W. J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide. II. Interaction of Chlorine Azide and Silver Azide. Azino Silver Chloride, N3AgCl". Journal of the American Chemical Society 65 (9): 1698–1700. doi:10.1021/ja01249a013. 
  2. ^ Frierson, W. J.; Kronrad, J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide, ClN3. I.". Journal of the American Chemical Society 65 (9): 1696–1698. doi:10.1021/ja01249a012. 
  3. ^ Raschig, F. (1908). "Über Chlorazid N3Cl". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft 41 (3): 4194–4195. doi:10.1002/cber.190804103130. 
  4. ^ PubChem 61708